US 20080295522 A1
The present invention reduces to practice discoveries made by the present inventors during their investigations into present-art-perceived-difficulties in thermal-management applications of solid-state devices.
1. A solid-state electronic passive cooling device.
2. A solid-state electronic active cooling device.
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at least one (1) thermoelectric element; and at least (1) solid-state electronic element mounted on the at least (1) thermoelectric element.
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at least one (1) thermoelectric element; and at least (1) solid-state electronic light-emitting diode element mounted on the at least (1) thermoelectric element.
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This application claims benefit of 60/940,336 May 25,2007
The present invention reduces to practice discoveries made by the present inventors during their investigations into present-art-perceived-difficulties in thermal-management applications of solid-state devices. The present invention overcomes said present art problems via alternative composites of ferrite-torus (tori) element(s), thermoelectric(s) element(s), ion-pump-fan(s) element(s), sensor(s) element(s), communication(s) element(s), enclosed or confined within an enclosure resembling a commonly encountered Edison-type incandescent light bulb volume. The present invention provides the utility of the encountered Edison-type incandescent light bulb, including shape, thermal-signature, illumination and use of existing electrical power socket(s).
The present invention is exemplified in the novel utilities achieved via non-apparent arrangement of parts shown in the accompanying drawings and described in the following specification and it is more particularly pointed out in the appended claims.
The provision of a thermal-management device and its means and methods of achieving its novel utilities of the character referred to above constitutes the principal object of this invention.
In reference to U.S. Pat. No. 2,758,261 issued August 1956, to Armstrong et al. (Armstrong '261), Armstrong '261 teaches that (col. 1, line 26) “ . . . certain plastics, upon setting, have a coefficient of expansion or contraction which is different from the coefficient of expansion or contraction of the semiconductive materials to which they are bonded. This results in stresses being set up within the semiconductors which may cause pushing or pulling of the terminal leads attached to, or in contact with, the junction material and result in the deformation thereof. A sufficient amount of deformation causes the effective barrier resistance between the junction material and the semiconductor undesirably to be reduced to extremely small values and may even result in a short circuit therebetween.” The present invention directly addresses Armstrong '261's identified problems by providing the ability to provide a near constant caloric-density environment of the different materials and thereby eliminating the problems identified by Armstrong '261's reference to coefficient of expansion or contraction of different materials and the resultant, due to temperature change, of “ . . . stresses being set up within the semiconductors.”
In reference to U.S. Pat. No. 4,211,955 issued July 1980, to Ray (Ray '955), Ray '955 teaches (col. 1, line 13) “Solid state light sources per se, such as light-emitting diodes, are well known in the prior art, but none of these is suitable as a complete replacement for a standard A.C. or D.C. incandescent lamp.” (col. 1, line 19) “ . . . object of this invention is to provide a novel solid state lamp having a standard incandescent lamp base which can be used with existing incandescent lamp sockets.” (col. 1, line 30) “Still another object of the invention is to provide such a novel solid state lamp wherein the integrated circuit chip contains rectifier and voltage regulator circuits so the lamp can be energized by standard house current of 120 volts or 220 volts A.C.” The present invention incorporates the above teachings of Ray '955.
