US 20080311882 A1
A personal alarm system includes a monitoring base station and one or more remote sensing units in two-way radio communication. An electronic handshake between the base station and each remote unit is used to assure system reliability. The remote units transmit at selectable power levels. In the absence of an emergency, a remote unit transmits at a power-conserving low power level. Received field strength is measured to determine whether a remote unit has moved beyond a predetermined distance from the base station. If the distance is exceeded, the remote unit transmits at a higher power level. The remote unit includes sensors for common hazards including water emersion, smoke, excessive heat, excessive carbon monoxide concentration, and electrical shock. The base station periodically polls the remote units and displays the status of the environmental sensors. The system is useful in child monitoring, for use with invalids, and with employees involved in activities which expose them to environmental risk. Alternative embodiments include a panic button on the remote unit for summoning help, and an audible beacon on the remote unit which can be activated from the base station and useful for locating strayed children. In another embodiment, the remote unit includes a Global Positioning System receiver providing location information for display by the base station.
1. A personal alarm system remote unit having a radio transmitter, a radio receiver, a navigational receiver, the navigational receiver providing remote unit location information, and the remote unit including a manually operated switch, wherein:
the radio transmitter and the radio receiver comprises a cellular telephone providing a two-way communication link with a microphone and speaker connected for two-way voice communication, the navigational receiver being connected to the cellular telephone for cellular data transmission of the remote unit location information from the remote unit to a safety response center;
the cellular telephone is configured so that activation of the manually operated switch initiates a call to a predetermined telephone number of a safety response center to transmit from the remote unit to the safety response center remote unit location information provided by said navigational receiver and to open a voice channel between the remote unit and the safety response center.
2. A personal alarm system remote unit as claimed in
3. A personal alarm system remote unit as claimed in
4. A method for determining the location of a personal alarm system remote unit, the method comprising:
providing a remote unit as claimed in
5. A method as claimed in
using computation means to combine the received demodulated navigational information and the time information to determine the location of the remote unit.
6. A method as claimed in
This application is a continuation application that claims the benefit under 35 U.S.C. § 120 of U.S. application Ser. No. 11/493,935 entitled “MULTI-HAZARD ALARM SYSTEM USING SELECTABLE POWER-LEVEL TRANSMISSION AND LOCALIZATION,” filed on Jul. 25, 2006, which is a continuation application that claims the benefit under 35 U.S.C. § 120 of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/695,560, entitled “SELF-LOCATING ALARM SYSTEM EQUIPPED PARACHUTE,” filed on Oct. 27, 2003, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/216,033, entitled “PORTABLE, SELF-LOCATING SMART DEFRIBILLATOR SYSTEM,” filed on Aug. 10, 2002, which is a continuation-in part of U.S. application Ser. No. 10/010,971, entitled “SELF-LOCATING ALARM SYSTEM EQUIPPED PARACHUTE,” filed on Dec. 4, 2001, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/728,167, entitled “VOICE-ACTIVATED PERSONAL ALARM”, filed on Dec. 1, 2000, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/325,030, entitled “SELF-LOCATING REMOTE MONITORING SYSTEMS,” filed on Jun. 3, 1999, which is a continuation of U.S. application Ser. No. 08/849,998, entitled “SELF-LOCATING REMOTE MONITORING SYSTEMS,” filed on Jul. 6, 1998, which is a U.S. National stage entry of PCT/US96/17473, filed on Oct. 28, 1996, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 08/330,901, entitled “MULTI-HAZARD ALARM SYSTEM USING SELECTABLE POWER-LEVEL TRANSMISSION AND LOCALIZATION,” filed on Oct. 27, 1994, of which U.S. application Ser. No. 08/547,026, entitled “SELF-LOCATING REMOTE MONITORING SYSTEMS,” filed on Oct. 23, 1995, is a continuation-in-part. Each of these above-referenced patent applications are hereby incorporated by reference in their entirety.
1. Field of Invention
This invention relates to personal alarm systems and in particular to such systems transmitting at a higher power level during emergencies.
2. Discussion of Related Art
Personal alarm systems are well known in the art (see for example U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,777,478, 5,025,247, 5,115,223, 4,952,928, 4,819,860, 4,899,135, 5,047,750, 4,785,291, 5,043,702, and 5,086,391). These systems are used to maintain surveillance of children. They are used to monitor the safety of employees involved in dangerous work at remote locations. They are even used to find lost or stolen vehicles and strayed pets.
These systems use radio technology to link a remote transmitting unit with a base receiving and monitoring station. The remote unit is usually equipped with one or more hazard sensors and is worn or attached to the person or thing to be monitored. When a hazard is detected, the remote unit transmits to the receiving base station where an operator can take appropriate action in responding to the hazard.
The use of personal alarm systems to monitor the activities of children has become increasingly popular. A caretaker attaches a small remote unit, no larger than a personal pager, to an outer garment of a small child. If the child wanders off or is confronted with a detectable hazard, the caretaker is immediately notified and can come to the child's aid. In at least one interesting application, a remote unit includes a receiver and an audible alarm which can be activated by a small hand-held transmitter. The alarm is attached to a small child. If the child wanders away in a large crowd, such as in a department store, the caretaker actives the audible alarm which then emits a sequence of “beeps” useful in locating the child in the same way one finds a car at a parking lot through the use of an auto alarm system.
A number of novel features have been included in personal alarm systems. Hirsh et al., U.S. Pat. No. 4,777,478, provide for a panic button to be activated by the child, or an alarm to be given if someone attempts to remove the remote unit from the child's clothing. Banks, U.S. Pat. No. 5,025,247, teaches a base station which latches an alarm condition so that failure of the remote unit, once having given the alarm, will not cause the alarm to turn off before help is summoned. Moody, U.S. Pat. No. 5,115,223, teaches use of orbiting satellites and triangulation to limit the area of a search for a remote unit which has initiated an alarm. In U.S. Pat. No. 4,952,928 to Carroll et al., and in U.S. Pat. No. 4,819,860 to Hargrove et al., the apparatus provides for the remote monitoring of the vital signs of persons who are not confined to fixed locations.
