US 20080231836 A1
A fuel cell (9) includes a removable and replaceable fuel supply (12) having fuel disposed therein. A system for monitoring various parameters of the fuel such as temperature, pressure, and the levels of dissolved oxygen is provided. A plurality of sensors (30) is disposed on the fuel supply side that is capable of communicating with a controller (18) and memory (13) on the fuel cell side. In another embodiment, at least one sensor for measuring a system parameter of the fuel communicates with an RFID tag (50) either remotely or via a hardwired link. The sensor and/or the RFID tag may be coated with a substance impervious to the caustic fuel. An RFID reader station collects the data. The controller may be included to use the data in real time to alter system parameters, such as fuel pumping rates or a bleed off, or to trigger a signal, such as to notify a user of an empty fuel supply. In another embodiment, an optical sensor (61, 102) may be used.
43. An optical sensor to monitor a fuel supply for a fuel cell, said fuel cell comprises a reader capable of reading an optical signal from said optical sensor to monitor the fuel supply.
44. The optical sensor of
45. The optical sensor of
46. The optical sensor of
47. The optical sensor of
48. The optical sensor of
49. The optical sensor of
This application is a continuation-in-part of commonly owned, co-pending U.S. application Ser. No. 11/196,685, filed on Aug. 2, 2005, the disclosures of which is incorporated herein by reference.
The invention relates generally to fuel cells and monitoring technologies. In particular, sensor arrays linked to a remote control system and information storage device are used to monitor system parameters in a fuel cell.
Fuel cells are devices that directly convert chemical energy of reactants, i.e., fuel and oxidant, into direct current (DC) electricity. For an increasing number of applications, fuel cells are more efficient than conventional power generation, such as combustion of fossil fuel, as well as portable power storage, such as lithium-ion batteries.
In general, fuel cell technology includes a variety of different fuel cells, such as alkali fuel cells, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, phosphoric acid fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, solid oxide fuel cells and enzyme fuel cells. Today's more important fuel cells can be divided into several general categories, namely: (i) fuel cells utilizing compressed hydrogen (H2) as fuel; (ii) proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells that use alcohols, e.g., methanol (CH3OH), metal hydrides, e.g., sodium borohydride (NaBH4), hydrocarbons, or other fuels reformed into hydrogen fuel; (iii) PEM fuel cells that can consume non-hydrogen fuel directly or direct oxidation fuel cells; and (iv) solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) that directly convert hydrocarbon fuels to electricity at high temperature.
Compressed hydrogen is generally kept under high pressure and is therefore difficult to handle. Furthermore, large storage tanks are typically required and cannot be made sufficiently small for consumer electronic devices. Conventional reformat fuel cells require reformers and other vaporization and auxiliary systems to convert fuels to hydrogen to react with oxidant in the fuel cell. Recent advances make reformer or reformat fuel cells promising for consumer electronic devices. The most common direct oxidation fuel cells are direct methanol fuel cells or DMFC. Other direct oxidation fuel cells include direct ethanol fuel cells and direct tetramethyl orthocarbonate fuel cells. DMFC, in which methanol is reacted directly with oxidant in the fuel cell, has promising power application for consumer electronic devices. SOFC convert hydrocarbon fuels, such as butane, at high heat to produce electricity. SOFC requires relatively high temperature in the range of 1000° C. for the fuel cell reaction to occur.
The chemical reactions that produce electricity are different for each type of fuel cell. For DMFC, the chemical-electrical reaction at each electrode and the overall reaction for a direct methanol fuel cell are described as follows:
Half-reaction at the anode:
Half-reaction at the cathode:
The overall fuel cell reaction:
Due to both the migration of the hydrogen ions (H+) through the PEM from the anode to the cathode and the inability of the free electrons (e−) to pass through the PEM, the electrons flow through an external circuit, thereby producing an electrical current. The external circuit may be used to power many useful consumer electronic devices, such as mobile or cell phones, calculators, personal digital assistants, laptop computers, and power tools, among others.
DMFC is discussed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,992,008 and 5,945,231, which are incorporated herein by reference in their entireties. Generally, the PEM is made from a polymer, such as Nafion® available from DuPont, which is a perfluorinated sulfonic acid polymer having a thickness in the range of about 0.05 mm to about 0.5 mm, or other suitable membranes. The anode is typically made from a Teflonized carbon paper support with a thin layer of catalyst, such as platinum-ruthenium, deposited thereon. The cathode is typically a gas diffusion electrode in which platinum particles are bonded to one side of the membrane.
In another direct oxidation fuel cell, borohydride fuel cell (DBFC) reacts as follows:
Half-reaction at the anode:
Half-reaction at the cathode:
In a chemical metal hydride fuel cell, generally aqueous sodium borohydride is reformed and reacts as follows:
Half-reaction at the anode:
Half-reaction at the cathode:
Suitable catalysts for this reaction include platinum and ruthenium, as well as other metals. The hydrogen fuel produced from reforming sodium borohydride is reacted in the fuel cell with an oxidant, such as O2, to create electricity (or a flow of electrons) and water byproduct. A sodium borate (NaBO2) byproduct is also produced by this process. A sodium borohydride fuel cell is discussed in U.S. Pat. No. 4,261,956, which is incorporated herein by reference. Therefore, the known chemical hydride reactions that use aqueous metal hydride have about 9 to 12 weight percentage storage expectancy, and the liquid and the catalyst used in the wet chemical reaction system need to be closely monitored. Additionally, it is difficult to maintain the stability of a metal hydride solution over a long period of time, because according to the formula t½−pH*log(0.034+kT), which provides the half life of the reaction, the reaction of hydrolysis always occurs very slowly. Furthermore, if the solution is stabilized, the reactivity is not complete.