In reference to U.S. Pat. No. 4,600,979 issued July 1986 to Fisher et al (Fisher '979), Fisher '979 teaches that (col. 1, line 12) “In diverse environments there are found devices, such as lights, in which a heat generating means is contained within a sealed enclosure. It will be readily appreciated that due to the heat produced within such enclosure by the heat generating means, the temperature in the enclosure can quickly rise to levels sufficient to damage the components internal to the enclosure.” (col. 2, line 49) “In operation, the heat generated by the various lamps within the lamp housing is transmitted to the radial fins of the lamp housing. While the system provided herein functions most efficiently when in the vertical position, which will be described herein, it is to be understood that the principles of the invention obtain regardless of orientation. The heat is transferred by conduction from the hotter lower portions of the fins to the top portions of the fins. Due to the increasingly large area and, hence, presence of cooler air between the annular wall and the top of the enclosure cover, the heat from the tops of the fins is transmitted to the cooler air within such area. This action causes heated air to move radiant outward from the tops of the fins along the top of the enclosure. During this process, the heat contained by the heated air is transmitted to the top cover of the enclosure which allows such heat to be radiated from the large area of the enclosure cover to the cooler surrounding ambient outside the light. As the heat is removed from the air which is present between the annular wall and the top of the enclosure cover, it falls to the area between the lower portion of the cylindrical sidewall and the annular wall. From this point the air is driven through the slots and the is directed toward the heated fins due to the slightly higher pressure caused by the newly heated air being moved into contact with the top of the enclosure cover and filling the outer chamber defined between the enclosure's cover and the outside of the inner annular wall.” The present invention incorporates the above teachings of Fisher '979.
In reference to U.S. Pat. No. 4,727,289 issued February 1988 to Uchida (Uchida '289), Uchida '289 teaches that (col. 1, line 12) “Conventional light-emitting diode (LED) lamps use either a 12- or 14-V power source and cannot be connected directly to the general AC outlet power source (100 V). As shown in
In reference to U.S. Pat. No. 4,967,330 issued October 1990, to Bell et at. (Bell '330), Bell '330 teaches that the above (col. 1, line 54) “Two U.S. patents issued for LED lamps are representative of those seeking to exploit these features: U.S. Pat. No. 4,211,955 issued to Stephen W. Ray and U.S. Pat. No. 4,727,289 issued to Akio Uchida. The Ray patent describes an area-illuminating solid state lamp having the appearance of a standard incandescent light bulb with LEDs enclosed within a globe of solid translucent plastic. It also illustrates the two features necessary for the utilization of LEDs in this application—a current adjustment element (in this case featuring a rectifier as well as a resistor) and a generally cylindrical base capable of interfacing with standard incandescent light sockets. However, it is seriously restricted in use because of the closed nature of its encasement. The performance of LEDs degrades as temperature (generated by current reducing/control elements) becomes elevated. The closed nature of the Ray device causes the accumulation of waste heat generated by the device. A solution to this problem is attempted by Uchida, who utilizes an annular-shaped resistor fitted around the stem of the lamp as a means of overcoming this problem; however, the solution utilized herein is far simpler, and leads to a device that overcomes the temperature build-up problems of prior patents, is far simpler and less expensive to manufacture, and has numerous additional advantages as set forth below.” (col. 2, line 40) “The objects of this novel design are numerous. First, the open nature of the encasement, particularly of the section of said encasement between the electric contact at its base and the LED(s) enclosed, allows heat generated by the current adjustment element to readily escape. Second, its construction is much simpler than the prior LED lamps described as there is no sealed or closed container to be constructed and its component parts are easily manufactured using simple techniques from readily available materials and parts. Third, it is readily adapted for use and insertion into a wide variety of sockets and, where desirable, for insertion into a socket from the socket's rear, rather than forward side.” The present invention incorporates the above teachings of Bell '330.
In reference to U.S. Pat. No. 4,729,076 issued March 1988 to Masami et al. (Masami '076), Masami '076 teaches of an (col. 3, line 12) “ . . . enclosure 12 . . . a compartment or housing for the light source 14, the driver circuit 16 and other components. . . . ” (col. 3, line 38) “According to the invention, the light source 14 comprises an array of semiconductor light emitting diodes (“LED”) 22 which can include laser diodes.” (col. 4, line 11) “To augment the operation of heat sink 26, the portable photocuring device 10 can include a fan 27. The fan 27 is sized to fit inside the housing 12 and run from the power feed 20. The enclosure 12 includes one or more exhaust ports 28 for the exhaust sir from the fan 27. In addition, the enclosure 12 includes an input port 30 to allow the circulation of fresh air. The input port 30 can also be coupled to a compressed air flow 32 which is supplied by the dental console. It will be appreciated that the compressed air flow 32 can eliminate the need for the fan 27.” The present invention incorporates the above teachings of Masami '076.