Ghahariiran, U.S. Pat. No. 4,899,135, teaches a child monitoring device using radio or ultra-sonic frequency to give alarm if a child wanders out of range or falls into water. Hawthorne, U.S. Pat. No. 4,785,291, teaches a distance monitor for child surveillance in which a unit worn by the child includes a radio transmitter. As the child moves out of range, the received field strength, of a signal transmitted by the child's unit, falls below a limit and an alarm is given.
Clinical experience in the emergency rooms of our hospitals has taught that a limited number of common hazards account for a majority of the preventable injuries and deaths among our toddler age children. These hazards include the child's wandering away from a safe or supervised area, water emersion, fire, smoke inhalation, carbon monoxide poisoning and electrical shock. Child monitoring devices, such as those described above, have been effective in reducing the number of injuries and deaths related to these common preventable hazards.
However, considering the importance of our children's safety, there remains room for improvement of these systems. One such area for improvement relates to increasing the useful life of a battery used to power the remote unit of these toddler telemetry systems, as they have come to be called.
The remote unit is typically battery operated and, in the event of an emergency, continued and reliable transmission for use in status reporting and direction finding is of paramount importance. In other words, once the hazard is detected and the alarm given, it is essential that the remote unit continue to transmit so that direction finding devices can be used to locate the child.
The remote unit of most child monitoring systems is typically quite small and the available space for a battery is therefore quite limited. Despite recent advances in battery technology, the useful life of a battery is typically related to the battery size. For example, the larger “D” cell lasting considerably longer than the much smaller and lighter “AAA” cell. Though the use of very low power electronic circuits has made possible the use of smaller batteries, a battery's useful life is still very much a factor of its physical size, which, as stated above, is limited because of the small size of a typical remote unit. Therefore, additional efforts to reduce battery drain are important.
Given that much reliance is placed on the reliability of any child monitoring system, it would be desirable for the remote unit to transmit at a low power or not at all when no danger exists. In this way battery life is increased and system reliability is improved overall, since the hazards are usually the exception rather than the rule.
It is an object of the present invention to provide a personal alarm system in which the battery operated remote unit normally transmits at low power and switches to a higher power when the distance between the remote unit and base station exceeds a predetermined limit.
It is also an object of the present invention to provide such a system which includes sensors for the hazardous conditions typically confronting young children.
It is a further object of the present invention to provide such a personal alarm system which includes a periodic handshake exchange between the remote unit and base station to demonstrate that the system continues to be operational.
In accordance with the above objects and those that will become apparent below, a so personal alarm system is provided, comprising:
a remote unit including radio transmitting means and radio receiving means;
the remote unit transmitting means being able to transmit at more than one power level and defining a higher power level;
a base station including radio transmitting means and radio receiving means;
the remote unit and the base station being in radio communication and defining a separation distance between the remote unit and the base station;
measuring means for determining whether the separation distance exceeds a predetermined limit;
means responsive to the measuring means for causing the remote unit transmitting means to transmit at the higher power level when the separation distance exceeds the limit; and
alarm means for indicating when the separation distance exceeds the limit.
In one embodiment of the invention, the base station transmits a periodic polling signal and the remote unit monitors the field strength of the received polling signal. If the received field strength falls below a limit, corresponding to some maximum distance between the two devices, the remote unit transmits at high power. The signal transmitted at high power includes an indication that transmission is at high power. When this signal is received by the base station, an alarm is given. The remote unit also is equipped to detect one or more hazards.
In another embodiment of the invention, there are multiple remote units each able to identify itself by including a unit identification number in its transmitted signal. The remote unit is equipped to detect one or more hazards and to identify detected hazards in its transmission. The base station is able to display the transmitting unit identification number and the type of any detected hazard.
In another embodiment, the base station, rather than the remote unit, measures the field strength of the received remote unit transmission and instructs the remote unit to transmit at high power when the received field strength falls below a preset limit.
In another embodiment, the remote unit includes both visual and audible beacons which can be activated by the base station for use in locating the child.
In another embodiment, the remote unit includes a panic button which the child or concerned person can use to summon help.
In another embodiment, the base station includes the ability to initiate a phone call via the public telephone system, for example by initiating a pager message to alert an absent caretaker.
In another embodiment, the remote unit includes a global positioning system (“GPS”) receiver which is activated if a hazard is detected or if the child wanders too far from the base station. The remote unit then transmits global positioning coordinates from the GPS receiver. These coordinates are received by the base station and used in locating the child. In an alternative embodiment, the remote unit is attached to a child, pet or vehicle and the GPS receiver is activated by command from the base station. The global positioning coordinates are then used by the base station operator to locate the remote unit.
In another embodiment, the remote unit is worn by an employee doing dangerous work at a remote location such as an electrical power lineman repairing a high voltage power line. The remote unit is equipped with a GPS receiver and an electrical shock hazard sensor and the remote unit will instantly transmit the workman's location in the event of electrical shock. The device will permit an emergency medical crew to rapidly find and give aid to the injured workman and possibly save a life.
It is an advantage of the present invention to periodically test system integrity by exchanging an electronic handshake and giving an alarm in the event of failure.
It is also an advantage of the present invention to prolong the remote unit battery life by transmission at low power in the absence of a defined emergency.
It is also an advantage of the present invention that the system is able to detect and give alarm for a number of common and dangerous hazards.
It is a further advantage of the present invention to permit rapid and precise location of the remote unit which is equipped with a GPS receiver.
For a further understanding of the objects, features and advantages of the present invention, reference should be had to the following description of the preferred embodiment, taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, in which like parts are given like reference numerals and wherein:
With reference to
In a preferred embodiment, the base station 14 includes an interval timer 24 which causes the transmitter 20 to transmit at predetermined intervals. The receiver 13 of the remote unit 12 receives the signal transmitted by the base station 14 and causes the transmitter 16 to transmit a response to complete an electronic handshake.
The remote unit transmitter 16 is capable of transmitting at an energy conserving low-power level or at an emergency high-power level. When the distance between the remote unit 12 and the base station 14 exceeds a predetermined limit, the remote unit responds at the higher power level.