In a hydride storage method, the reaction is as follows:
However, storage expectancy of such a reaction is only about 5 weight percentage. Additionally, such reactions can be expensive and difficult to package.
Another known method to produce hydrogen is a dry hydride reaction. Dry reaction, generally, involves the following reaction:
Again, dry reactions have several disadvantages, such as having a storage expectancy of only about 10 weight percentage, and the need to closely monitor the pressure.
An additional method to produce hydrogen gas is by a pressure storage method using the formula PV=nRT, wherein P is pressure, V is volume, n is a number of moles, R is the gas constant, and T is temperature. This method requires constant pressure monitoring.
One of the most important features for fuel cell application is fuel storage. Another important feature is regulating the transport of fuel out of the fuel cartridge to the fuel cell. To be commercially useful, fuel cells such as DMFC or PEM systems should have the capability of storing sufficient fuel to satisfy the consumers' normal usage. For example, for mobile or cell phones, for notebook computers, and for personal digital assistants (PDAs), fuel cells need to power these devices for at least as long as the current batteries and, preferably, much longer. Additionally, the fuel cells should have easily replaceable or refillable fuel tanks to minimize or obviate the need for lengthy recharges required by today's rechargeable batteries.
In the operation of a fuel cell, monitoring various system parameters in real time is highly desirable for a number of reasons. First, tracking the fuel usage history indicates the amount of fuel remaining in the fuel supply and provides the user with information regarding the remaining useful life of the fuel supply. The patent literature discloses a number of containers for consumable substances that include electronic memory components. United States patent application publication no. US 2002/0154815, which is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference, discloses a variety of containers that may include read-only memories, programmable read-only memories, electronically erasable programmable read-only memories, non-volatile random access memories, volatile random access memories or other types of electronic memory. These electronic memory devices may be used to retain coded recycle, refurbishing and/or refilling instructions for the containers, as well as a record of the use of the containers. The containers may comprise liquid ink or powdered toner for a printer. Alternatively, the containers or fuel supply may comprise a fuel cell or a fuel supply therefor.
Also, the transfer of the fuel from the fuel supply to the fuel cell may depend upon, inter alia, the viscosity of the fuel. For example, the viscosity of methanol, which is about 8.17×10−4 Pa-s at 1 atmosphere and 0° C., drops to about 4.5×10−4 Pa-s at 1 atmosphere and 40° C., representing about a 50% reduction. If the system is able to detect in real time the temperature and/or pressure of the fuel contained within the fuel supply, then the fuel cell can self-regulate how long a fuel pump should run in order to provide an appropriate amount of fuel. As fuel is supplied at the optimum rate, the efficiency of the system is increased. Also, monitoring the pressure of the fuel within the fuel supply can alert the user or the system of unacceptable high or unacceptable low pressure levels. Furthermore, the usable life of the fuel cell can be increased if exposure to fuel is limited to the amount of fuel necessary for operation. In other words, flooding the fuel cell with excess fuel may damage the fuel cell.
One option among others for a monitoring system is using a radio frequency identification (RFID) system. Systems using RFID technologies are well known, particularly for uses such as tracking inventory such as library or retail store inventory, automated payment systems such as passes for toll booths, and security systems such as smart keys for starting a car. Such systems may be large and active systems, utilizing battery-powered transceiver circuitry. Such systems may also be very small and passive, in which a transponder receives power from the base station or reader only when information is desired to be transmitted or exchanged.
A typical RFID system includes a reusable identifying device typically referred to as a tag, but sometimes designated as a “card,” “key,” or the like. The RFID system also requires a recognition or reader station that is prepared to recognize identifying devices of predetermined characteristics when such identifying device is brought within the proximity of the reader station. Typically, a reader station includes an antenna system that reads or interrogates the tags via a radio frequency (RF) link and a controller. The controller directs the interrogation of the tags and may provide memory for storing the data collected from the tags. Further, the controller may provide a user interface so that a user may externally monitor the data.
In operation, as a tag comes within sufficient proximity to an RFID reader station, the antenna emits RF signals towards the tag and the tag transmits responses to the antenna. The tags can be powered by an internal battery (an “active” tag) or by inductive coupling receiving induced power from the RF signals emitted from the antenna (a “passive” tag). Inductive coupling takes place between the two devices when they are proximate to one another; physical contact is unnecessary. Passive tags have zero maintenance and virtually unlimited life. The life span of an active tag is, however, limited by the lifetime of the battery, although some tags offer replaceable batteries.
Current monitoring systems with RFID tags have not been adapted for use with fuel cell systems, either in terms of the type of data desired to be monitored or in terms of the ability of the system to withstand the harsh environment due to contact with fuel cell fuels. It would, therefore, be desirable to provide an RFID monitoring system and other types of monitoring systems for use with a fuel cell system.
Briefly, in accordance with one aspect of the present invention, a system for monitoring a fuel cell includes a fuel cell supply connected to a fuel cell. A plurality of sensors is operatively connected to the fuel supply. A controller is connected to the fuel cell and to an optional information storage device. A sensor communication link connects the plurality of sensors and the controller. A memory communication link connects the controller and the optional information storage device
According to another aspect of the present invention, a fuel supply for a fuel cell includes a container having fuel disposed therewithin. A sensor for monitoring a condition of the fuel is located on or within the fuel supply. An RFID tag is configured to communicate with the sensor and adapted to be interrogated by an RFID reader station.