In reference to U.S. Pat. No. 5,404,282 issued April 995 to Klinke et al. (Klinke '282), Klinke '282 teaches that (col. 2, line 61) “LED modules known in the art have attempted to minimize the potential for thermal damage to the LED lamps by constructing the LED leads from materials having a low thermal conductivity, such as steel. Using materials of low thermal conductivity reduces the amount of heat that can be transferred from the solder site to the LED chip itself. However, materials having low thermal conductivity necessarily have a correspondingly low electrical conductivity. Therefore, the methods used in the art to minimize the thermal damage of the LED lamps during the soldering operation has resulted in the construction of a LED module that does not display optimal electrical efficiency. Additionally, LED leads constructed from such low thermal conductivity materials effectively limit the amount of power that the LED can dissipate and remain within reliable operational parameters.” The present invention incorporates the above teachings of Klinke '282.
In reference to U.S. Pat. No. 5,782,555 issued July 1998 to Hochstein (Hochstein '555), Hochstein '555 teaches that (col. 2, line 6) “Obviously, venting the L.E.D. . . . lamp assembly or module into the sealed . . . housing is futile. Rejecting heat into an environment of higher temperature than that of the source is thermodynamically impossible. The key to improving the life of the L.E.D.'s . . . is to reduce the temperature of the L.E.D. environment. Note that little can be done to modify the “ambient” temperature which is the normal surrounding sir temperature.” (col. 2, line 14) “U.S. Pat. No. 4,729,076 to Masami et al strives to lower the temperature of the LED array by attaching a finned heat sink assembly. However, there is a choke or restrictor in the path of the heat from the light emitting diodes to the heat sink: to wit, a resin filler or adhesive which is a very poor heat conductor. The Masami '076 patent recognizes the problem of positioning the heat sink within the traffic signal housing where it must exchange heat with the air within the housing. As noted in the Masami '076 patent, some means of ventilation must be provided by vents, louvers, fans or the like, when the heat sink is within the housing. Such provisions are not particularly effective in hot climates, and they subject the signal to dirt and moisture infiltration.” (col. 3, line 17) “ . . . the invention provides two solutions to the heat dissipation problem which can be utilized in combination or separately to open the restriction or choke of heat flow from the LEDs to the heat sink and/or to extend the heat sink from close proximity to the LEDs to the ambient air forwardly of the lamp assembly, either of which significantly reduces the build up of temperature within the housing and when combined provide heretofore unattainable low operating temperatures within the housing.” The present invention teaches away from Hochstein '555's “passive” cooling regime via “active” cooling or heating with its incorporation of TEs, ion-pump-fan element(s) and other elements.
In reference to U.S. Pat. No. 5,785,418 issued July 1998 to Hochstein (Hochstein '418), Hochstein '418 teaches that (col. 3, line 64) “Trying to dissipate heat from an LED . . . module into such a high temperature environment is impossible and, in fact, heat flows in the opposite direction; that is from the elevated ambient surrounding the device into the LED . . . housing. Given the high thermal conductivity housings disclosed in the prior art, the deleterious heat transfer from an elevated ambient into the LED array is actually maximized, thereby overheating the LEDs: dimming them and shortening the life of the devices.” The present invention incorporates Hochstein '418's observations on “ . . . the deleterious heat transfer . . . thereby overheating the LEDs: dimming them and shortening the life of the devices.” The present invention teaches away from Hochstein '418's teaches that of (col. 4, line 23) “ . . . provid(ing) a directionally selective heat sink and dissipater which enhances dissipation of heat from an LED array to the surrounding air, but retards heat flow into the LED array from high temperature sources such as solar heated air or from direct solar radiation.”