To accomplish the shift to the higher power level, the remote unit receiver 18 generates a signal 26 which is proportional to the field strength of the received signal, transmitted by the base station 14. The remote unit 12 includes a comparitor 28 which compares the magnitude of the field strength signal 26 with a predetermined limit value 30 and generates a control signal 32.
The remote unit transmitter 16 is responsive to a circuit 34 for selecting transmission at either the low-power level or at the high-power level. The circuit 34 is connected to the control signal 32 and selects transmission at the low-power level when the received field strength equals or exceeds the limit value 30, and at the higher power level when the received field strength is less than the limit value 30. Alternatively, the remote unit transmitter 16 transmits at one of a selectable plurality of transmission power levels. In another alternative embodiment, transmission is selectable within a continuous range of transmission power levels.
Within an operating range of the personal alarm system 10, the field strength of the base station 14 transmitted signal when received at the remote unit 12 is inversely proportional to the fourth power (approximately) of the distance between the two units. This distance defines a ‘separation distance,’ and the predetermined limit value 30 is selected to cause transmission at the higher power level at a desired separation distance within the operating range.
In another embodiment, the remote unit 12 includes a hazard sensor 36 which is connected to the transmitter 16. The hazard sensor 36 is selected to detect one of the following common hazards, water immersion, fire, smoke, excessive carbon monoxide concentration, and electrical shock. In one embodiment, a detected hazard causes the remote unit 12 to transmit a signal reporting the existence of the hazardous condition at the moment the condition is detected. In another embodiment, the hazardous condition is reported when the response to the periodic electronic handshake occurs.
In one embodiment, the base station 14 includes an audible alarm 38 which is activated by the receiver 22. If the remote unit fails to complete the electronic handshake or reports a detected hazard or indicates it is out of range by sending an appropriate code, the base station alarm 38 is activated to alert the operator.
The second remote unit 44 includes a separate identification number 66, but is otherwise identical to the first remote unit 42.
The base station 46 includes a transmitter 68, an interval timer 70, a receiver 72, an alarm 74 and an ID-Status display 76.
In one embodiment of the invention illustrated in
It will also be understood that each remote unit 42 may have a different predetermined limit value 58. The limit value 58 defines a distance between the remote unit 42 and the base station 46 beyond which the remote unit will transmit at its higher power level. If a number of remote units are being used to monitor a group of children, in a school playground for example, the limit values of each remote unit may be set to a value which will cause high power transmission if the child wanders outside the playground area. In other applications, the limit value 58 of each remote unit 42 may be set to a different value corresponding to different distances at which the individual remote units will switch to high power transmission.
In one embodiment, the base station 46 will provide an alarm 74 whenever a remote unit transmits at high power or reports the detection of a hazard. The identification number of the reporting remote unit and an indication of the type of hazard is displayed by the base station on the ID-Status display 76. This information can be used by the operator, for example a day-care provider, to decide what response is appropriate and whether immediate caretaker notification is required. If a child has merely wandered out of range, the provider may simply send an associate out to get the child and return her to the play area. On the other hand, a water immersion hazard indication should prompt immediate notification of caretakers and emergency personnel and immediate action by the day-care employees.
In another embodiment, the remote unit receiver 50 determines that the separation distance between the remote unit 42 and the base station 46 exceeds the predetermined threshold. The remote unit transmitter 48 transmits a code or status bit to indicate that fact.
In an embodiment illustrated in
In an embodiment illustrated in
The remote unit 82 includes a transmitter 86, a receiver 88, a power level select circuit 90, an ID number 92, a visual beacon 94, an audible beacon 96, a watchdog timer 98, a plurality of hazard sensors 100 including a water immersion sensor 102, a smoke sensor 104, a heat sensor 106, a carbon monoxide sensor 108, a tamper switch 109, and an electrical shock sensor 110, an emergency switch (“panic button”) 112, a battery 113, and a ‘low battery power’ sensor 114.
The base station 84 includes a transmitter 116, a receiver 118 which produces a received field strength signal 120, a comparitor 122, a predetermined limit value 124, a comparitor output signal 126, an interval timer 128, control signals 130 and 132, a visual alarm 134, an audible alarm 136, an ID and Status display 138, a circuit 140 for initiating a phone call and a connection 142 to the public telephone system.
The base station 84 and a plurality of the remote units 82 illustrated in the embodiment of
With reference to
In an alternative embodiment, the remote unit transmitter is adapted to transmit at one of a plurality of transmission power levels and the single command bit 186 is replaced with a multi-bit command sub-field for selection of a power level. In another embodiment, the remote unit transmitter is adapted to transmit at a power level selected from a continuum of power levels and a multi-bit command sub-field is provided for the power level selection.
Again with respect to
The message 180 is received by all remote units and the remote unit to which the message is directed (by the coded field 184) responds by transmitting its identification number 152 and current status, bits 154-170. The remote unit identification number 92 is connected to the transmitter 86 for this purpose.
In the embodiment illustrated in
In one embodiment, the selection of the limit value 124 is accomplished by the manufacturer by entering the value into a read-only memory device. In another embodiment, the manufacturer uses manually operated switches to select the predetermined limit value 124. In another embodiment, the manufacturer installs jumper wires to select the predetermined limit value 124. In yet another embodiment, the user selects a predetermined limit value 124 using manually operated switches.
The remote unit transmitter 86 is capable of transmitting at a power-conserving lower power level and also at an emergency higher power level. Upon receiving a message 180 including the remote unit identification number 184, the remote unit receiver passes the “go-to-high-power” command bit 186 to the power level select circuit 90 which is connected to command the remote unit transmitter 86 to transmit a response 150 at the higher power level. The response 150 includes status bit 166 used by the remote unit 82 to indicate that it is transmitting at high power.
In one embodiment, the remote unit includes the watchdog timer 98 (designated a ‘No Signal Timeout’) which is reset by the receiver 88 each time the remote unit 82 is polled. If no polling message 180 is received within the timeout period of the watchdog timer 98, the remote unit transmitter 86 is commanded to transmit a non-polled message 150.