According to another aspect of the present invention, a fuel supply for a fuel cell includes at least one optical sensor, such as a color identification tag or a sensor located on an optical fiber, disposed on or within the supply. A device powered by the fuel cell, a functional unit connected to the fuel cell or the fuel cell may contain a color reader capable of reading the optical sensor to confirm that a proper fuel supply has been inserted or to monitor the condition(s) of the fuel supply, e.g. temperature and pressure.
According to another aspect of the present invention, a method for monitoring a condition of fuel within a fuel cell comprises the steps of (1) providing a fuel cell connected to a fuel supply containing a fuel; (2) collecting data regarding the fuel using a plurality of sensors; (3) relaying the information from the sensor to a controller and optionally to an information storage device, wherein the plurality of sensors is located in or on the fuel supply and the information storage device is located remotely from the plurality of sensors.
These and other features, aspects, and advantages of the present invention will become better understood when the following detailed description is read with reference to the accompanying drawings in which like characters represent like parts throughout the drawings, wherein:
As illustrated in the accompanying drawings and discussed in detail below, the present invention is directed to a fuel supply, which stores fuel cell fuels such as methanol and water, methanol/water mixture, methanol/water mixtures of varying concentrations or pure methanol. Methanol is usable in many types of fuel cells, e.g., DMFC, enzyme fuel cell and reformat fuel cell, among others. The fuel supply may contain other types of fuel cell fuels, such as ethanol or other alcohols, chemicals that can be reformatted into hydrogen, or other chemicals that may improve the performance or efficiency of fuel cells. Fuels also include potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte, which is usable with metal fuel cells or alkali fuel cells, and can be stored in fuel supplies. For metal fuel cells, fuel is in the form of fluid-borne zinc particles immersed in a KOH electrolytic reaction solution, and the anodes within the cell cavities are particulate anodes formed of the zinc particles. KOH electrolytic solution is disclosed in United States published patent application no. 2003/0077493, entitled “Method of Using Fuel Cell System Configured to Provide Power to One or more Loads,” published on Apr. 24, 2003, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Fuels also include a mixture of methanol, hydrogen peroxide and sulfuric acid, which flows past a catalyst formed on silicon chips to create a fuel cell reaction. Fuels also include a blend or mixture or methanol, sodium borohydride, an electrolyte and other compounds, such as those described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,554,877, 6,562,497 and 6,758,871, which are incorporated by reference in their entireties. Fuels also include those that are partially dissolved in solvent and partially suspended in solvent, described in U.S. Pat No. 6,773,470 and those that include both liquid fuel and solid fuels, described in United States published patent application number 2002/076602. Both of these references are also incorporated by reference in their entireties.
Fuels also include metal hydrides, such as sodium borohydride (NaBH4) and water, discussed above. Fuels further include hydrocarbon fuels, which include, but are not limited to, butane, kerosene, alcohol and natural gas, disclosed in United States published patent application no. 2003/0096150, entitled “Liquid Hereto-Interface Fuel Cell Device,” published on May 22, 2003, which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Fuels also include liquid oxidants that react with fuels. The present invention is, therefore, not limited to any type of fuels, electrolytic solutions, oxidant solutions or liquids or solids contained in the supply or otherwise used by the fuel cell system. The term “fuel” as used herein includes all fuels that can be reacted in fuel cells or in the fuel supply, and includes, but is not limited to, all of the above suitable fuels, electrolytic solutions, oxidant solutions, gasses, liquids, solids and/or chemicals and mixtures thereof.
As used herein, the term “fuel supply” includes, but is not limited to, disposable cartridges, refillable/reusable cartridges, containers, cartridges that reside inside the electronic device, removable cartridges, cartridges that are outside of the electronic device, fuel tanks, fuel reservoirs, fuel refilling tanks, other containers that store fuel and the tubings connected to the fuel tanks and containers. While a cartridge is described below in conjunction with the exemplary embodiments of the present invention, it is noted that these embodiments are also applicable to other fuel supplies and the present invention is not limited to any particular type of fuel supplies.
The fuel supply of the present invention can also be used to store fuels that are not used in fuel cells. These applications include, but are not limited to, storing hydrocarbons and hydrogen fuels for micro gas-turbine engines built on silicon chips, discussed in “Here Come the Microengines,” published in The Industrial Physicist (December 2001/January 2002) at pp. 20-25. Other applications include storing traditional fuels for internal combustion engines; hydrocarbons, such as butane for pocket and utility lighters and liquid propane; as well as chemical fuels for use in personal portable heating devices. As used herein, the term “fuel cell” includes fuel cells as well as other machineries usable with the cartridges of the present invention.
As illustrated in the figures, the present invention is directed to a fuel cell system 10 for powering a load 11 (shown in
Fuel cell 9 includes several fuel cell units 16 arranged into stacks. Fuel cell units 16 may be any type of fuel cell unit known in the art, as discussed above. Fuel cell units 16 may include at least a PEM sandwiched between an anode layer and a cathode layer. Typically, several sealing layers are also included with fuel cell unit 16. As described above, fuel cell units 16 generate free electrons, i.e., electricity, to power electronic device 11.