In reference to U.S. Pat. No. 5,857,767 issued January 1999 to Hochstein (Hochstein '767), Hochstein '767 teaches that (col. 1, line 23) “One aspect of LED technology that is not satisfactorily resolved is the application of LEDs in high temperature environments. LED lamps exhibit a substantial light output sensitivity to temperature, and in fact are permanently degraded by excessive temperature.” (col. 1, line 45) “Permanent thermal degradation of LEDs also occurs during array fabrication, when the LEDs are soldered to the supporting and/or interconnecting circuit board. Typical soldering temperatures (250° C.) can significantly degrade the LED array before it is even put into service. LED manufacturers recommend the use of lead lengths of sufficient length to prevent excessive heat transmission from the soldering operation into the LED die. Of course, the added lead length acts detrimentally during LED operation, as the longer leads increase the thermal resistance and adversely affects the rejection of self generated heat.” The present invention incorporates the above teachings of Hochstein '767.
In reference to U.S. Pat. No. 6,045,240 issued April 2000 to Hochstein (Hochstein '240), Hochstein '240 teaches that (col. 3, line 4) “several prior art patents address the question of heat extraction from an LED array, but an essential parameter in the successful implementation of this art has eluded previous investigators. Many technical issues must be carefully considered in the design of reliable LED signals, but among the most important are the thermal properties of the various components that form the heat flow path.” (col. 3, line 31) “The interaction of the thermal properties of . . . materials, in LED arrays, indicates that prior approaches to the problem were not well conceived nor well understood. In fact, studies of existing hardware that embody the technology described by the prior art, show that at least an order of magnitude improvement in performance is attainable by the application of the methods and apparatus of the present invention.” (col. 3, line 41) “Typically, the prior art, as exemplified by Roney, et al. in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,528,474 and 5,632,551, comprise an LED circuit board potted or encapsulated in a filled resin matrix within a metal shell. The intended purpose of the filled resinous encapsultat, which may be a thermally conductive epoxy, is to conduct heat from the LED array into the metal housing which acts as a heat dissipater.” (col. 3, line 47) “The improvement in thermal performance of LED devices that embody the technology taught by Roney, et al. over the apparatus disclosed by Masami, et al. in U.S. Pat. No. 4,729,076 is substantial.” (col. 3, line 52) “Masami's use of unfilled resin and a non thermally coupled insulation sheet greatly diminishes the flow of heat from the LED array to the heat dissipater.” The present invention incorporates the above teachings of Hochstein '240.
In reference to U.S. Pat. No. 6,220,722 issued April 2001 to Begemann (Begemann '722), Begemann '722 teaches that (col. 1, line 49) “It has been found that LEDs having a luminous flux of 5 lm or more can only be efficiently used if the lamp comprises heat-dissipating means. Customary incandescent lamps can only be replaced by LED lamps which are provided with LEDs having such a high luminous flux. A particular aspect of the invention resides in that the heat-dissipating means remove the heat, generated during operation of the lamp, from the substrate via the gear column to the lamp cap and the mains supply connected thereto.” (col. 2, line 32) “Yet another embodiment of the LED lamp is characterized in that means are incorporated in the column, which are used to generate an air flow in the lamp. Such means, preferably in the form of a fan, can be used, during operation of the lamp, to generate forced air cooling. In combination with the heat-dissipating means, this measure enables good heat dissipation from the gear column and the substrate.” The present invention incorporates the above teachings of Begemann '722
