|Publication number||US20090045996 A1|
|Application number||US 12/022,982|
|Publication date||Feb 19, 2009|
|Filing date||Jan 30, 2008|
|Priority date||Mar 13, 2007|
|Also published as||US8184981, US20100289691, WO2008109978A1|
|Publication number||022982, 12022982, US 2009/0045996 A1, US 2009/045996 A1, US 20090045996 A1, US 20090045996A1, US 2009045996 A1, US 2009045996A1, US-A1-20090045996, US-A1-2009045996, US2009/0045996A1, US2009/045996A1, US20090045996 A1, US20090045996A1, US2009045996 A1, US2009045996A1|
|Inventors||Gennadii Ivtsenkov, Alexandre Mantsvetov, Evgeny Berik|
|Original Assignee||Gennadii Ivtsenkov, Alexandre Mantsvetov, Evgeny Berik|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (7), Classifications (13), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The present invention is the continuation of the U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/685,682 filed Mar. 13, 2007 by the authors of the present invention.
This invention relates generally to combat identification systems for the dismounted soldier and more particularly to a secure covert identification as friend or foe (IFF) system for interrogating a dismounted soldier with a coded infrared (IR) and radio (RF) signals, which are received and encoded by the target that sends combined response signal to prevent a friendly fire.
The Dismounted Armed Forces have an interest in the remote identification of a person as friend or foe, particularly to prevent friendly fire in armed conflicts. Identification as friend or foe (IFF) systems are well-known for decades for military aircraft. Such systems are based on RF transmission and very useful for preventing action against friendly aircrafts.
The military platform commanders target friend-or-foe identification presents a difficult decision for a military platform commander, who must decide whether to engage a detected target while avoiding accidental fratricide.
This problem is even more difficult for the dismounted soldier who may be moving covertly through an unknown combat zone at night with a limited visibility. U.S. Pat. No. 4,851,849 issued to Otto Albersdoerfer describes a typical active IFF RF technique for a military vehicle, which is equipped with a RF transponder that emits a coded return signal when an interrogating radar pulse is detected by its receiver.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,686,722 issued to Dobois et al. describes an active optical IFF technique for vehicles uses a selective wavelength optical coding system with tunable optical beacons mounted on each vehicle.
Also, U.S. Pat. No. 5,966,226 issued to Gerber describes an active combat IFF system for a dismounted soldier that includes a weapon-mounted laser transmitter for interrogating suspected targets and a harness including means for receiving the interrogatory signal and means for responding with an encoded radio, acoustic or optical signal.
Therefore, all mentioned and similar IFF systems utilize all-optical, all-radio or combined solutions, where the combined ones use an optical interrogating signal and RF response signal.
All these systems have obvious disadvantages that could be critical in battlefield conditions. An optical interrogator has a sharp beam providing secure covert identification, but can reach the target only when the line laser transmitter—optical detector mounted on the friendly target is not shaded by any objects, such as leafs, woods, walls, etc. Unlike optical signal, RF one passes through the objects, which are not transparent for optical signals, but RF interrogator has very wide diagram because it has thousands times longer wavelength than optical signal. Therefore, the RF antenna with 30-mm aperture has the transmitting/receiving diagram of 37 arc degrees at 8-mm RF wavelength (Ka band). Such wide diagram does not allow recognizing each individual soldier; and the response signal comes from such large area too.
The attempts to make a combined system utilizing optical interrogator and RF response unit cannot provide solution because such system inherits the disadvantages of optical and RF systems. Here, optical signal can be shaded by some not-transparent objects and RF response can be received from a number of response units simultaneously.
There are two distinctive situations on a battlefield:
These situations are illustrated on
Therefore, only combination of two independent channels, IR optical and RF one, can allow identifying friendly soldiers in these both cases. Here, in the second case, a shooter uses RF channel only that can give him information about a presence of some friendly soldiers in 37-arc degree sector directed along the sightline; it can prevent a chaotic fire that is very often in such situation.
In the first case, when the sightline is not obstructed, a shooter uses IR optical channel that allows precisely identifying each friendly soldier.
In some cases, all channels may be used, where the RF one provides brief information about possible presence of friendly soldiers is the suspicious sector and, after this IR optical channel is used.
The present invention is the continuation of the art proposed in the U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/685,682 filed Mar. 13, 2007 by the authors of the present invention.
The IR IFF system described in the U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/685,682 consists of two separate units—the request one mounted on small arms and the response one mounted on a helmet of soldier. The laser transmitter of the request unit installed on a rifle emits a sharp beam that is wide enough to illuminate the optical receiver(s) mounted on the helmet or uniform of the soldier. When this optical signal is received by the response unit, the unit sends a coded optical response signal to the request unit; this signal that reaches the request unit and, being decoded, activates the simple optical alarm signal telling the shooter that “it is a friendly target”. Also, the optical signal received by the response unit simultaneously activates a distinctive sound signal (sounded by a headphone or buzzer) informing the soldier that “he could be under a friendly fire”. This embodiment proposes the laser beam with divergence of 4 milliradians that illuminates the circle of 2-meter diameter at 500-meter distance. Such beam divergence is close to the optimal one, because a wider beam could illuminate several targets simultaneously causing inappropriate responses, and, also, diminishing the security of this system, but a very narrow beam (proposed in some mentioned above patents), in many cases, could miss the sensor, especially at short distances, so IFF detection will fail.
Proposed in this embodiment IR radiation emitted by lasers of the units has wavelength of 1550 nm that is the standard for fiber-optical (FO) telecommunication lines. So, such telecommunication laser transmitters, receivers and associated electronics are very well developed, inexpensive and widely available on the market. Moreover, the radiation of these wavelengths is safe to the human eye, because, unlike the wavelength shorter than 1000 nm, it is not transparent for human eye, so it can not be focused on the retina.