With further reference to
The size and shape of fuel cell housing 17 need only be sufficient to contain fuel cell units 16, pump 14, controller 18, and information storage device 13. Fuel cell housing 17 is also preferably configured to receive fuel cartridge housing 21. Housing 17 is preferably configured such that fuel supply 12 is easily connectable to housing 17 by the consumer/end user. Supply 12 can be formed with or without an inner liner or bladder. Cartridges without liners and related components are disclosed in publication U.S. 2004/0151962. Cartridges with inner liners or bladders are disclosed in publication U.S. 2005/0023236.
Controller 18 is preferably provided within housing 17 to control the functions of electronic device 11, supply 12, pump 14 and fuel cell units 16, among other components. Alternatively, controller 18 may be remotely located from fuel cell system 10 and connected thereto via a communications transmission link, such as a radio frequency link or an optical link. Preferably, housing 17 also supports at least one optional battery 19 for powering various components of system 10 and electronic device 11 when fuel cell 9 is not operating or during system start-up, shut down, or when otherwise necessary. Alternatively, optional battery 19 powers controller 18 when fuel supply 12 is empty or when the fuel cell 9 is off. Optional battery 19 can be replaced by or used in conjunction with solar panels. Additionally, optional battery 19 may be recharged by fuel cell 9 or another appropriate source, such as a wall outlet or solar panels.
In the present invention, a monitoring system is included with fuel cell system 10. Monitoring system includes a plurality of sensors 30 for monitoring one or more parameters of the fuel contained within fuel cell supply 12. In the first embodiment as shown in
Typically, several fuel parameters should be monitored. For example, the parameters include but are not limited to pressure, temperature, the presence and levels of dissolved gasses, ion concentrations, fuel density, the presence of impurities, duration of use, stress and strain to which fuel supply is subjected, as well as the amount of fuel remaining within the fuel cartridge. Preferably, at least one of sensors 30 is a pressure sensor. The pressure sensor may be any type of pressure sensor known in the art that is capable of being placed in fuel supply 12 and measuring pressure in the anticipated range of approximately 0-40 psi, although this range may vary depending upon the fuel cell system and fuel used. For example, the pressure sensor may be a pressure transducer available from Honeywell, Inc. of Morristown, N.J. The pressure sensor may also be a glass or silica crystal that behaves like a strain gauge, i.e., the crystal emits a current depending upon the amount of pressure. The pressure sensor may be used alone or in conjunction with other sensors monitoring different aspects of the fuel.
The pressure can also be sensed by a piezoelectric sensor. Piezoelectric sensors are solid state elements that produce an electrical charge when exposed to pressure or to impacts. Changes in pressure inside the fuel supply due to internal pressure or impacts cause a signal to be produced from the sensor, which can be transmitted to the controller for processing or action. Suitable piezoelectric sensors are available from many sources, including PCB Piezotronics. Additionally, the piezoelectric sensor can also be configured to measure a force acting on the fuel supply or on the fuel cell system, and can also act as an accelerometer so that if the fuel supply is dropped the sensor would recognize the acceleration and signals the controller for actions, e.g., shut down or fail-safe operations. The piezoelectric sensors can be located on fuel supply 12, on fuel cell system 10 or on electronic device 11.
The pressure can also be sensed by an optical sensor. The use of passive optical sensors is well known, as discussed, for example, in U.S. Pat. No. 4,368,981, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein in its entirety by reference. As shown in
In operation, light source 60 emits light, preferably a pulse of known duration, which shines through window 62 a and into window 62 b. The light is optically transferred to both coils 63 a, 63 b at the same time. The light travels through coils 63 a, 63 b and is reflected back through windows 62 b and 62 a. The light signals are detected by photodetector 64. Optionally, photo detector 64 comprises detectors 64 a, 64 b corresponding to coils 63 a and 63 b. As pressure increases within fuel supply 12, the length of exposed coil 63 a increases relative to the length of reference fiber 63 b, causing a slight delay in receiving the signal from coil 63 a. From this time delay, the pressure within fuel supply 12 may be calculated by controller 18.
One of sensors 30 may also be a temperature sensor. The temperature sensor can be any type of temperature sensor known in the art, such as a thermocouple, a thermistor, or an optical sensor. Anticipated typical temperatures desired to be monitored range from about −20 to 55 degrees centigrade. A temperature sensor may be used alone or in conjunction with other sensors monitoring different aspects of the fuel. If an optical sensor is used, the type and method of operation thereof is substantially similar to that described above with respect to the pressure within fuel supply 12.
One of sensors 30 may also be a sensor for measuring dissolved gases, such as an oxygen or hydrogen sensor. These dissolved gas sensors may be any type known in the art. For example, one type of appropriate oxygen sensor is a galvanic cell, including an anode and a cathode surrounded by an electrolytic solution. The galvanic cell produces an electric current proportional to the pressure of detected oxygen. The dissolved gas sensor may be used alone or in conjunction with other sensors monitoring different aspects of the fuel.
One of sensors 30 may be a fuel gauge. One type of fuel gauge suitable for use on a chip 28 is a thermistor (also thermister) which can be used to measure the remaining fuel in fuel supply 12. A thermistor is a semi-conducting resistor that is sensitive to temperature changes. In other words, the resistance of the thermistor changes as the temperature changes. Generally, there are two types of thermistors: negative temperature coefficient (NTC) thermistors and positive temperature coefficient (PTC) thermistors. NTC thermistors display a decrease in its resistance when exposed to increasing temperature, and PTC thermistors display an increase in its resistance when exposed to increasing temperature. Thermistors have been traditionally used to measure the temperature of a system or a fluid. The use of thermistors as a fuel gauge is discussed in detail in patent application publication no. U.S. 2005/0115312, which is incorporated by reference in its entirety.