In reference to U.S. Pat. No. 6,274,924 issued August 2001 to Carey et al (Carey '024), Carey '024 teaches that (col. 1, line 9) “Most light emitting devices (LEDs) emit incoherent light. One performance measure of an LED is photometric efficiency, e.g. the conversion of input energy into visible light. Photometric efficiency is inversely proportional to the junction temperature of the LED. A major concern of the LED package designer is keeping the die cool to provide good overall performance.” (col. 1, line 20) “The prior art packages. . . . Because the die, the optical cavity, and the encapsulant have different thermal coefficients, they expand and contract at different rates during operation. This places a high mechanical stress on the LED. In addition, the prior art packages lack thermal isolation between the electrical and the thermal paths because the electrical leads are the primary thermal paths. As a result, the packaged die are subject to thermal stresses from the temperature cycling. . . . ” (col. 1, line 35) “These problems are exacerbated as the die increases in area or input power. Because a device having a larger junction area, . . . requires a larger optical element . . . to provide comparable light extraction efficiency, a large optical cavity is necessary. The mechanical stress applied to the LED increases with the volume of the encapsulant. In addition, the stress increases as the packaged LED is exposed to temperature cycling and high moisture conditions. The accumulated mechanical stresses reduce the overall LED reliability.” (col. 1, line 46) “Since prior art packages use their electrical leads as primary thermal paths, the high thermal resistance of these paths combined with the high thermal resistance of the external system creates high junction temperatures, when power dissipation increases. . . . High junction temperature contributes to accelerating the irreversible loss of photometric efficiency in the LED chip and also accelerates processes that contribute to the failure of mechanical integrity of the LED package.” The present invention incorporates the above teachings of Carey '024, it being noted as significant Carey '024's illumination that the LED “ . . . electrical leads are the primary thermal paths . . . . ” The present invention incorporates Carey '024's observation on electrical leads being the primary thermal paths into the present invention's TM and as vis-a-via other electronic elements as well.
In reference to U.S. Pat. No. 6,517,218 issued February 2003 to Hochstein (Hochstein '218), Hochstein '218 teaches that (col. 1, line 13) “Assemblies in the prior art include a light emitting diode (LED) with first and second electrical leads for conducting electricity to and from said light emitting diode, and a heat sink.” The present invention incorporates Hochstein '218's teachings of utilizing a heat-sink as part of the electrical circuitry for energizing an assembly's LED(s).
In reference to U.S. Pat. No. 6,561,680 issued May 2003 to Shih (Shih '680), Shih '680 teaches that (col. 1, line 15) “recent developments in making high temperature and high brightness LEDs have expanded the use of LEDs. . . . Even with new high-temperature LED technology, however, LEDs still exhibit a substantial decrease in light output when the temperature of the LED junction increases. For example, an increase of 75° C. at the junction temperature may cause the level of luminous flux to be reduced to one-half of its room temperature value. This phenomenon limits the amount of output from conventional LEDs.” The present invention teaches away from Shih '680 by providing “active” TM which allows for the capture and utilization of Shih '680's referenced “ . . . one-half . . . ” reduction in light-output due to high operating temperature.
In reference to U.S. Pat. No. 6,634,771 issued October 2003 to Cao (Cao '771), Cao '771 teaches of (col. 10, line 7) “a thermoelectric cooler located on said heat sink, said thermoelectric cooler experiencing a decrease in temperature when exposed to a voltage, an air entrance, an air exit, and an interior airflow path through said secondary heat sink, said airflow path permitting air to enter said heat sink through said air entrance, absorb heat from said secondary heat sink and exit said heat sink through said air exit, air located within said enclosure, a fan within said enclosure for bringing air into said air entrance and forcing air through said airflow path and through said air exit.” The present invention improves on Cao '771 with the novel application of the present invention's “active” sensor feedback, ion-pump-fan, ferrite-torus, the other elements and said elements multiple roles in the present invention's TM.
In reference to U.S. Pat. No. 7,140,753 issued November 2006 to Wang et al. (Wang '753), Wang '753 teaches that (col. 1, line 29) “A conventional method for dissipating heat from modulized LEDs is to enlarge a heat dissipating plate. This increases the direct contact area between the modulized LEDs and the heat dissipation plate. Further, a fan providing an air-cooling function can be added. In addition to incurring further costs, significant heat still remains thereby reducing luminance. Hence, an improvement over the prior art is required to overcome these disadvantages.” The present invention directly addresses Wang '753's identified problems with the present art.
