Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS20090103780 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 12/337,225
Publication dateApr 23, 2009
Filing dateDec 17, 2008
Priority dateJul 13, 2006
Also published asDE102009043798A1, DE102009043798B4
Publication number12337225, 337225, US 2009/0103780 A1, US 2009/103780 A1, US 20090103780 A1, US 20090103780A1, US 2009103780 A1, US 2009103780A1, US-A1-20090103780, US-A1-2009103780, US2009/0103780A1, US2009/103780A1, US20090103780 A1, US20090103780A1, US2009103780 A1, US2009103780A1
InventorsH. Keith Nishihara, Shi-Ping Hsu, Adrian Kaehler, Lars Jangaard
Original AssigneeNishihara H Keith, Shi-Ping Hsu, Adrian Kaehler, Lars Jangaard
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Hand-Gesture Recognition Method
US 20090103780 A1
Abstract
One embodiment of the invention includes a method of providing device inputs. The method includes illuminating hand gestures performed via a bare hand of a user in a foreground of a background surface with at least one infrared (IR) light source. The method also includes generating a first plurality of silhouette images associated with the bare hand based on an IR light contrast between the bare hand and the background surface and generating a second plurality of silhouette images associated with the bare hand based on an IR light contrast between the bare hand and the background surface. The method also includes determining a plurality of three-dimensional features of the bare hand relative to the background surface based on a parallax separation of the bare hand in the first plurality of silhouette images relative to the second plurality of silhouette images. The method also includes determining a provided input gesture based on the plurality of three-dimensional features of the bare hand and comparing the provided input gesture with a plurality of predefined gesture inputs in a gesture library. The method further includes providing at least one device input corresponding to interaction with displayed visual content based on the provided input gesture corresponding to one of the plurality of predefined gesture inputs.
Images(10)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(40)
1. A method of providing device inputs, the method comprising:
illuminating hand gestures performed via a bare hand of a user in a foreground of a background surface with at least one infrared (IR) light source;
generating a first plurality of silhouette images associated with the bare hand based on an IR light contrast between the bare hand and the background surface;
generating a second plurality of silhouette images associated with the bare hand based on an IR light contrast between the bare hand and the background surface;
determining a plurality of three-dimensional features of the bare hand relative to the background surface based on a parallax separation of the bare hand in the first plurality of silhouette images relative to the second plurality of silhouette images;
determining a provided input gesture based on the plurality of three-dimensional features of the bare hand;
comparing the provided input gesture with a plurality of predefined gesture inputs in a gesture library; and
providing at least one device input corresponding to interaction with displayed visual content based on the provided input gesture corresponding to one of the plurality of predefined gesture inputs.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the provided input gesture comprises determining that the bare hand is pointing at the background surface with at least one extended finger.
3. The method of claim 2, wherein providing the at least one device input comprises providing a visual reference on a portion of the displayed visual content.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the provided input gesture comprises determining that the bare hand is one of contacting a portion of the visual content with a first digit while extending at least one additional digit from the bare hand and touching the background surface with at least two digits of the bare hand.
5. The method of claim 4, wherein providing the at least one device input comprises providing a simulated mouse-button input associated with the contacted portion of the displayed visual content.
6. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the provided input gesture comprises determining that the bare hand is positioned as a flat, open hand with the fingers and thumb position in one of together and spread, and the bare hand is at least one of moving in six-degrees of freedom and moving one of upwards and downwards.
7. The method of claim 6, wherein providing the at least one device input comprises at least one of moving a selected portion of the displayed visual content in a corresponding six-degrees of freedom, and a changing a point-of-view of the displayed visual content in at least one of the corresponding six-degrees of freedom and one of upwards and downwards, respectively.
8. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the provided input gesture comprises determining that the bare hand is pointing to a portion of the visual content with an extended index finger and is changing an angle between an extended thumb and the extended index finger.
9. The method of claim 8, wherein providing the at least one device input comprises controlling zoom associated with the portion of the visual content based on the changing of the angle between the extended thumb and the extended index finger.
10. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the provided input gesture comprises determining that the bare hand is closing from a predefined hand position to a grip hand gesture comprising one of a closed-fist, contact between a thumb and a distal end of at least one finger, and a bending of each finger and the thumb at a distal knuckle with respect to the hand.
11. The method of claim 10, wherein determining the provided input gesture comprises determining that the bare hand is selecting a portion of the displayed visual content for further interaction in response to additional hand gestures.
12. The method of claim 11, wherein determining the provided input gesture comprises determining that the bare hand is maintaining the grip hand gesture and is one of rotating at the wrist and moving in at least one of the X, Y, and Z direction.
13. The method of claim 12, wherein providing the at least one device input further comprises a respective one of rotating the selected portion of the visual content and moving the selected portion of the visual content in the at least one of the X, Y, and Z direction relative to a remaining portion of the visual content.
14. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the provided input gesture comprises determining that the bare hand is positioned in a flat, open hand gesture and is rotating at the wrist approximately 180 degrees.
15. The method of claim 14, wherein determining the provided input gesture further comprises determining that the bare hand is moving forward concurrently with rotating the flat, open hand gesture.
16. The method of claim 14, wherein providing the at least one device input comprises providing one of a page-up input and a page-down input associated with a document.