An important aspect of the thermistor's resistance depends on the thermistor's body temperature as a function of the heat transfer inside the fuel cartridge and the heat transfer within the electronic device that the fuel cell powers. Heat transfer occurs mainly by conduction and radiation in this environment or from heating caused by power dissipation within the device. In traditional temperature measuring function, self heating must be compensated so that the accurate temperature can be obtained. In accordance with the present invention, self heating is not compensated so that the capacity to dissipate heat of the remaining fuel inside fuel cartridge can be gauged. The heat capacity is related to the amount of fuel remaining in the cartridge. Both NTC and PTC thermistors are usable with the present invention.
Generally, heat capacitance or heat conductivity is described as the ability of a fluid, i.e., liquid or gas, to conduct or dissipate heat. Liquid, such as water or methanol, has a much higher capacity to dissipate heat than gas, such as air, carbon dioxide or methanol gas. The capacity of a fluid to dissipate heat is equal to its heat capacitance, which is a constant for a particular fluid, multiplied by the fluid volume. Hence, this aspect of the present invention measures the volume of the remaining fuel by measuring the electrical resistance of the thermistor positioned within the fuel or on the optional liner containing the fuel. The electrical resistance is then converted to the capacity of the remaining fuel to dissipate heat, and this capacity is converted to the volume of remaining fuel by dividing out the heat capacitance constant. In other words, higher heat capacity corresponds to higher remaining fuel volume.
The thermistor-fuel gauge should be calibrated prior to use. The operating temperatures of the fuel cell and of the electronic device are known. An electrical signal from a full liner is recorded and then an electrical signal from an empty liner is recorded. One or more signals from known partial volumes can also be recorded. A calibration curve can be drawn from these calibration points between these operating temperatures. A real-time signal is compared to this calibration curve to determine the remaining fuel. Other methods of calibrations can be performed without deviating from the present invention.
Additionally, since the thermistor is a resistor, electrical current that flows through the thermistor generates heat. Therefore, electrical current can flow through the thermistor to generate heat that can be dissipated by the remaining fuel, and accurate readings can be obtained. In one embodiment, controller 18 sends the current as a query to the thermistor to gauge the amount of heat dissipation whenever a remaining fuel reading is desired. The electrical current can be sent intermittently or continuously.
In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, a thermocouple can be used as a fuel gauge. The use of a thermocouple as a fuel gauge is described in detail in publication U.S. 2005/0115312, previously incorporated by reference. A thermocouple is also typically used to measure temperature and comprises two wires made from different metals, and is also known as a bi-metal sensor. The wires are joined at two junctions. A potential difference is established when a measuring junction is at a temperature that is different than a temperature at a reference junction. The reference junction is typically kept a known temperature, such as the freezing point of water. This potential difference is a DC voltage which is related to the temperature at the measuring junction. Using a thermocouple to measure temperature is well known in the art.
Similar to the thermistor, a thermocouple acts like a resistor that is sensitive to temperature. The thermocouple is capable of measuring the heat capacity of the remaining fuel by measuring the potential difference. Hence, the thermocouple can also measure the remaining fuel. Alternatively, electrical current can be sent through the measuring junction of the thermocouple. The current heats up the measuring junction and the fuel dissipates the heat. The amount of heat dissipated, therefore, relates to the remaining fuel. The current can be sent intermittently or continuously. The thermocouple fuel gauge should be calibrated similar to the calibration of the thermistor, discussed above.
In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, an inductive sensor can be used to measure the remaining fuel. The use of inductive sensors as a fuel gauge is described in detail in publication no. U.S. 2005/0115312, previously incorporated by reference. Inductive sensors are typically used as on/off proximity switches. An inductive sensor contains a wire coil and a ferrite core, which form the inductive portion of an inductive/capacitance (LC) tuned circuit. This circuit drives an oscillator, which in turn generates a symmetrical, oscillating magnetic field. When an electrical conductor, such as a metal plate, enters this oscillating field, eddy currents are formed in the conductor. These eddy currents draw energy from the magnetic field. The changes in the energy correlate to the distance between the inductive sensor and the electrical conductor.
One of sensors 30 may also be a clock or other form of timing or counting mechanism. Examples of the timing mechanism may include an oscillator, such as a crystal or induction oscillator, integrated onto chip 28. As the counter relies upon memory such as information storage device 13, which is preferably housed in fuel cell 9, the counter counts the oscillations only when fuel supply 12 is connected to fuel cell 9. In this way, the counter may track how long fuel supply 12 has been in use. The count of oscillations is preferably stored in information storage device 13. The oscillator can be powered by an optional battery internal to fuel supply 12 or may be triggered by power transferred from fuel cell 9, such as when pump 14 is turned on. If information storage device 13 also tracks pumping rates, controller 18 may be programmed to calculate flow rate of fuel through pump 12 and, consequently, the remaining fuel in fuel supply 12. In other words, the combination of a counter and tracking of pumping rates may be used as a fuel gauge.