In one embodiment of the invention, the remote unit 82 includes a manually operated switch (“panic button”) 112 which is connected to the transmitter 86 to command the transmission of a non-potted message 150. The panic button status bit 168 is set in the outgoing message 150 to indicate to the base station 84 that the panic button has been depressed. Such a button can be used by a child or invalid or other concerned person to bring help.
In another embodiment, the remote unit includes a tamper switch 109 which is activated if the remote unit is removed from the child, or is otherwise tampered with. The activation of the tamper switch 109 causes the remote unit to transmit a code or status bit to the base unit to identify the cause of the change of status (‘Tamper’ status bit 171 illustrated in
In another embodiment, the remote unit 82 includes a circuit 114 which monitors battery power. The circuit 114 is connected to initiate a non-polled message 150 if the circuit determines that battery power has fallen below a predetermined power threshold. The message 150 will include the “low-battery-power” status bit 170. In an alternative embodiment, a low battery power level will initiate a remote unit transmission at the higher power level (see
In the embodiment illustrated in
In another embodiment of the present invention, the base station receiver 118 is connected to a visual alarm 134 and an audible alarm 136 and will give an alarm when a message 150 is received which includes any hazard sensor report 154 or any of the status bits 166-170.
The base station 84 also includes the status and ID display 138 used to display the status of all remote units in the personal alarm system 80.
In another embodiment of the personal alarm system 80, the base station 84 includes a circuit 140 for initiating a telephone call when an emergency occurs. The circuit 140 includes the telephone numbers of persons to be notified in the event of an emergency. A connection 142 is provided to a public landline or cellular telephone system. The circuit 140 can place calls to personal paging devices, or alternatively place prerecorded telephone messages to emergency personnel, such as the standard “911” number.
In a preferred embodiment of the alarm system, the remote unit transmitter 204 is connected to receive the global positioning coordinates from the GPS receiver 210 for transmission to the base station 200.
The GPS receiver 210 determines its position and provides that position in global positioning coordinates to the transmitter 204. The global position coordinates of the remote unit 202 are transmitted to the base station 200. The base station receiver 212 provides the received global positioning coordinates on line 222 to display 214 and to coordinate converter 216. The display 214 displays the global coordinates in a world-wide coordinate system such as longitude and latitude.
In one embodiment of the alarm system, the coordinate converter 216 receives the global positioning coordinates from line 222 and converts these into a preferred local coordinate system A display 218 receives the converted coordinates and displays the location of the remote unit 202 as a map for easy location of the transmitting remote unit 202.
In another embodiment of the alarm system the GPS receiver 210 includes a low power standby mode and a normal operating mode. The GPS receiver 210 remains in the standby mode until a hazard is detected and then switches to the normal operating mode.
In another embodiment of the alarm system, the GPS receiver 210 remains in the standby mode until commanded by the base station 200 to enter the normal operating mode (see command bit 189 illustrated in
In another embodiment of the alarm system, the remote unit transmitter 204 is connected to the hazard sensors 201-205 for transmission of detected hazards. The base station receiver 212 is connected to activate the alarm 213 upon detection of a hazard.
In one embodiment, a conventional electrical shock sensor 205 includes a pair of electrical contacts 207 which are attached to the skin of a user for detection of electrical shock.
In another embodiment, the remote unit 202 includes a transmit interval timer 209 and an ID number 211. The timer 209 is connected to cause the remote unit to transmit the ID number at predetermined intervals. The base station 200 includes a watchdog timer 219 adapted to activate the alarm 213 if the remote unit fails to transmit within the prescribed interval.
In another embodiment of the alarm system, the remote unit 202 includes a carbon monoxide concentration sensor (see 108 of
The man-over-board system 300 includes a remote unit 302, having a navigational receiver 304 and antenna 306 for receiving navigational information, a sensor 308, having an output signal 310, a manually operated switch 312, a radio transmitter 314 having an antenna 316. The man-over-board system 300 also includes a base station 318 having a radio receiver 320 connected to an antenna 322 for receiving radio transmissions from the remote unit 302. The base station 318 also includes a display 324 for displaying the navigational location of the remote unit 302, a display 326 for displaying the status of the sensor 308, a circuit 328 for comparing the field strength of the received radio transmission with a predetermined limit 330, and an alarm 332 which is activated when the received field strength 334 falls below the value of the limit 330.
In use, the remote unit 302 is worn by a user and an alarm will be given if the user falls over board and drifts too far from the boat. The navigational receiver 304 receives navigational information, as for example from global positioning satellites 336. The navigational receiver 304 converts the navigational information into a location of the remote unit 302 and outputs the location 338 to the radio transmitter 314 for transmission to the base station 318.
The sensor 308 provides an output signal 310 and defines a sensor status. The output signal 310 is connected to the radio transmitter 314 for transmitting the sensor status to the base station 318.
The manually operated switch 312 includes an output 340 which is connected to the radio transmitter 314 and permits the user to signal the base station 318 by operating the switch 312. In a preferred embodiment, the manually operated switch 312 defines a panic button.
The radio receiver 320 provides three outputs, the received location 342 of the remote unit 302, the received sensor status 344, and an output signal 334 proportional to the field strength of the received radio transmission. As described above with respect to
In heavy seas or poor visibility, the base station 318 displays the current location of the remote unit 302 on a suitable display 324. This is done in some appropriate coordinate system, such as standard longitude and latitude. This feature permits the base station to maintain contact with the man-over-board despite failure to maintain direct eye contact.
The remote unit 352 includes a navigational receiver 356, a radio transmitter 358, a circuit 360 for causing the radio transmitter 358 to transmit at a high power level, a radio receiver 362, and circuits 364 for activating a beacon.
The base station 354 includes a radio receiver 366, a radio transmitter 368, a display 370 for displaying the location of the remote unit 352, a compactor circuit 372, a predetermined limit 374, an alarm 376, and control circuits 378 for activating the radio transmitter 368.
The navigational receiver 356 is connected to an antenna 380 for receiving navigational information, such as from global positioning system satellites (not shown). The receiver provides the location 382 of the remote unit 352 for radio transmission to the base station 354.
The remote unit radio transmitter 358 and radio receiver 362 are connected to an antenna 384 for communication with the base station 354. The base station radio receiver 366 and radio transmitter 378 are connected to an antenna 386 for communication with the remote unit 352.