In reference to U.S. Pat. No. 7,178,941 issued February 2007 to Roberge et al (Roberge '941), Roberge '941 teaches that (col. 67, line 65) “8. A method of claim 1, further comprising providing a fan for circulating air within the housing to dissipate heat from the light sources and the power facility.” (col. 68, line 1) “9. A method of claim 8, further comprising providing a thermal sensor wherein the fan operates in response to a temperature condition sensed by the thermal sensor.” The present invention teaches away from Roberge '941 by ignoring the “thermal” condition of the overall device and, rather, measuring light-output as the controller of the present invention's TM.
In reference to U.S. Pat. No. 7,188,984 issued March 2007 to Sayers et al (Sayers '984), Sayers '984 teaches that (col. 1, line 35) “Incandescent lights . . . ” (col. 1, line 45) “Most of the electrical energy they consume is wasted in the form of heat while less than 7% of the energy they consume is typically radiated as visible light.” (col. 1, line 64) “Moreover, the illuminance of an incandescent light source depreciates over time. It is very common for a filament type light source . . . to loose more than 25% of its output when compared to the initial output of the bulb.” (col. 2, line 1) “Very long life halogen bulbs may loose up to 50% of their output over their useful life.” The present invention directly addresses the problem of present art incandescent and halogen light sources as both experience significant degradation in serviceable light output over their service life. Thru its “active” TM regime, the present invention provides the ability to maintain an initial illumination level throughout the present invention's service life, this facet being a direct improvement over the present art incandescent (Sayers '984), the halogen and the present art LED illumination products commercially available.
In reference to U.S. Pat. No. 7,210,832 issued May 2007 to Huang (Huang '832), Huang '832 teaches that (col. 1, line 41) “As a high-power or high-brightness illumination apparatus of light emitting diodes concerned, such as above 30-100 W (watt), it is hard to design an effective heat dissipation means for the LED illumination apparatus without fans. A traditional method of solving the heat dissipation problem is adapting a plurality of cooling fins attached on a base of the illumination apparatus and the heat generated from the light emitting diodes is conducted to the cooling fins via the base, then using an electric fan to blow the heat away, and thereby the heat is dissipated away. As the above-mentioned descriptions the traditional method of heat dissipation usually requires a large space for setting up the plurality of cooling fins near the illumination apparatus and further needs to install an electric fan, that causes noise and reliability problems when it was used outdoors.” The present invention recognizes Huang '832 problem statement with the use of fans in the present art which “ . . . causes noise and reliability problems . . . ” and overcomes the present art's use of fans by the novel application of ion-pump-fan configuration(s) which do not cause noise and having no moving parts, directly addresses the inherent reliability problems as taught by Huang '832 with present art fans in applications of thermal-management of LED devices.
The present invention reduces to practice discoveries made by the present inventors during their investigations into present-art-perceived-difficulties in thermal-management applications of solid-state devices.
The present invention provides means and methods of integrating light-emitting-diodes (LED), other solid-state elements, or other solid-state end-use elements providing sensing, broadcasting or interacting with other electrical elements, into a thermal-energy-management configurations utilizing commonly encountered present art electrical socket(s) and electrical service(s) such as standard metal incandescent light bulb sockets and electrical service(s) such as 110 v. or 220 v. AC.
Specifically, the present invention incorporates ferrite-based torus (tori), thermoelectric(s), ion-pump-fan(s) and in some embodiments, sensing of desired output(s) of solid-state devices and/or wireless communication to said solid-state devices, with support solid-state elements, in novel ways, to achieve commercially viable thermal-management (TM) of said solid-state devices for the purposes of enhancing the performance and utility of said solid-state devices.
For the purpose of this discussion the term light-emitting-diodes (LED) may be assumed to be interchangeable with other thermally-sensitive solid-state devices such as but not limited to microprocessors, electro-illuminators, liquid-crystal-displays (LCD), nano-devices and similar devices.