Alternatively, the timing mechanism may include an energy storage device with a known decaying signature housed in fuel supply 12. For example, fuel supply 12 could include a battery whose self-discharge rates are known and a battery tester may be incorporated into fuel cell 9. It is known in the art that a typical nickel-based battery discharges approximately 10-15% of its charge in the first 24 hours after the charge is maximized, followed by additional 10-15% losses monthly thereafter. Similarly, it is known that lithium ion batteries self-discharge about 5% in the first 24 hours after charge and 1-2% monthly thereafter. Additional information regarding the self-discharge of batteries and monitoring devices therefor can be found in Isidor Buchmann, The Secrets of Battery Runtime (April 2001) available on <http://www.batteryuniversity.com/parttwo-31.htm>, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference. By programming controller 18 and information storage device 13 with the self-discharge curves of batteries that are always fully charged when installed in or on fuel supply 12, controller 18 can calculate the age or shelf life of fuel supply 12 based on the measured charge level of the battery at any point in time after fuel supply 12 is attached to fuel cell 9.
Additionally, the monitoring system should be robust. Fuels, in general, may have degrading effects on materials exposed to the fuel, and in accordance with one aspect of the present invention materials for the manufacture of fuel supply 12 and its components are selected to be compatible with fuels. Chip 28 and/or sensors 30 may be placed in contact with the fuel, such as floated in the fuel or affixed to an inner surface of casing 21 or the optional liner. Therefore, the monitoring system should be able to withstand sustained contact with the fuels used in fuel cells.
A suitable protective material is silicon dioxide (SiO2), which can be applied by vapor deposition or sputtering technique or other known methods. Silica molecules coalesce on a substrate as SiOx where x is 1 or 2. Any protective material that can be suspended in a solvent can be used.
Other suitable coatings include, but are not limited to, the class of epoxy-amine coatings. Such coatings are commercially available as Bairocade coatings from PPG Industries, Inc. of Cleveland, Ohio. These types of coatings can be applied using electro-static guns and cured in infrared ovens to create the gas barrier. The coatings can also be applied by dipping, spraying or painting. These coatings are typically used to coat beverage bottles or cans to protect the beverages inside.
Additionally, a clear polycrystalline, amorphous linear xylylene polymer may coat and protect the sensor. Xylylene polymer is commercially available as Parylene® from Cookson Specialty Coating Systems of Indianapolis, Ind. Three suitable Parylene resins are Parylene N (poly-para-xylylene), Parylene C (poly-monochloro-para-xylylene) and Parylene D (poly-dichloro-para-xylylene). Additional discussion of Parylene can be found in co-owned, co-pending United States patent publication no. 2006/0030652, entitled “Fuel Supplies for Fuel Cells,” filed on Aug. 6, 2004, the disclosure of which is hereby incorporated by reference herein in its entirety.
In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, a gas barrier film is wrapped around sensors 30 for protection. Suitable gas barrier films include Mylar® from DuPont and various films from the food packaging industry. More detailed information regarding gas barrier films, including a list of appropriate films, may be found in publication no. U.S. 2006/0030652, previously incorporated by reference. Other appropriate materials include polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH), ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH), EVOH bonded to a polyester substrate, polyvinylidene chloride copolymers (PVDC or Saran), nylon resins, fluoro-polymers, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), poly(trimethlylene terephthalate) (PTT), resorcinol copolymers, liquid crystal polymers, aliphatic polyketones (PK), polyurethane, polyimide, and blends and copolymers of these materials.
Furthermore, sensor 30 may be protected from the fuel by virtue of being placed within housing 21 but outside of a bladder or liner, such as liner 27 as shown in
Referring again to
In other embodiments, the communication link between sensors 30 and controller 18 is a wireless system that is capable of transmitting electrical signals. Suitable wireless transmission systems include any wireless transmission systems known in the art, including, inter alia, Blue Tooth technology, radio frequency, infrared rays, and light transmissions such as from lasers or LEDs from the fuel cell 9 side to photonic sensors on fuel supply 12. Such wireless transmissions can also transmit or transfer power to sensors 30.
As described in publication no. U.S. 2005/0118468, the fuel supply may include an information storage device that possesses an ability to store information such as fuel content including fuel content during usage, fuel quantity, fuel type, anti-counterfeit information, expiration dates based on age, manufacturing information and to receive information such as length of service, number of refuels, and expiration dates based on usage.
Information relating the conditions of the fuel may change over time, and it is useful to monitor and store such information. However, the conditions of the fuel, e.g., viscosity as a function of temperature discussed above, can change from the time electronic device 11 is turned off until it is turned on again, e.g., between nighttime and daytime. Hence the information stored on a memory device when the device is turned off may be stale when the device is turned on again. Hence, in certain circumstances it is desirable to interrogate sensors 30 instead of reading the information stored on information storage device 13. Stored information includes protectable information and rewriteable information.
Protectable information, which cannot be easily erased, includes, but is not limited to, type of cartridge; date the cartridge was manufactured; lot number for the cartridge; sequential identification number assigned to the cartridge during manufacturer; date the information storage device was manufactured; lot number for the information storage device; sequential identification number assigned to the information storage device; machine identification number for the cartridge and/or storage device; shift (i.e., time of day) during which the cartridge and/or storage device were produced; country where the cartridge and/or storage device were produced; facility code identifying the factory where the cartridge and/or storage device were produced; operating limits, including but not limited to temperature, pressure, vibration tolerance, etc.; materials used in manufacturing, anti-counterfeit information; fuel information; such as chemical formulation; concentration; volume; etc.; intellectual property information, including patent numbers and registered trademarks; safety information; security password or identification; expiration date based on date of manufacturing; shut-down sequence; hot swap procedure; recycling information; reactant information; fuel gage type; new software to update fuel cell 9 and/or controller 18; and fluid sensor information.