The base station radio receiver 366 provides two outputs, the location 388 of the remote unit for display by the location display 370, and a signal 390 whose value is inversely proportional to the field strength of the signal received by the radio receiver 366.
The received field strength signal 390 and the predetermined limit 374 are compared by the comparitor circuit 372 to determine whether the remote unit 352 is separated from the base station 354 by a distance greater than the predetermined limit 374. An alarm 376 is given when the separation distance exceeds the limit.
The control circuits 378 are used to cause the radio transmitter 368 to send a control signal to the remote unit 352 for selecting high-power remote unit radio transmission, or activating a visual or audible beacon for use in locating the user in heavy seas or bad visibility.
The remote unit 402 includes a navigational receiver 406, a radio transmitter 408, storage circuits 410 for storing information defining a geographical region, a comparitor 412, second storage circuits 414 for storing information defining a predetermined positional status, an alarm 416, and a circuit 418 and having a pair of electrical contacts 420, 422 for providing a mild electrical shock.
The base station 404 includes a radio receiver 424, a comparitor 426, storage circuits 428 for storing information defining a predetermined positional status, and an alarm 430.
In the embodiment illustrated in
Other applications are keeping a pet inside the yard, and applying a mild electrical shock to the pet if it wanders too close to a defined perimeter. Attaching the remote unit 402 to a child and alerting the caregiver in the event the child strays from a permitted area. Placing the remote unit around the ankle of a person on parole or probation and giving an alarm if the parolee strays from a permitted area. The invisible fence can also be used to monitor movement of inanimate objects whose locations may change as the result of theft.
The remote unit navigational receiver 406 provides the location 432 of the remote unit. In a preferred embodiment, the storage circuits 410 are inplemented using ROM or RAM, as for example within an embedded microprocessor. Consideration of
The information which defines these geographical regions and boundaries is stored in the storage circuits 410, and serve as one input to the comparitor 412 (
Some examples will be useful in explaining how the positional status is used. Referring to
For the first example, assume that the location 494 is “within a defined geographical region,” and that the location 496 is “outside the defined geographical region.” Assume also that the predetermined positional status is that “locations within the defined region are acceptable.” Next assume that the navigational receiver 406 reports the location 494 for the remote unit. Then the comparitor 412 will define a positional status that “the location of the remote unit relative to the defined region is acceptable.” This positional status will be transmitted to the base station 404 and will not result in activation of the alarm 430.
For the next example, assume that the navigational receiver 406 reports the location of the remote unit to be the location 496, and that the other assumptions remain the same. Then the comparitor 412 will define a positional status that “the location of the remote unit relative to the defined region is not acceptable.” This positional status will be transmitted to the base station 404 and will result in activation of the alarm 430.
For the next example refer to
In a preferred embodiment, and given these assumptions in the preceding paragraph, the comparitor 412 will determine that the location 498 is acceptable and will take no further action. The comparitor 412 will determine that the location 500 is within the warning subregion 484 and will activate the remote unit alarm 416 to warn the person whose movements are being monitored that he has entered a warning zone. When the remote unit 402 arrives at the location 502, the comparitor 412 will determine that the remote unit has entered a prohibited zone and will activate the mild electric shock circuit 418 which makes contact with the skin of the monitored person through the electrical contacts 420, 422. The positional status reported by the remote unit 402 for the successive locations 498, 500 and 502 is “acceptable,” “warning given,” and “enforcement necessary,” respectively.
In another embodiment, no enforcement or warning are given by the remote unit 402. Instead, as when used to monitor the movements of children or elderly patients, the positional status is transmitted to the base station 404. There it is compared with a stored predetermined positional status and used to set an alarm 430 if the positional status is not acceptable. The predetermined positional status is stored in storage circuits 428 and the comparison is made by the comparitor 426.
The preferred embodiment for the storage and comparison circuits is the use of an embedded microprocessor.
The remote unit 522 includes a radio transmitter 526 and a radio receiver 528 connected to a shared antenna 530. The base station 524 includes a radio receiver 532 and a radio transmitter 534 connected to a shared antenna 536 and defining a two-way communication link with the remote unit 522.
In one preferred embodiment, the communication link is direct between the respective transmitters 526, 534 and the corresponding receivers 528, 532. Other embodiments include access to existing commercial and private communications networks for completing the communication link between the remote unit 522 and the base station 524. Typical networks include a cellular telephone network 538, a wireless communications network 540, and a radio relay network 542.
The remote unit 552 includes storage circuits 556 for storing information defining the location of the remote unit 552, at least one sensor 558, a radio transmitter 560, and an antenna 562.
The base station 554 includes an antenna 564, a radio receiver 566, a display 568 for displaying the location of the remote unit 552, a comparitor 570, storage circuits 572 for storing information defining a predetermined sensor status, and an alarm 574.
The environmental monitoring system 550 is useful for applications in which the remote unit 552 remains in a fixed location which can be loaded into the storage circuits 556 when the remote unit 552 is activated. Such applications would include use in forests for fire perimeter monitoring in which the sensor 558 was a heat sensor, or in monitoring for oil spills when attached to a fixed buoy and the sensor 558 detecting oil. Other useful applications include any application in which the location is known at the time of activation and in which some physical parameter is to be measured or detected, such as smoke, motion, and mechanical stress. The environmental monitoring system 550 offers an alternative to pre-assigned remote unit ID numbers, such as those used in the systems illustrated in
The storage circuits 556 provide an output 576 defining the location of the remote unit 552. This output is connected to the radio transmitter 560 for communication with the base station 554. The sensor 558 provides an output signal 578 defining a sensor status. The output signal is connected to the radio transmitter 560 for communication of the sensor status to the base station 554.
The communications are received by the base stations radio receiver 566 which provides outputs representing both the location 580 of the remote unit 552 and the sensor status 582. The location 580 is connected to the display 568 so that the location of the remote unit 552 can be displayed. The comparitor 570 receives the sensor status 582 and the information defining the predetermined sensor status which is stored in the storage circuits 572. If the comparitor 570 determines that the sensor status indicates an alarm situation, it activates the alarm 574 to alert a base station operator.