An example of an embodiment of the present invention configures ferrite-based torus (tori), thermoelectric(s) and ion-pump-fan(s) with LEDs for use in usually encountered present art incandescent electric light bulb socketry with AC electrical service and dispensing with any additional modifications required of said existing incandescent electric light infrastructure. That is, the present invention incorporates the present inventors' discoveries, in novel ways, into a device similar in outward appearance to the typical present art incandescent light bulb or Edison-type light bulb (E-bulb) thereby providing solid-state advantages of lower energy consumption for a given unit of light output, longer service-life-expectancy; greater reliability, in a manner not apparent to the public or taught by the present art.
The non-apparent nature of the present invention, when applied as an incandescent electric light bulb substitute thru the use of thermally-sensitive LED(s), where both its outward appearance and usage are closely similar to that of the standard incandescent electric light bulb provides important economic viability characteristics. For example, the present invention, via its thermal-management (TM) means and methods, provides a heat signature similar to present art incandescent light bulbs.
Another example of the present thermal-management (TM) invention providing an appearance similar to the present art incandescent light bulb is its use of a structural element supporting the present invention's ion-pump-fan which is generally located in the center of the bulb and providing an appearance similar to the typically encountered illumination filament or stem found in present art incandescent light bulb.
A central aspect of the present invention, relating to the above example(s), is the use of one (1) or more torus (tori) in multiple roles of: a) transformer of AC to DC (or DC to AC) current, b) thermal-mass heat-sink, c) structural support for attachment of solid-state elements and said solid-state elements' physical structural support(s), d) physical protection from impact shock for said solid-state elements and electronic/electrical wiring from/to said solid-state elements, e) a central element of intended thermal energy flow-path structure, f) structural attachment to standard, present art, electrical light bulb socket, i.e. screw-in-bulb-metal-base, g) torus' hollow center providing a protected, armored, conduit for electric power service to said light-source and/or available use for locating heat-pipe type feature(s) or function(s) which are not inclusive of the present invention, and h) a conduit for fluid moved by the action of the present invention's ion-pump-fan(s). This invention's multi-use of a ferrite-based torus advances the present art in novel, non-apparent, ways.
Another central aspect of the present invention, relating to the above example(s), is the use of one (1) or more ion-pump-fan(s) in multiple roles of: 1) imparting movement on a fluid originating external from the present invention, said fluid passing by said electronic elements, thru and/or around said torus hollow and exiting out of said present invention, 2) providing an appearance similar to an incandescent bulb filament or stem, and 3) enhancing the thermal signature of the bulb enclosure in mimicking that of an incandescent light bulb. Inclusion of multi-pin or multiple ion-pump-fan(s) needles is anticipated by the present invention.
Yet another central aspect of the present invention is the multiple roles played by the present invention's faux-illumination-filament or stem, wherein the stem provides: i) said mimic filament, ii) a physical structural support for referenced ion-pump-fan(s), iii) influence on fluid-flow caused by either referenced ion-pump-fan's movement of said fluid or convection or both, and iv) structural support for one or more light-sensors, in the present invention's embodiment's use of a light-sensor, to control the thermal-management-affects on light output, (or in the TM of a microprocessor, the flip count), v) where said sensor or sensors are employed, the stem provides structural support for antenna(s) for use of wireless communication with said sensor or sensors to modify the sensitivity and/or setting of elements which can modify the present invention's thermal-management, and vi) in other embodiment(s) providing structural integrity to the present invention's physical manifestation by providing a physical and/or thermal load path from electrical socket to the crown of the bulb structure when said stem is structurally attached to said bulb structure crown.
Still another central aspect of the present invention is the multiple roles performed by the present invention's screw-base. In addition to the use of such screw-base allowing utilization of existing incandescent bulb sockets and electrical power supply and providing structural support, some of the present invention's embodiments utilize portions of said screw-base for the construction and electrifying the capacitor(s) for driving the present invention's ion-pump-fan(s).