17. The method of claim 16, wherein determining the provided input gesture further comprises determining that the bare hand is maintaining the flat, open hand gesture and moving one of upwards and downwards, and wherein providing the at least one device input further comprises scrolling a page of the document upwards and downwards based on the movement of the bare hand.
18. The method of claim 16, wherein determining the provided input gesture further comprises:
determining that the bare hand is maintaining the flat, open hand gesture; and
determining at least one additional gesture input from one of the bare hand and the other bare hand of the user;
wherein providing the at least one device input further comprises one of repeating the one of the page-up and the page-down input associated with the document in response to the at least one additional gesture input and auto-turning the page at one of an acceleration and deceleration that is based on a duration at which the at least one additional gesture input is maintained.
19. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the provided input gesture comprises:
determining that each bare hand of the user is extending an index finger to point to two respective portions of the displayed visual content; and
determining that each of the bare hands are maintaining the extension of the index finger and are moving one of closer and further with respect to each other.
20. The method of claim 19, wherein providing the at least one device input comprises one of zooming in and zooming out the displayed visual content in response to the bare hands moving closer and further, respectively.
21. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the provided input gesture comprises determining that the bare hand is alternating between a flat, open hand and a closed-fist at least once.
22. The method of claim 21, wherein providing the at least one device input comprises toggling between a list of menu items on an application in the displayed visual content.
23. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the provided input gesture comprises determining that the bare hand is positioned in a first gesture comprising an extended thumb, an extended index finger, and an extended little finger and is moved one of upward and downward.
24. The method of claim 23, wherein providing the at least one device input comprises scrolling selected visual data one of upward and downward at a first speed in response to the movement of the bare hand the one of upward and downward, respectively.
25. The method of claim 24, wherein determining the provided input gesture comprises determining that the bare hand switches from the first gesture to a second gesture comprising a retracted thumb, the extended index finger, and the extended little finger and is moved one of upward and downward.
26. The method of claim 25, wherein providing the at least one device input comprises scrolling selected visual data one of upward and downward at a second speed in response to the movement of the bare hand the one of upward and downward, respectively, the second speed being faster than the first speed.
27. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the provided input gesture comprises determining that the bare hand switches from a first gesture comprising an extended thumb, an extended index finger, and an extended middle finger to a second gesture comprising a retracted thumb, an extended index finger, and an extended middle finger and is moved one of up, down, left, and right while maintaining the second gesture.
28. The method of claim 27, wherein providing the at least one device input comprises:
tilting a view one of up and down in response to the movement of the maintained second gesture up and down, respectively; and
panning the view one of left and right in response to the movement of the maintained second gesture left and right, respectively.
29. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the provided input gesture comprises determining that the bare hand is pointing to a portion of the displayed visual content with an extended index finger and is moving toward the portion of the visual content.
30. The method of claim 29, wherein providing the at least one device input comprises one of opening a menu list and expanding menu options associated with a menu of the portion of the displayed visual content.
31. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the provided input gesture comprises determining that the bare hand begins in a first gesture comprising an extended index finger that points to a portion of the displayed visual content, initiates a trigger motion with the extended index finger, and resumes the first gesture.
32. The method of claim 32, wherein providing the at least one device input comprises returning to an immediately preceding web-page in a selected Internet browser associated with the portion of the displayed visual content.
33. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the provided input gesture comprises determining that the bare hand, while maintaining an extended index finger that points to a portion of the displayed visual content, rapidly moves the bare hand in a downward direction, then rapidly moves the bare hand back upward.
34. The method of claim 32, wherein providing the at least one device input comprises providing a simulated mouse-button input associated with the portion of the displayed visual content.
35. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the provided input gesture comprises determining that the bare hands of the user, while maintaining a gesture that comprises extended index fingers being in longitudinal contact with each other and both pointing at a portion of the displayed visual content, rapidly move in a forward direction, then rapidly move in a backward direction.
36. The method of claim 35, wherein providing the at least one device input comprises providing a simulated mouse-button input associated with the portion of the displayed visual content.
37. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the provided input gesture comprises determining that the bare hand of the user switches from a first gesture comprising an extended thumb and an extended index finger that points to a portion of the displayed visual content to a second gesture comprising a retracted thumb and the extended index finger that remains pointing to the portion of the displayed visual content.
38. The method of claim 37, wherein providing the at least one device input comprises scrolling visual data associated with the portion of the displayed visual content while the thumb is retracted.
39. The method of claim 1, wherein determining the provided input gesture comprises determining that the bare hand of the user is pointing at a portion of the displayed visual content with an extended index finger and comprises an extended thumb that is subsequently retracted followed by a rotation of the wrist.
40. The method of claim 39, wherein providing the at least one device input comprises tilting a view associated with the displayed visual content in response to the retraction of the thumb, the tilting being based on the rotation of the wrist.
Description
    RELATED APPLICATIONS
  • [0001]
    This application is a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/485,788, filed Jul. 13, 2006, and a continuation-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/196,767, filed Aug. 22, 2008. The subject matter of the aforementioned applications is incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
  • TECHNICAL FIELD
  • [0002]
    The present invention relates generally to interface systems, and specifically to a hand-gesture recognition method.