The remote unit 602 includes a navigational receiver 606, a demodulator circuit 608, a precise time-of-day circuit 610, a sensor 612, and a radio transmitter 614.
The base station 604 includes a radio receiver 616, computational circuits 618 for computing the location of the remote unit 602, a display 620 for displaying the computed location, a second display (can be part of the first display) 622 for displaying a sensor status, a comparitor 624, storage circuits 626 for storing information defining a predetermined sensor status, and an alarm 628.
In a preferred embodiment, the navigational receiver 606 receives navigational information from global positioning system satellites (not shown). In this embodiment, the raw navigational information is demodulated by the demodulator circuit 608 and the output of the demodulator 608 is connected to the radio transmitter 614 for communication to the base station 604.
The precise time-of-day circuits 610 provide the time-of-day information needed to compute the actual location of the remote unit based upon the demodulated navigational information. In the case of GPS navigational information, geometric dilution of precision computations are done at the base station 604 to derive the actual location of the remote unit 602.
The sensor 612 provides an output signal defining a sensor status. The demodulated navigational information, the precise time-of-day information and the sensor status are all connected to the radio transmitter 614 for communication to the base station 604.
At the base station 604, the radio receiver 616 provides the navigational and precise time-of-day information to the computation circuits 618 for determining the actual location. In a preferred embodiment, the computation is made using an embedded microprocessor. The computed location is displayed using the display 620.
The radio receiver 616 also provides the received sensor status which forms one input to the comparitor 624. Stored information defining a predetermined sensor status is provides by the storage circuits 626 as a second input to the comparitor 624. If the received sensor status and the stored sensor status do not agree, the comparitor 624 activates the alarm 628 to alert the base station operator.
The remote unit 652 includes a navigational receiver 656, a demodulator circuit 658, a precise time-of-day circuit 660, a radio transmitter 662, a radio receiver 664, a shared antenna 666, and control status circuits 668.
The base station 654 includes a radio receiver 670, a radio transmitter 672, a shared antenna 674, computation circuits 676, storage circuits 678, second storage circuits 680, a first comparitor 682, a second comparitor 684, a display 686, an alarm 688, and control circuits 690.
The navigational receiver 656 provides raw navigational information 692 to the demodulator circuit 658. The demodulator circuit 658 demodulates the raw navigational information and provides demodulated navigational information 694 to the radio transmitter 662 for communication to the base station 654. The precise time-of-day circuit 660 provides time-of-day information 696 to the radio transmitter 662 for communication to the base station 654.
The base station radio receiver 670 provides received navigational information 698 and received time-of-day information 700 to the computation circuits 676 for conversion to an actual location 702 of the remote unit 652. The storage circuits 678 store information defining a geographical region.
The first comparitor 682 receives the location 702 and the region defining information 704 and provides a positional status 706, as described above with respect to
The second storage circuits 680 store information 708 defining a predetermined positional status. The second comparitor 684 receives the positional status 706 and the predetermined positional status 708 and provides control output signals 710 based upon the results of the positional status comparison. When the location 702 is within a defined “warning” or “restricted” zone, the second comparitor 684 activates the alarm 688 and causes the location 702 to be displayed by the display 686.
In one preferred embodiment, the remote unit includes circuits 668 which provide a means by which the base station 654 can warn the remote unit user or enforce a restriction, as for example, by applying the mild electric shock of the embodiment shown in
The remote unit 752 includes a navigational receiver 756, a radio transmitter 758, an environmental sensor 760, at least one manually operated switch 762, a beacon 764, a circuit 766 for activating the navigational receiver 756, and a control circuit 768.
The base station 754 includes a radio receiver 770, a remote-unit location display 772, a sensor status display 774, an alarm 776, a switch status display 778, a control circuit 780, and storage 782 for a predetermined limit value.
The navigational receiver 756 receives navigational information via an antenna 757 and provides a location 759 of the remote unit to the radio transmitter 758 for transmitting the remote unit location 759. The navigational receiver 756 has a normal operational mode and a low-power standby mode. In a preferred embodiment, the navigational receiver 756 is normally in the low-power standby mode, thereby conserving operating power which is normally supplied by batteries.
The circuit 766 is responsive to the control circuit 768 for selecting the operational mode and thereby activating the navigational receiver. In a specific embodiment, the control circuit 768 is responsive to a hazard sensor 760, such as a water-immersion sensor, for controlling the circuit 766 to activate the navigational receiver 756. In another embodiment, the control circuit 768 is responsive to a manually operated switch 762, such as a manually operated panic button, for activating the navigational receiver 756.
In a specific embodiment, the sensor 760 provides an output signal 761, and defines a sensor status. The manually operated switch 762 provides an output signal 763, and defines a switch status. The control circuit 768 receives the sensor output signal 761 and the switch output signal 763, and connects each to the radio transmitter 758 for communication of the sensor status and the switch status to the base station 754.
In another specific embodiment, the control circuit 768 is connected for activating the remote unit beacon 764 in response to a change in the sensor status 761. In another embodiment, the control circuit 768 activates the beacon 764 in response to a change in the switch status 763. In one embodiment, the beacon 764 is a visual beacon, such as a flashing light. In another embodiment, the beacon 764 is an audible beacon which emits a periodic sound. The beacon 764 aids searchers in locating a man-over-board.
In a specific embodiment, the control circuit 768 is implemented using a programmed micro-processor. In another specific embodiment, the control circuit 768 is implemented using an imbedded, programmed micro-processor. In another embodiment the control circuit 768 is implemented using a programmed micro-controller.
The base-station radio receiver 770 receives the remote unit location 759, the sensor status, and the switch status. The radio receiver 770 is connected to the display 772 for displaying the received remote unit location, is connected to the display 774 for displaying the received sensor status, and is connected to the display 778 for displaying the switch status. In a specific embodiment, the radio receiver 770 is connected to the alarm 776 which is activated by a change in the sensor status, such as the detection of immersion in water. In another specific embodiment, the alarm is activated by a change in the switch status, such as a manual operation of the panic button.