Another central aspect of the present invention, relating to the above example(s), is the use of a standard incandescent electric light's glass bulb shape in multiple roles of: α) lightweight, transparent/translucent, physically protecting the overall device's solid-state elements, β) non-electrically-conductive enclosure, γ) high, selective, thermal conductivity characteristics providing for thermal transport directly away from thermal source(s) of solid-state element generated waste heat, δ) heat-spreader, ε) unrestricted air-mass flow past heat-spreader features, ξ) selected rough-surface-areas (near and/or on “top” or “crown” portion of bulb structure) of enhanced surface-areas to projected surface area for enhanced transfer of transferred waste-heat to passing air-mass. Said multi-facetted substitute of an incandescent electric light's glass bulb is preferably made of transparent/translucent polycarbonate (PC) and/or polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and/or reinforced polymer composite(s) (FRCs) including but not limited to compositions of thermally conductive carbon fibers and/or nano-fibers.
The objects of this novel design are numerous.
The invention is exemplified in the combination and arrangement of parts shown in the accompanying drawings and described in the following specification and it is more particularly pointed out in the appended claims. Any one of these characteristics alone will aid in enhancing the performance of thermally sensitive solid-state devices and will make possible better control of said thermally sensitive solid-state devices performance, and a complete solution of the difficulties associated with thermally sensitive solid-state devices is readily possible by employing an two or more of these characteristics in combination.
The invention has for its object the provision of thermal-management (TM) which is more convenient and flexible in its application than TM schemes heretofore devised, which is economical to integrate with existing thermally sensitive solid-state devices, to manufacture, convenient to install, and which will permit higher desired-output to energy-input ratio(s) for said thermally sensitive solid-state devices such as LED light-output than was heretofore possible.
A further object of the invention is to provide a method for reducing the intensity of mechanical stresses exerted on semiconductive devices by the material in which they are encased by providing a thermally stable micro-environment.
Still another object of the invention is to provide such novel TM that can be energized by standard electrical current of 120 volts or 220 volts A.C.″
Another object of the present invention is to provide a TM/LED lamp that generates the desired spectrum in a bright and substantially uniform pattern so that the light therefrom may be observed from a distance over a wide range of viewing angles.
Still another object of the present invention is to provide an improved TM/LED lamp construction that readily and more efficiently replaces existing incandescent bulbs heretofore in use.
A still further object of the present invention is to provide an improved TM/LED lamp construction that can be economically manufactured and made adaptable for use in a wide variety of household, commercial and industrial lighting applications.
It is a general object of this invention to provide a TM/LED lighting system which is automatic in operation. The provision of a TM/LED lighting device of the character referred to above constitutes a principal object of this invention.
This invention relates generally to semiconductor devices and more particularly to protecting the junctions of such thermally sensitive devices.
The main stimulant behind development of the present invention's thermal-management (TM) means and methods has been its use to radically improve the efficiency of incandescent lamp alternatives based on light-emitting-diodes. Up to the present time this scheme has not been commercially successful because the known present art TM has not addressed the numerous inherent limitations of thermoelectric devices, moving-part-fans, and failure to directly address the intended, desired, output and the controlling aspect of the TM chosen. Numerous efforts have been made to provide an LED lighting fixture whereby the waste-heat generated in the fixture would be prevented from causing deterioration. While certain of the present art schemes offer solutions to the heat transfer problems, none has provided a satisfactory degree of thermal-management.
The present invention's preferred embodiment is as a replacement/substitution for a commonly encountered incandescent light bulb, as described herein and best described and presented as shown in the accompanying
The reader should note, lower case italic letters, on drawings, reference identical elements of the design from drawing to drawing, while superscript Arabic numbers on said lower case italic letters reference FIGURE Nos., and stand alone Arabic numbers are references to cross-sectional aspects from drawing to drawing. The sequence of FIGURES, beginning with