  • BACKGROUND
  • [0003]
    As the range of activities accomplished with a computer increases, new and innovative ways to provide an interface with a computer are often developed to complement the changes in computer functionality and packaging. For example, touch sensitive screens can allow a user to provide inputs to a computer without a mouse and/or a keyboard, such that desk area is not needed to operate the computer. Examples of touch sensitive screens include pressure sensitive membranes, beam break techniques with circumferential light sources and sensors, and acoustic ranging techniques. However, these types of computer interfaces can only provide information to the computer regarding the touch event, itself, and thus can be limited in application. In addition, such types of interfaces can be limited in the number of touch events that can be handled over a given amount of time, and can be prone to interpret unintended contacts, such as from a shirt cuff or palm, as touch events. Furthermore, touch sensitive screens can be prohibitively expensive and impractical for very large display sizes, such as those used for presentations.
  • SUMMARY
  • [0004]
    One embodiment of the invention includes a method of providing device inputs. The method includes illuminating hand gestures performed via a bare hand of a user in a foreground of a background surface with at least one infrared (IR) light source. The method also includes generating a first plurality of silhouette images associated with the bare hand based on an IR light contrast between the bare hand and the background surface and generating a second plurality of silhouette images associated with the bare hand based on an IR light contrast between the bare hand and the background surface. The method also includes determining a plurality of three-dimensional features of the bare hand relative to the background surface based on a parallax separation of the bare hand in the first plurality of silhouette images relative to the second plurality of silhouette images. The method also includes determining a provided input gesture based on the plurality of three-dimensional features of the bare hand and comparing the provided input gesture with a plurality of predefined gesture inputs in a gesture library. The method further includes providing at least one device input corresponding to interaction with displayed visual content based on the provided input gesture corresponding to one of the plurality of predefined gesture inputs.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0005]
    FIG. 1 illustrates an example of a gesture recognition interface system in accordance with an aspect of the invention.
  • [0006]
    FIG. 2 illustrates an example of a gesture recognition interface controller in accordance with an aspect of the invention.
  • [0007]
    FIG. 3 illustrates another example of a gesture recognition interface system in accordance with an aspect of the invention.
  • [0008]
    FIG. 4 illustrates an example of a gesture recognition simulation system in accordance with an aspect of the invention.
  • [0009]
    FIG. 5 illustrates an example of hand gestures for use in a gesture recognition interface system in accordance with an aspect of the invention.
  • [0010]
    FIG. 6 illustrates another example of hand gestures for use in a gesture recognition interface system in accordance with an aspect of the invention.
  • [0011]
    FIG. 7 illustrates yet another example of hand gestures for use in a gesture recognition interface system in accordance with an aspect of the invention.
  • [0012]
    FIG. 8 illustrates yet a further example of hand gestures for use in a gesture recognition interface system in accordance with an aspect of the invention.
  • [0013]
    FIG. 9 illustrates an example of a method for providing device inputs in accordance with an aspect of the invention.
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION
  • [0014]
    The present invention relates generally to interface systems, and specifically to a hand-gesture recognition method. A user employs a one or more digits of his or her bare hand to provide simulated inputs to a computer or other electronic device. The bare hand can be a user's hand that is unadorned by a special glove or sensors that allow gesture recognition. It is to be understood that as described herein, a digit can include a finger or a thumb. It is also to be understood that the simulated inputs can be provided by simple gestures and/or compound gestures using one or two bare hands. For example, the user could provide gestures that include predefined motion using the bare hand in a gesture recognition environment, such as defined by a foreground of a display screen that displays visual content. The simulated inputs could be, for example, any of a variety of inputs that provide interaction with portions of the visual content.
  • [0015]
    Any of a variety of gesture recognition interface systems can be implemented to recognize the compound gestures. As an example, one or more infrared (IR) light sources can illuminate a gesture recognition environment that is defined by the area of physical space in a foreground of a vertical or horizontal display surface. The IR light sources can illuminate the gesture recognition environment from above, or can be located beneath an IR-diffusive screen to illuminate a gesture recognition environment that is above the screen from beneath. A set of stereo cameras can each generate a plurality of images of the bare hand. The plurality of images can be, for example, based on a reflected light contrast of the IR light reflected back from the bare hand relative to substantially non-reflected light, based on a more highly reflected light from a retroreflective background surface, or from the IR light being illuminated from beneath an IR diffusive screen. The plurality of images of the bare hand from each camera could be, for example, a plurality of matched sets of images of the bare hand, such that each image in the matched set of images corresponds to the bare hand from a different perspective at substantially the same time. A given matched set of images can be employed to determine a location of the bare hand and the plurality of matched sets of images can be employed to determine physical motion of the bare hand.
  • [0016]
    A controller can be configured to receive the plurality of images to determine three-dimensional location and feature information associated with the bare hand relative to the background surface. For example, the controller could apply an algorithm to determine features of the bare hand, such as extension, bending, and orientation of fingers in three-dimensional space. The controller could then translate the simulated inputs into device inputs based on the three-dimensional location and feature information. For example, the controller could interpret gesture inputs based on motion associated with the bare hand and translate the gesture inputs into inputs to a computer or other device. The controller could also compare the motion associated with the one or more endpoints of the fingers and/or thumb of the bare hand with a plurality of predefined gestures stored in a gesture library, such that a match with a given predefined gesture could correspond to a particular device input.