The response unit described in the U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/685,682 is comprised of an optical assembly consisting of a number of separated receiving-transmitting optical units attached to the belt of harness, or built in specially designed helmet, wherein each of them contains optical receiver and transmitting laser diode (LD) equipped with receiving and transmitting lenses. These optical units are electrically connected to the electronic processing unit that detects the direction of received signal, decodes it and develops a response one. Therefore, the response unit of this embodiment sends an optical response signal towards the sector from which it receives the request signal.
The present invention is based on the art described in the U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/685,682 and solves the above-described problems by providing a combined IR-RF system, which can be used in both combat situations: when the sightline is not shaded and when the sightline is obstructed.
The schematic diagram of IFF system of the present invention is depicted in
The additional RF channel utilizes the short-wavelength (Ka band) RF signal that allows emitting RF signal in a relatively narrow (for small 30-mm-aperture antenna) sector of 37 arc degrees directed along the sightline. The hardware of Ka-band RF channel is well-developed, has a small size and weight, and inexpensive.
The request unit contains the IR transmitting/receiving optical unit equipped with short fiber-optic line 4 and lens 1, RF transmitting/receiving antenna 2, electronic block 3 and alert light 5.
The response unit contains the set of optical receiving/transmitting blocks 6, RF receiving/transmitting antenna 7, electronic block 8 and alert buzzer 9.
The detailed block diagram of RF request channel is depicted in
The RF channel uses the RF transponder, which consists of receiving and transmitting channels. The transmitting channel contains pre-amplifier-modulator 7 and power amplifier 5 feeding antenna 3 via input/output switch 4. The receiving channel contains detector-amplifier-former 6 that detects (demodulates), amplifies and fixes shape of digital RF signals coming from transmitting/receiving antenna 3 via switch 4. Pre-amplifier-modulator 7 modulates and amplifies the digital electric signals developed by processor 8. Power amplifier 5 provides necessary power of output signal that is transmitted to the response unit via antenna 3. Received by antenna 3 RF response signal is demodulated and pre-amplified by detector-amplifier-former 6 that, also, standardizes digital output signal entering processor 8. Because the RF transponder uses single antenna 3 for transmitting and receiving, it utilizes RF switch 4 to change modes from transmitting to receiving one and wise versa. The switch 4 is controlled by processor 8.
RF transponder of the present invention utilizes Ka-waveband. The hardware of this waveband is well-developed (particularly, for satellite communication) and inexpensive.
The detailed block diagram of RF channel of the response unit is depicted in
The response unit contains single electronic block, which is common for both—IR (positions 1 and 2 on
The RF channel, which is similar to one of the request signal, uses the RF transponder, which consists of receiving and transmitting channels.
The transmitting channel contains the pre-amplifier-modulator 7 and power amplifier 5 feeding antenna 3 via input/output switch 4.
The receiving channel contains detector-amplifier-former 6 that detects (demodulates), amplifies and fixes shape of digital RF signals coming from transmitting/receiving antenna 3 via switch 4. The pre-amplifier-modulator 7 modulates and amplifies the digital electric signals developed by processor 8. The power amplifier 5 provides necessary power of output signal that is transmitted to the response unit via antenna 3. Received by antenna 3 RF response signal is demodulated and pre-amplified by the detector-amplifier-former 6 that, also, standardizes the digital output signal entering processor 8. Because the RF transponder uses a single antenna 3 for transmitting and receiving, it utilizes the RF switch 4 to change modes from transmitting to receiving one and vise versa. The switch 4 is controlled by processor 8.
To prevent a false alert, the request and response signals utilize different frequencies, wherein the response RF signal is in compliance with STANAG4579 standard. Such solution additionally allows monitoring battlefield situation. Also, the request and response signals are shifted in time in such a way when the response signal is delayed against the request one for a specific time—a portion of millisecond. It means that the request unit switches to the receiving channel only after this specific time and holds it on for a short time period of a portion of millisecond—the time that is necessary to receive the response signal. Thus, it allows the system rejecting the RF signals coming from other sources.
The request signal, also, activates IR channel, which becomes active for a short period of time—the time that is necessary for optical signal to exchange between the response and request units. This solution allows the response unit saving energy of the power supply.
Therefore, the system works as follows:
The request unit sends RF signal towards the area to which the sightline is directed. It activates the response units of friendly soldiers that are in this area. These units send response RF signals, which are received by the request unit of the shooter and give to him alert signal: “Friendly soldiers are in the area”. Simultaneously, the request signal activates IR channels of the response units of these friendly soldiers. So, if the shooter continues operation and directly targets any of these friendly soldiers, the IR channel of the targeted soldier sends IR response signal so preventing friendly fire. If the shooter cancels the operation, IR channels of the response units of these soldiers become automatically inactivated after a short period of time; and only receivers of RF channels still working in waiting mode.
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|Cooperative Classification||A61B5/6814, A61B5/02438, F41J2/02, F41G1/35, F41A17/08, G01S17/74|
|European Classification||A61B5/68B2B, F41J2/02, F41G1/35, G01S17/74, F41A17/08|
|Mar 21, 2012||AS||Assignment|
Effective date: 20080225
Owner name: PROTECTIVE ARMS SYSTEMS INC., CANADA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:IVTSENKOV, GENNADII, DR.;MANTSVETOV, ALEXANDRE, MR.;BERIK, EVGENY, DR.;REEL/FRAME:027902/0665