The radio receiver 770 provides a signal 771 corresponding to a field strength of a received radio communication. The control circuit 780 compares the received field strength 771 with a predetermined limit value 783 provided by circuit 782. The control circuit 780 is connected to activate the alarm 776 when the received field strength is less than the predetermined limit value 783. The received field strength 771, the control circuit 780, and the predetermined limit value 783 define a separation distance between the remote unit 752 and the base station 754, as discussed above with respect to other embodiments of the invention.
In a specific embodiment, the control circuit 780 and the circuit 782 for providing the predetermined limit value 783 are implemented using a programmed micro-controller. In another specific embodiment, the circuit 780 and the circuit 782 are implemented using an embedded, programmed micro-controller. The functions performed by the circuits 780 and 782 are performed in different embodiments alternatively by discrete integrated circuits, by a programmed micro-controller, by an embedded, programmed micro-controller, by a programmed micro-processor, and by an embedded, programmed micro-processor.
In a specific embodiment of the man-over-board alarm system illustrated in
In another specific embodiment of the man-over-board alarm system illustrated in
The remote unit 852 includes a navigational receiver 856, a radio transmitter 858, a memory 860 for storing information defining a geographic region, a memory 862 for storing information defining a predetermined positional and time status, a circuit 863 for providing time-of-day information, a comparison circuit 864, and an enforcement and alarm circuit 865.
The base station 854 includes a radio receiver 866, a memory 868 for storing a predetermined positional and time status, a comparison circuit 870 and an alarm 872.
The invisible fence system illustrated in
In a specific embodiment of an invisible fence system, such as that illustrated in
With respect to the specific embodiment illustrated in
The navigational receiver 1026 provides information 1027 defining a location of the remote unit 1022, and is connected to the remote unit radio transmitter 1028 for communicating the remote unit location to the base station 1024. The transmitted remote unit location is received by the base station radio receiver 1034 and provided on line 1035 to the control/compare circuit 1038. The base station includes a circuit 1037 for providing time-of-day information 1039 to the control/compare circuit 1038.
In a specific embodiment, the control/compare circuit 1038 is implemented as part of a programmed, imbedded micro-processor/micro-controller. A memory of the imbedded micro-processor provides the memory 1040 for storage of information 1041 defining a geographical region, and the memory 1042 for storage of information 1043 defining a predetermined positional and time status. The imbedded micro-processor implementation of the control/compare circuit 1038 receives the remote unit location 1035, the time-of-day 1039, the information 1041 defining a geographical region, and the information 1043 defining a predetermined positional and time status.
In the previous example, the defined geographical region corresponded to the region 1002 (
In a specific embodiment of the invisible fence system shown in
In a specific embodiment of the invisible fence system of
Such an arrangement provides a radio link for communicating with the remote unit 1052 while not requiring the base station 1054 to include the necessary radio receiver and radio transmitter. In such a case, the base station includes a communications receiver and a communications transmitter which in one embodiment includes a radio communications facility and in another embodiment provides the modem capability. The modem 1060 permits the base station to be connected via standard land line communications, such as a commercial telephone network. Thus the standard communication channel 1064 includes a standard telephone network, communications satellites, relay type radio links and other common carrier technologies such as cellular telephone, wireless communications, and personal communications systems (“PCS”).
The circuit shown in
The remote unit 1182 includes a navigational receiver 1186, a weather receiver 1188, a radio transmitter 1190, region defining circuits 1192, weather threshold defining circuits 1194, information combining circuits 1196, and information comparison circuits 1198.
The base station 1184 includes a radio receiver 1200, a display circuit 1202, and an alarm 1204.
The weather alarm system 1180 operates generally as follows, the remote unit 1182 is deployed in the field, such as in a small, private aircraft and is used to monitor the weather within a zone surrounding the aircraft. As the aircraft moves, the zone surrounding the aircraft moves also. A navigational receiver 1186 is used to determine the location of the aircraft at any point in time. A weather receiver 1188 receives weather parameters broadcast by a Weather Surveillance Radar System of the US Weather Service, providing up-to-date weather information for the United States. The remote unit is programmed to monitor specific weather parameters within the zone surrounding the aircraft and to compare those parameters with programmed limits. In the event that one or more of the monitored parameters exceeds the programmed limit, the remote unit transmitter 1190 is activated and transmits the location 1187 of the aircraft. In some embodiments, specific weather parameters are also transmitted. The base station 1184 receives the transmission, displays 1202 the location and any transmitted weather parameters, and, if appropriate, gives an alarm 1204.
With respect once again to
The remote unit circuits 1194 define specific weather parameters to be monitored and also define specific threshold values, limits and ranges for use in monitoring the weather parameters. The defined values are designated generally by the numeral 1195 and in a specific embodiment are stored in a memory portion of a programmed micro-controller.
As the aircraft proceeds on its flight, the navigational receiver 1186 continues to provide a current location 1187, while the weather receiver 1188 continues to provide current weather information 1189. The location 1187 and the surrounding zone defining information 1193 are combined by circuits 1196 and define a zone relative to the weather reporting region (1222 in the example of
The remote unit 1272 includes only a navigational receiver 1276, providing a current location to a radio transmitter 1278 for transmission to a base station.
The base station 1274 includes a radio receiver 1280 for receiving the current location 1281, a weather receiver 1282 for receiving weather parameters, a region defining circuit 1284 for defining a zone relative to the current remote unit location, a weather threshold defining circuit 1286 for selecting specific weather parameters and for defining limits, thresholds, and ranges for the each selected weather parameter, an information combining circuit 1288 for combining the current location and the zone defining information, a comparison circuit 1290 for selecting the specified parameters within the zone relative to the current location, comparing the selected parameters within the zone with their individual limits, and activating an alarm 1294 and displaying 1292 the current location and comparison results when a monitored weather parameter within the defined distance of the remote unit exceeds its limit, falls below its defined threshold, and falls inside/outside of a defined range.
In the embodiment illustrated in
Though the description of
In a simple man-over-board monitor as illustrated in
In the same man-over-board monitor, when a panic button 312 is depressed, the transmitter 314 transmits the remote unit location 338 and the switch status 340.