  • [0017]
    FIG. 1 illustrates an example of a gesture recognition interface system 10 in accordance with an aspect of the invention. The gesture recognition interface system 10 includes a first camera 12, a second camera 14, a first IR light source 16, and a second IR light source 18 mounted above a vertical display surface 20. As an example, the vertical display surface 20 can be a projection screen. The first camera 12 and the second camera 14 may each include an IR filter, such that the respective camera may only be able to receive IR light. The first IR light source 16 and the second IR light source 18 each illuminate a gesture recognition environment 22 that is defined as the three-dimensional physical space in the foreground of the vertical display surface 20 that is visible by the first and second cameras 12 and 14.
  • [0018]
    A user's hand 24 can provide simulated inputs in the foreground of the vertical display surface 20. The first camera 12 and the second camera 14 each receive separate images of the user's hand 24, where each of the separate images received, respectively, by the first camera 12 and the second camera 14 are a matched set (i.e., matched pair). As an example, each of the first camera 12 and the second camera 14 could rapidly take still photograph images at, for example, sixty times per second, such that each still photograph image taken by the first camera 12 is matched to a still photograph image taken by the second camera 14 at substantially the same time. The user's hand 24 can appear to be in a different location in each image of the matched set captured by each of the first camera 12 and the second camera 14, respectively, due to parallax caused by the different mounted locations of each of the first camera 12 and the second camera 14. In the example of FIG. 1, the first and second cameras 12 and 14 can each be positioned as angled toward the center of the vertical display surface 20, such as to provide for more accurate position determination of the user's hand 24.
  • [0019]
    In the example of FIG. 1, the images received by each of the first and second cameras 12 and 14 can be based on IR light that is reflected from the bare hand relative to substantially non-reflected light in the gesture recognition environment 22. Specifically, an object is illuminated at a relative brightness intensity that is 1/D2, where D is the distance from the light source. Thus, an object that is twice as far away as another appears four times dimmer. Accordingly, although some of the IR light emitted from the first and second IR light sources 16 and 18 may be reflected from the floor 28 beneath the vertical display surface 20, the intensity of the reflected light may be significantly less than that reflected from the user's hand 24.
  • [0020]
    The first camera 12 and the second camera 14 can each provide their respective separate images of the user's hand 24 to a controller 26. The controller 26 could reside, for example, within a computer (not shown) for which the gesture recognition interface system 10 is designed to provide a gesture recognition interface. It is to be understood, however, that the hosting of a controller is not limited to a standalone computer, but could be included in embedded processors. The controller 26 can process the respective images associated with the user's hand 24 to generate three-dimensional feature data associated with the user's hand 24.
  • [0021]
    For example, each of the first camera 12 and the second camera 14 could each be mounted at predetermined angles relative to the floor 28 beneath the vertical display surface 20. For a given matched pair of images of the user's hand 24, if the predetermined angles of each of the cameras 12 and 14 are equal, then each point of the user's hand 24 in two-dimensional space in a given image from the camera 12 is equidistant from a corresponding point of the user's hand 24 in the respective matched image from the camera 14. As such, the controller 26 could determine the three-dimensional physical location of the user's hand 24 based on a relative parallax separation of the matched set of images of the user's hand 24 at a given time. In addition, using a computer algorithm, the controller 26 could also determine the three-dimensional physical location of features associated with portions of the user's hand 24, such as fingers and fingertips. As an example, the controller 26 can be configured to determine and interpret the gestures that are provided in the gesture recognition environment in any of a variety of ways, such as those described in either of U.S. patent applications entitled “Gesture Recognition Interface System”, Ser. No. 11/485,788, filed Jul. 13, 2006, and “Gesture Recognition Interface System with Vertical Display”, Ser. No. 12/133,836, filed Jun. 5, 2008, each assigned to the same assignee as the Present Application and incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.
  • [0022]
    The gesture recognition interface system 10 can also include a projector 30. The projector 30 can provide visual content with which the user can interact and provide inputs. In the example of FIG. 1, the projector 30 can project the visual content onto the vertical display surface 20. Because the IR light sources 16 and 18 do not illuminate visible light, the IR illumination may not interfere with the visual content projected from the projector 30. The user can thus employ the user's hand 24 in the gesture recognition environment 22 to simulate inputs in an interactive manner with the visual content.
  • [0023]
    As an example, the controller 26 can determine gesture inputs that are performed by a user using the user's hand 24 and can translate the gesture inputs into any of a variety of device inputs. For example, the controller 26 could interpret pointing at the vertical display surface 20 by the user's hand 24, such as with an extended index finger or a flat, open hand, to establish a reference on the visual content that is displayed on the vertical display surface 20. As another example, selected data can be manipulated in response to the gesture inputs, such as selecting objects, moving objects, scrolling visual data, turning pages in a document, and any of a variety of other device inputs. Additional gesture inputs can be sequentially implemented using the user's hand 24, or sequential device inputs can be implemented using the user's other hand (not shown). Accordingly, a user of the gesture recognition interface system 10 could navigate through a number of computer menus, graphical user interface (GUI) icons, and/or execute programs associated with a computer merely by moving his or her bare hand through the air in the gesture recognition environment 22 and initiating gesture inputs without touching a mouse, keyboard, or any other computer input device.