Rewriteable information includes, but is not limited to, current fuel level and/or current ion level in the fuel; number of ejections/separations of the cartridge from the electrical device and/or fuel cell or number of times that the cartridge was refilled; fuel level on ejection/separation of the cartridge from the electrical device and/or fuel cell; number of insertions/connections of the cartridge to the electrical device and/or fuel cell; fluid level on insertion/connection of the cartridge to the electrical device and/or fuel cell; current operation status including rate of power consumption; acceptance/rejection of a particular electronic device; maintenance status and marketing information for future cartridge designs; triggering events; expiration date based on actual usage; efficiency of the system; operational history of the fuel cell system; such as temperatures and pressures during selected time periods (e.g., at start-ups and shut-downs or periodically); and operational history of the electronic devices, such as number of digital pictures per cartridge, maximum torque for power tools, talling minutes and standby minutes for cell phones, number of address look-ups per cartridge for PDAs, etc.
Information storage device 13 is preferably an electrical storage device, such as an EEPROM memory chip as discussed and disclosed in publication no. U.S. 2005/0118468, previously incorporated by reference. Suitable information storage devices include, but are not limited to, random access memory (RAM), read-only memory (ROM), programmable read-only memory (PROM), erasable programmable read-only memory (EPROM), electrically erasable programmable read-only memory (EEPROM), flash memory, electronically readable elements (such as resistors, capacitance, inductors, diodes and transistors), optically readable elements (such as bar codes), magnetically readable elements (such as magnetic strips), integrated circuits (IC chips) and programmable logic arrays (PLA), among others. The preferred information storage device includes PLA and EEPROM, and the present invention is described herein with the EEPROM. However, it is understood that the present invention is not limited to any particular type of information storage device.
Preferably, information storage device 13 generally has a substrate (not shown) formed of a “potting material,” an integrated circuit memory chip (not shown), and etched or printed layers or strips of electrical circuitry or contacts (not shown). The integrated circuit memory chip (not shown) can be connected to the substrate (not shown) with a plurality of pins, such as in an external electronic connector.
Information storage device 13 is preferably connected to controller 18 via link 25, preferably an electrical connection. Alternatively, link 25 is a wireless system that is capable of transmitting electrical signals between information storage device 13 and controller 18. Suitable wireless transmission systems include any wireless transmission systems known in the art, such as Blue Tooth technology, radio frequency, infrared rays, optical transmissions, etc.
Information storage device 13 can have any particular memory size. The memory size is determined by the amount of data needed to be stored. Suitable memory size typically ranges from about 128 bytes to about 512 K bytes. Memory sizes of 1M bytes and higher are also commercially available and are usable in the present invention. Information storage device 13 is also not limited to any particular dimensions so long that it can fit within housing 17 of fuel cell 9.
Information storage device 13 preferably includes portions 13 a and 13 b. Portion 13 a is pre-programmed or set up by the manufacturer to include read-only (write protected or protectable) data, discussed above. Controller 18 can read the data in portion 13 a of information storage device 13. However, the controller 18 cannot modify or erase the read-only data in portion 13 a. Portion 13 b is programmed or set up by the manufacturer to include rewriteable data, discussed above. Controller 18 can read and write/erase the data in portion 13 b. Portions 13 a and 13 b are electrically connected to link 25 via conventional electrical wires or printed circuit boards, etc., known by those of ordinary skill in the art or by the wireless connections listed above.
A second embodiment of the present invention is shown in
In this embodiment, a fuel gauge may comprise two sensors placed within or on fuel supply 12. The first sensor should be placed on a location that moves as the fuel is removed to reflect the level of fuel remaining in the cartridge. For example, the first sensor can be placed directly on liner 27. The second sensor is positioned outside of fuel supply 12, e.g., on fuel cell 9 or electronic device 11. The second sensor is electrically connected to either fuel cell 9 or to electronic device 11. An electrical circuit connected to the second sensor can measure electrical or magnetic properties between these sensors, which correlate or are related to the fuel level. The electrical circuit can also be connected to the first sensor via an electrical wire extending through the wall of fuel supply 12. This type of fuel gauge is more completely described in publication no. U.S. 2005/0115312.
The information collected from sensors 30 may be used in a variety of ways. For example, if the temperature of the fuel falls, then the fuel becomes more viscous and, therefore, harder to pump. Controller 18 may dynamically regulate valve 24 so that sufficient fuel may be pumped to system 10. Further, by monitoring the heat cycles to which the fuel is subjected, controller 18 may be programmed to extrapolate the amount of fuel remaining in fuel supply 12 and produce a fuel gauge read out.
As will be recognized by those in the art, the placement of sensors 30 on or near fuel supply 12 could have many configurations. For example, sensor chip 28 may be separable from fuel supply 12. Fuel supply 12 includes at least one port for the transfer of fuel, such as the port closed by shut-off valve 24. One of these ports could be adapted so that a pod containing sensor chip 28 could be removably inserted therein. In a case where sensors 30 do not need to be in direct contact with the fuel, such as, for example, if monitoring temperature by contact with a bladder or liner within fuel supply 12, an access port for a sensor pod could be placed anywhere on fuel supply 12. Additionally, sensors 30 could be located within housing 17 of fuel cell 9. In such a case, the connection of electrical contacts 15B and 15A (shown in
In yet another embodiment of the present invention as shown in
RFID tag 50 preferably includes sufficient read-write memory to contain the data collected from the sensors (described below), although RFID tag may also be linked via electrical connection to a separate information storage device located on fuel cell 9.