In an environmental monitor illustrated in
The circuits 1308, 1310 and 1312 of
In a man-over-board monitor 752 illustrated in
Another example of a remote unit represented by the block diagram in
Another example of the remote unit represented by
When a microphone 808 is connected to the remote unit transmitter 806, as shown in
When the remote unit shown in
An example of a monitoring system such as illustrated in
The two examples that are provided above for a self-locating remote alarm unit which provides a stored value for the second variable are the environmental monitor of
While the foregoing detailed description has described several embodiments of the personal alarm system in accordance with this invention, it is to be understood that the above description is illustrative only and not limiting of the disclosed invention. Thus, the invention is to be limited only by the claims as set forth below.
The navigational receiver 1412 receives positioning information from geo-synchronous satellites via antenna 1422, and provides a global location 1424 of the remote unit for transmission by the radio transmitter 1414. The location 1424 is represented in appropriate coordinates.
The sensor and threshold detector 1416 provides an output signal 1426 that is activated when the sensor detects a condition that exceeds a predetermined threshold level. A variety of specific sensors is contemplated, including but not limited to the following: a glucose sensor for monitoring the blood-glucose level of a patient; an oxygen sensor for monitoring the oxygen level of the ambient air; a motion sensor for detecting movement in excess of a predetermined threshold; a light sensor for detecting ambient light in excess of a predetermined threshold; a liquid immersion sensor, a heat sensor for detecting temperature in excess of a predetermined threshold; a carbon-monoxide sensor; and a smoke detector.
The microphone 1418 and the voice-activated detector 1420 provide an output signal 1430 that becomes active when the voice-activated detector 1420 detects a predetermined spoken distress phrase such as “HELP!”
In a specific embodiment of the personal alarm system remote unit 1410, no sensor and threshold detector are included. In this embodiment, the radio transmitter 1414 is connected to transmit the remote unit location 1424 when the voice-activated detector output signal 1430 is active. This specific embodiment of the invention permits the remote unit to be worn or carried by a person and the person's global location will be transmitted via antenna 1428 when a predetermined distress phrase is detected.
In another specific embodiment of the personal alarm system remote unit 1410, the sensor and threshold detector 1416 are included and the threshold detector portion is disabled. The radio transmitter is connected to transmit the sensor output signal (sensor status) 1426 when the remote unit location is transmitted. In yet another embodiment of the personal alarm system remote unit 1410, the threshold detector is enabled and the radio transmitter is connected for transmitting a sensor status 1426 and a remote unit location 1424 when either of the sensor and threshold detector output signal 1426 and the voice-activated detector output signal 1430 is active.
In various specific embodiments, the navigational receiver is compatible with one of a geo-synchronous satellite global navigation system, the infrastructure-based TDOA and RSSI systems, the SATNAV system, and the LORAN system. The preferred embodiment is that the navigational receiver 1412 is compatible with the U.S. GPS system.
The remote unit 1502 includes a navigational receiver 1506, a demodulator circuit 1508, a precise time-of-day circuit 1510, a voice-activated detector circuit 1512, a microphone 1514, a radio transmitter 1515, a navigational receiver antenna 1516, and a radio transmitter antenna 1518.
The navigational receiver provides modulated navigational information 1530 to the demodulator circuit 1508. The demodulator circuit 1508 “demodulates” the modulated navigational information 1530 and provides demodulated navigational information 1532 to the radio transmitter 1515. The precise time-of-day circuit 1510 provides a precise time-of-day signal 1534 to the radio transmitter.
The microphone 1514 is connected to the voice-activated detector circuit 1512 permitting the detector circuit 1512 to activate an output signal 1536 when a predetermined distress phrase is detected, for example “HELP!”
The radio transmitter 1515 is connected to transmit the demodulated navigational information 1532 and the precise time-of-day information 1534 when the voice-activated output signal 1536 becomes active.
The base station 1504 includes an antenna 1520, a radio receiver 1522 circuits 1524 for computing the remote unit location, a display 1526 and an alarm 1528.
Radio transmissions from the remote unit 1502 are received via the antenna 1520 and is converted by the radio receiver into demodulated navigational information 1538, and precise time-of-day information 1540. The circuits 1524 receive the demodulated navigational information and the precise time-of-day information and compute a global location 1544 for the transmitting remote unit 1502. The computed global location (in appropriate coordinates) is displayed on the display 1526. The alarm 1528 is activated by a receiver output signal 1542 when a radio transmission from the remote unit is received.
The navigational receiver 1602 receives navigational information via the navigational antenna 1616 and provides a location 1620 of the remote unit in appropriate coordinates.
The microphone 1610 and the voice-activated detector 1604 are connected to provide a Transmit Location signal 1628 that becomes active when the detector 1604 recognizes an audible predetermined distress phrase such as “HELP!” The radio transmitter 1606 is connected with the Transmit Location signal 1628, and with the remote unit location information 1620 so that the location information is transmitted when the signal 1628 becomes active. Thus, in normal use, the remote unit 1600 transmits its own location (in appropriate coordinates) when an audible, predetermined distress phrase is detected. The predetermined distress phrase is preset to a specific language. In another embodiment, the predetermined distress phrase is programmed into a programmable storage unit (not illustrated) that is connected with the voice-activated detector 1604.
The remote unit 1600 includes a switch 1614 that connects the microphone 1610 with the radio transmitter 1606 for transmitting one-half of a two-way radio communication. The switch 1614 also is connected to generate a Transmit Voice signal 1626 that becomes active when the switch 1614 is operated. The radio transmitter 1606 is connected with the Transmit Voice signal 1628 so that when the switch is operated, the microphone is connected for voice transmission in a push-to-talk arrangement (half-duplex mode), and the radio transmitter transmits the voice via radio antenna 1618. The other half of the two-way radio communication is received by the radio antenna 1618, then converted to audible sound by the radio receiver 1608 and the speaker 1612.
The wireless phone 1702 typically includes elements necessary for two-way radio communication (fill-duplex mode), such as a microphone (1610 of
When the Transmit Location signal 1710 becomes active, the wireless phone 1702 transmits the remote unit location information 1706.