  • [0024]
    In the example of FIG. 1, the controller 26 includes an image buffer 32 that is configured to store the sequentially obtained images from each of the first and second cameras 12 and 14. As an example, the image buffer 32 can be a memory that is configured as a queue, such that new images that are obtained by the first and second cameras 12 and 14 are provided to the image buffer 32 to overwrite the oldest images that are stored therein. The sequential images that are stored in the image buffer 32 can be used by the controller 26 to translate the gestures that are performed in the gesture recognition environment 22 into the device inputs. For example, the controller 26 can be configured to analyze the sequential images that are stored in the image buffer 32 to ascertain three-dimensional motion associated with features of the user's hand 24. The controller 26 can thus compare the three-dimensional motion with predefined gestures that are stored in a predefined gesture library 34 and provide the corresponding device input in response to determining a match. Accordingly, the controller 26 can determine the appropriate device inputs based on the performance of the corresponding gestures.
  • [0025]
    It is to be understood that the gesture recognition interface system 10 is not intended to be limited to the example of FIG. 1. As an example, the gesture inputs that are implemented in the gesture recognition interface system 10 are not limited to three-dimensional gestures, but could incorporate two-dimensional gestures instead of or in addition to three-dimensional gestures. Furthermore, the gesture recognition interface system 10 need not include a display surface, but that other types of displays, such as holographic and/or non-planar displays, can be implemented. Accordingly, the gesture recognition interface system 10 can be configured in any of a variety of ways.
  • [0026]
    FIG. 2 illustrates another example of a gesture recognition interface controller 50 in accordance with an aspect of the invention. The gesture recognition interface controller 50 can be a portion of the gesture recognition interface system 10 in the example of FIG. 1. For example, the gesture recognition interface controller 50 can be configured as the controller 26 in the example of FIG. 1. As such, reference is to be made to the example of FIG. 1 in the following discussion of the example of FIG. 2.
  • [0027]
    The gesture recognition interface controller 50 receives a plurality of images from each of the first camera 12 and the second camera 14. The first and second cameras 12 and 14 each receive a plurality of images of the user's hand 24. The respective images of the user's hand 24 could be silhouette images that are based on a brightness contrast between the user's hand 24 and a background surface. For example, the brightness contrast can be based on the user's hand 24 being substantially bright based on reflecting IR illumination in the foreground of a substantially dark background surface, such as the floor 28. However, as described in greater detail below with regard to the examples of FIG. 3, the brightness contrast can also be based on the user's hand 24 being substantially dark in the foreground of bright IR illumination that is reflected from a horizontal background surface, or in the foreground of bright IR illumination that is diffused through the background surface.
  • [0028]
    The first and second cameras 12 and 14 each input their respective images of a matched pair of images into a digitizer 52. The digitizer 52 produces digitized versions of the images of the user's hand 24. The digitized images of the user's hand 24 are input to an image comparator 54. The image comparator 54 compares each of the digitized images of the user's hand 24 to a previously stored digitized image of the user's hand 24 to generate a binarized image of the user's hand 24. As an example, although the vertical display surface 20 emits the IR illumination in a substantially more uniform manner, there may still be illumination intensity gradients across the vertical display surface 20. Therefore, the comparison by the image comparator 54 allows for an improved quality of the digitized images despite variations in illumination intensity across the vertical display surface 20. As an example, the previously stored digitized image could have been captured during a calibration operation and/or from repeatedly storing the digitized image in memory buffers.
  • [0029]
    As an example, a background model can be maintained for each of the cameras 12 and 14 without the user's hand 24 being present. The background model images can be used to decide at each pixel whether the images of the user's hand 24 correspond to a binary 1 or 0. For example, at each pixel location, if the image of the user's hand 24 has a value that is approximately greater than the corresponding background model image times a threshold scaling value of between 0 and 1, the output value will be a binary 1, thus denoting the presence of the user's hand 24. In this manner, the scaling value can be selected to provide an optimal balance between desirably detecting the user's hand 24 while being substantially insensitive to residual variations in illumination intensity from the top-surface of the vertical display surface 20. As a result, edges associated with the user's hand 24 can be detected in each of the images.
  • [0030]
    The contrast enhanced binarized silhouette images of the user's hand 24 are then each input to an object detection algorithm device 56. The object detection algorithm device 56 can be an integrated circuit (IC) or set of ICs within the gesture recognition interface controller 50, or could be a software routine residing in the gesture recognition interface controller 50. The object detection algorithm device 56 can include any of a variety of detection algorithms for determining a two-dimensional location of the user's hand 24 relative to the vertical display surface 20. As an example, the object detection algorithm device 56 can include a two-dimensional convolution filter, such as a Laplacian of Gaussian convolution filter, that applies a mathematical algorithm to each of the digitized images of the user's hand 24 to determine the location of one or more features of the user's hand 24, such as fingertips, in two-dimensional space, as described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/485,788. As another example, the object detection algorithm device 56 can generate a sequence of mid-points that are symmetrically disposed between edges along elongated portions of the user's hand 24 to form a skeletal representation of the user's hand 24, as described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/133,836. Accordingly, features associated with the user's hand 24 that can be determinative of input gestures can be detected in each of the silhouette images of the user's hand 24.