RFID tag 50 may be located anywhere on or within fuel supply 12, for example on the top, bottom, or sides of the exterior surface of the outer casing 21. In the embodiment shown in
RFID tag 50 communicates with RFID reader station 52. RFID reader station 52 emits a radio frequency signal that communicates with RFID tag 50 and, in the case of passive RFID tags, powers RFID tag 50 by induction. As shown in
In both of these embodiments, RFID tag 50 should be protected from possible reaction with the fuel. Preferably, RFID tag 50 may be enclosed or encased in a material that is inert to the fuel. “Inert”, as used in this context, refers to the ability of the material to withstand lengthy exposure to a fuel such as methanol. For example, RFID tag 50 may be potted within the same material used to form outer casing 21. RFID tag 50 may also be contained within a shell, such as a plastic or metal capsule, as long as the material chosen for the capsule does not significantly interfere with the radio frequency signals transmitted or received by RFID tag 50. Additionally, RFID tag 50 may be coated with any of the coating materials described above with respect to sensor(s) 30, such as xylylene.
In another embodiment, shown in
In addition to spacing RFID tag 50 and outer casing 21 apart, other ways of compensating for the interference of a metal outer casing 21 could be used. For example, as shown in
Sensors 30 may be directly or indirectly linked to RFID tag 50. As shown in
Additionally, RFID tag 50 may be used to upload new software to fuel cell 9. For example, updated software for controller 18 may be stored in the memory of RFID tag 50. Upon insertion into housing 17, the new software may be transferred to controller 18 via any of the described communication links. As will be recognized by those in the art, other types of information could be stored in the memory of RFID tag 50, such as product recall alerts, new or updated calibration data, and the like.
In accordance with another aspect of the present invention, sensor 30 may comprise at least one color I.D. tag and more specifically at least one optical color tag. An exemplary fuel supply 12 with color I.D. tags 102 is shown in
In another example, color I.D. tag 102 is capable of changing color responsive to a condition of fuel supply 12, such as temperature or pressure, among other factors. In this example, color tag 102 is made from a material that exhibits chromism, i.e., a reversible change in the colors of compounds, generally caused by a change in the electron states of the molecules, induced by various stimuli. Suitable color changing materials include thermochromism (induced by heat), photochromism (induced by light, radiation), electrochromism (induced by electron flow), solvatochromism (induced by solvent polarity), ionochromism (induced by ions), halochromism (induced by change in pH), tribochromism (induced by mechanical friction), and piezochromism (induced by mechanical pressure).
A preferred color changing tag 102 is made from a material exhibiting thermochromism, e.g., liquid crystals where the color changes as the crystallic structure changes from a low-temperature crystallic phase through anisotropic chiral/twisted nematic phase to a high-temperature isotropic liquid phase. Exemplary color changing liquid crystals include cholesteryl nonanoate or cyanobiphenyls. Other suitable temperature-induced color changing materials include leuco dyes.
In this example, color reader 104 can detect the changes in the color of color tag 102 in response to a physical condition of fuel supply 12, e.g., high temperature or high pressure. The change in color can be processed by processor 18 to monitor the condition(s) of fuel supply 12.
In another example color I.D. tag 102 comprises a plurality of colors, e.g., parallel strips of colors (similar to multi-color barcode). Color reader 104 is calibrated to scan sequentially across the color strips, and if the color strips are presented in a predetermined pattern, then the fuel supply is authenticated. Alternatively, each color strip may represent a unique piece of information. For example, a yellow strip may indicate fuel type, a blue strip may indicate the particular additives included, another color stripe may indicate the date of manufacture, etc. Processor 18 and color reader 104 may interrogate color I.D. strips/tag 102 to read the information contained on the tag. The colored strips may be positioned adjacent to each other or may be spaced apart or separated.
In another example, color reader 104 does not need to scan the colored strips, but color reader 104 can take a picture/photo of the entire strips at once. Digital cameras can be used to capture an image of the entire color tag and the image is compared with a stored image to authenticate or processed to determine the type of fuel supply, as discussed in the previous paragraph. In this example, the pixels in the captured image can be compared to the pixels in the stored image to determine whether the captured image is substantially the same as the stored image. Analog camera also be used, and the images can be digitized afterward.
In yet another example, color I.D. tag 102 can have any pattern, logo, design or graphic that can be captured by color reader/camera 104 for authentication or processing. Additionally, tag 102 can be a color hologram, similar to those used in national currencies worldwide.
Color I.D. tag 102 can be located on housing 21 of fuel supply 12, or it can be located within fuel supply 12 similar to optical sensor 61 behind window 62 b, shown in
While it is apparent that the illustrative embodiments of the invention disclosed herein fulfill the objectives of the present invention, it is appreciated that numerous modifications and other embodiments may be devised by those skilled in the art. For example, the fuel cell may be integrated into load 11. Also, pump 14 may be eliminated if pressurized fuel supply configurations are used, such as those described in United States patent publication no. 2005/0074643, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety. Additionally, feature(s) and/or element(s) from any embodiment may be used singly or in combination with feature(s) and/or element(s) from other embodiment(s). Therefore, it will be understood that the appended claims are intended to cover all such modifications and embodiments, which would come within the spirit and scope of the present invention.