  • [0031]
    The output data of the object detection algorithm device 56, such as a convolution filtered image or a skeletal representation image, is provided to a calibration data and location resolver 58. The calibration data and location resolver 58 determines a three-dimensional location of the features associated with the user's hand 24 at a given time. As an example, the calibration data and location resolver 58 can be configured to determine a parallax separation between end-points that are determined, for example, by a peak detector from convolution filtered images provided from each of the cameras 12 and 14. As another example, the calibration data and location resolver 58 can be configured to compare the relative two-dimensional locations of the corresponding points in each of the skeletal representation images of the user's hand 24 and to interpolate a three-dimensional location of the points based on a parallax separation of the corresponding points. Accordingly, the calibration data and location resolver 58 can determine the three-dimensional location of the one or more features associated with the user's hand 24 relative to the vertical display surface 20 for each matched pair of images provided by the cameras 12 and 14.
  • [0032]
    The data output from the calibration data and location resolver 58 is input to a gesture recognition device 60. The gesture recognition device 60 interprets the three-dimensional feature data associated with the user's hand 24 and translates changes in the location data into an input gesture. In the example of FIG. 2, the gesture recognition device 60 includes an image buffer 62. The image buffer 62 can be configured to store sequential sets of the three-dimensional location data that each correspond to a matched pair of images provided from the first and second cameras 12 and 14. Therefore, the gesture recognition device 60 can thus be configured to analyze patterns and/or changes associated with the sequential sets of the three-dimensional feature data to determine an input gesture provided by the user's hand 24.
  • [0033]
    The gesture recognition interface controller 50 also includes a gesture library 64 coupled to the gesture recognition device 60. The gesture library 64 could include a plurality of predefined gestures, with each of the predefined gestures corresponding to a particular device input. For example, the gesture library 64 could include a database of specific arrangements and combinations of fingertip positions and sequential motions that each correspond to a different computer input. Examples of the predefined input gestures are described in greater detail below in the examples of FIGS. 5-8.
  • [0034]
    The gesture recognition device 60, upon analyzing the sequential sets of the three-dimensional feature data in the image buffer 62, could poll the gesture library 64 to determine if the gesture input matches a predefined gesture. Upon determining a match, the gesture recognition device 60 could translate the gesture input into the device input that corresponds to the predefined gesture. The gesture library 64 could be pre-programmed with the appropriate predefined gesture inputs, or it could be dynamically programmable, such that new gestures can be added, along with the corresponding device inputs. For example, a user could activate a “begin gesture sample” operation, perform the new gesture, capture the appropriate images of the new gesture using the first camera 12 and the second camera 14, and input the appropriate device input for which the new gesture corresponds.
  • [0035]
    It is to be understood that a given gesture recognition interface system is not intended to be limited by the example of FIG. 2. Other implementations are possible for providing inputs in accordance with an aspect of the invention. For example, one or more of the devices in the gesture recognition interface controller 50 could be integral with other devices, or could be separate from the gesture recognition interface controller 50. For example, the cameras 12 and 14 could each input their respective images to a common digitizer 52. Accordingly, the gesture recognition interface controller 50 can be configured in any of a variety of ways.
  • [0036]
    FIG. 3 illustrates another example of a gesture recognition interface system 100 in accordance with an aspect of the invention. The gesture recognition interface system 100 can be another type example of a gesture recognition interface system in which hand-gesture inputs can be determined and translated into device inputs, similar to as described above in the example of FIG. 1.
  • [0037]
    The gesture recognition interface system 100 includes a first camera 102 and a second camera 104. Coupled to each of the first camera 102 and the second camera 104, respectively, is a first IR light source 106 and a second IR light source 108. The first camera 102 and the second camera 104 may each include an IR filter, such that the respective camera may pass IR light and substantially filter other light spectrums. The first IR light source 106 and the second IR light source 108 each illuminate a horizontal background surface 110 which can be retroreflective. As such, IR light from the first IR light source 106 can be reflected substantially directly back to the first camera 102 and IR light from the second IR light source 108 can be reflected substantially directly back to the second camera 104. Accordingly, an object that is placed above the background surface 110 may reflect a significantly lesser amount of IR light back to each of the first camera 102 and the second camera 104, respectively. Therefore, such an object can appear to each of the first camera 102 and the second camera 104 as a silhouette image, such that it can appear as a substantially darker object in the foreground of a highly illuminated background surface 110. It is to be understood that the background surface 110 may not be completely retroreflective, but may include a Lambertian factor to facilitate viewing by users at various angles relative to the background surface 110.
  • [0038]
    A user's bare hand 112 can provide simulated inputs over the background surface 110. In the example of FIG. 3, the first camera 102 and the second camera 104 each receive separate silhouette images of the user's hand 112, where each of the separate silhouette images received, respectively, by the first camera 102 and the second camera 104 are a matched pair, similar to as described above in the example of FIG. 1. The user's hand 112 can appear to be in a different location relative to the retroreflective screen in each silhouette image matched pair captured by each of the first camera 102 and the second camera 104, respectively, due to parallax caused by the different mounted locations of each of the first camera 102 and the second camera 104.
  • [0039]
    The first camera 102 and the second camera 104 can each provide their respective separate silhouette images of the user's hand 112 to a controller (not shown), similar to as described above in the example of FIG. 1. The controller can process the respective silhouette images associated with the user's hand 112 to generate three-dimensional feature data associated with the user's hand 112. For example, each of the first camera 102 and the second camera 104 could be mounted at a predetermined angle relative to the background surface 110. For a given matched pair of images of the user's hand 112, if the predetermined angle of each of the cameras 102 and 104 is equal, then each point of the user's hand 112 in two-dimensional space in a given image from the camera 102 is equidistant from a corresponding point of the user's hand 112 in the respective matched image from the camera 104. As such, using a computer algorithm, the controller could determine the three-dimensional physical location of at least one feature associated with the user's hand 112.
  • [0040]
    The gesture recognition interface system 100 can also include a projector 114 configured to project image data. The projector 114 can provide an output interface, such as, for example, computer monitor data, for which the user can interact and provide inputs using the user's hand 112. In the example of FIG. 3, the projector 114 can project the image data onto the background surface 110. Because the IR light sources 106 and 108 do not illuminate visible light, the IR illumination does not interfere with the image data projected from the projector 114. The user can thus employ the user's hand 112 directly onto the image data to simulate inputs, such as, for example, mouse inputs.
  • [0041]
    It is to be understood that the gesture recognition interface system 100 is not intended to be limited to the example of FIG. 3. As an example, instead of the IR light sources 106 and 108, the projector 114 can include an IR filter as one of the colors on an associated color wheel, such as for a digital light projection (DLP) type projector. As another example, instead of the background surface 110 being retroreflective, the background surface 110 could instead be light diffusive, such that the IR light sources 106 and 108 are configured beneath the background surface 110. As a result, the first and second cameras 102 and 104 detect the IR brightness contrast as shadows of the user's hand 112 relative to the IR diffuse background surface 110. Accordingly, the gesture recognition interface system 100 can be configured in any of a variety of ways.
  • [0042]
    FIG. 4 illustrates an example of a gesture recognition simulation system 150 in accordance with an aspect of the invention. The gesture recognition simulation system 150 includes four cameras 152, each of which includes a respective IR light source 154. The cameras 152 may each include an IR filter, such that each of the respective cameras 152 may only be able to receive IR light. The IR light sources 154 each illuminate a retroreflective surface 156, such that IR light from the IR light sources 154 is reflected substantially directly back to the respective one of the cameras 152.
  • [0043]
    The gesture recognition simulation system 150 includes a three-dimensional display system 158, demonstrated in the example of FIG. 4 as a holograph projector. In the example of FIG. 4, the three-dimensional display system 158 projects a holographic image of a simulated object 160. The three-dimensional display system 158 is demonstrated in the example of FIG. 4 as being mounted directly above the retroreflective surface 156. Accordingly, a user can provide gesture inputs, such as described in the examples of FIGS. 5-8 below, to interact directly with the holographic image of the simulated object 160. In addition, the holographic image of the simulated object 160 can include a plurality of functional components 162, demonstrated in the example of FIG. 4 as screws attached to an end of the simulated object 160.
  • [0044]
    A user's hand 164 can be used to provide hand-gesture inputs over the retroreflective surface 156. To provide the interaction between the user's hand 164 and the given functional component 162, an associated controller (not shown) can detect a three-dimensional physical location of one or more features of the user's hand 164, such as described above in the example of FIG. 2. Upon determining a correlation of the physical locations of the user's hand 164 and a given functional component 162, the controller can determine a gesture motion associated with the user's hand 164 to determine if it corresponds with a predefined action associated with the functional component. Upon determining that the input gesture corresponds with the predefined action, the simulation application controller can command the three-dimensional display system 158 to output the appropriate simulated action.
  • [0045]
    As an example, a user of the gesture recognition simulation system 150 could perform a reference sub-gesture with the user's hand 164 to refer to one of the functional components 162, demonstrated in the example of FIG. 4 as a screw 166. For example, the controller can translate the reference sub-gesture into a reference that refers to the screw 166, such as by changing its color as displayed by the three-dimensional display system 158. The user could then perform an execution sub-gesture to execute a command associated with unscrewing the screw 166. Thus, as the user provides the appropriate execution sub-gesture, the controller commands the three-dimensional display system 158 to output the appropriate simulated action, which in the example of FIG. 4, is the screw 166 being unscrewed and removed from the simulated object 160.
  • [0046]
    The gesture recognition simulation system 150 is demonstrated as yet another example of the use of hand-gesture inputs in providing device inputs to a computer. It is to be understood that the gesture recognition simulation system 150 is not intended to be limited to the example of FIG. 4. As an example, the three-dimensional display system 158 can be configured in a variety of different ways, such as a three-dimensional display screen. As another example, the cameras 152 and IR light sources 154 can be arranged in any of a variety of ways and numbers for the controller to determine the hand-gesture inputs that are performed by the user. Accordingly, the gesture recognition simulation system 150 can be configured in any of a variety of ways.
  • [0047]
    The examples of FIGS. 5-8 demonstrate examples of hand gestures that can be implemented by a user to provide hand-gesture inputs, and thus corresponding device inputs, in a gesture recognition interface system in accordance with an aspect of the invention. As an example, the hand gestures in the examples of FIGS. 5-8 can each be implemented in the gesture recognition interface systems 10 and 100 in the examples of FIGS. 1 and 3, or the gesture recognition simulation system 150 in the example of FIG. 4. In the following discussion of the examples of FIGS. 5-8, reference is to be made to the example of FIG. 1. As such, each of the hand gestures in the examples of FIGS. 5-8 includes the user's hand 24, demonstrated in the examples of FIGS. 5-8 as the right hand of the user. However, it is to be understood that either of the user's hands could be used to perform the single-hand gestures of the examples of FIGS. 5-8. Furthermore, some of the hand gestures in the examples of FIGS. 5-8 demonstrate a gesture performed with both the user's hand 24 and the user's other hand 25 (i.e., the left hand).
  • [0048]
    FIG. 5 illustrates an example of hand gestures 200 for use in a gesture recognition interface system in accordance with an aspect of the invention. The hand gestures 200 include a gesture 202 in which the user's hand 24 is pointing with an extended finger, demonstrated in the example of FIG. 5 as the extended index finger. As an example, the gesture 202 could be implemented to point to a portion of displayed visual content that is displayed on the vertical display surface 20, or could be implemented to point to a portion of a background surface that does not display the visual content, but corresponds to it in location. In response to the gesture 202, the controller 26 can be configured to provide a visual reference on the corresponding portion of the displayed visual content. As an example, the controller 26 could provide specific and/or concise reference on the visual content, such as a mouse pointer or simulated laser pointer, in response to the gesture 202.
  • [0049]
    The hand gestures 200 also include gestures 204 and 206 in which the user's hand 24 is demonstrated as a flat, open hand. Specifically, the gesture 204 demonstrates the flat, open hand with all fingers extended and joined together and the thumb retracted alongside the hand 24, and the gesture 206 demonstrates the flat, open hand with all fingers and the thumb extended and separated. As an example, each of the gestures 204 and 206 can also be implemented to point to portions of displayed visual content or portions of the background surface corresponding to the displayed visual content. Similar to the gesture 202, the controller 26 can be configured to provide a visual reference on the corresponding portion of the displayed visual content in response to the gestures 204 and 206. As an example, the controller 26 could provide less specific reference on the visual content, such as to switch a focus between two open windows on the displayed visual content, or to display a translucent “spot-light” image on the displayed visual content, in response to either of the gestures 204 and 206.
  • [0050]
    The hand gestures 200 also include gestures 208, 210, 212, and 214 that involve contact of the user's hand 24 with the background surface or display surface. Each of the gestures 208, 210, 212, and 214 demonstrate contact with the background surface or display surface with either a single digit while other, non-contacting digits are extended or with multiple digits. Specifically, the gesture 208 demonstrates contact with the extended index finger with the non-contacting thumb also extended and the gesture 210 demonstrates contact with the index finger with the all other non-contacting fingers and the thumb also extended. In addition, the gesture 212 demonstrates contact with the extended thumb with all non-contacting fingers also extended and the gesture 214 demonstrates contact with the extended index and middle fingers with the rest of the fingers and thumb retracted. As an example, the controller 26 can provide a left mouse-click input in response to contact of a single extended finger with the background surface or display surface, such as resulting from contacting the visual content while maintaining the gesture 202. However, the controller 26 can provide other interactive device inputs or other mouse-click inputs in response to one or more of the gestures 208, 210, 212, and 214. For example, the gesture 208 can correspond to a right mouse-click input or selective erasing of visual data on a virtual dry-erase board. As another example, the gestures 210, 212, and/or 214 can each have other associated device inputs corresponding to the portion of the visual content that is contacted by the user's hand 24, such as a middle mouse-button click or assigning other distinct actions or meanings.
  • [0051]
    The hand gestures 200 also include a gesture 216 in which the user's hand 24 is demonstrated as a flat, open hand. In the example of FIG. 5, the user's hand 24 is demonstrated with the fingers together, but could instead be implemented with the fingers spread. As an example, the gesture 216 can be implemented as an execution sub-gesture of a compound gesture, such as described in U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/196,767. For example, a portion of the visual content can be selected for interaction, such as by a preceding device input or a preceding gesture input. The gesture 216 can thus include motion in six-degrees of freedom while maintaining the flat, open hand, such that the user's hand 24 can be moved in the X, Y, and Z directions, as well as rotated in the yaw, pitch, and roll axes. Therefore, the controller 26 can provide a device input for motion in six-degrees of freedom of the selected portion of the visual content corresponding to the motion of the flat, open hand gesture. In addition, the user can also move the hand 24 upward or downward while maintaining the flat, open hand position of the hand 24, such as to change a placement, point-of-view, and/or elevation of a camera over a three-dimensional terrain in the displayed visual content.
  • [0052]
    The hand gestures 200 further include a gesture 218 in which the user's hand 24 is demonstrated as having an extended index finger and an extended thumb. As an example, similar to the gesture 202, the extended index finger in the gesture 218 could point to a portion of displayed visual content or the background surface. The gesture 218 can also include the user moving the thumb in a further extending or further retracting position, such that the user changes the angle θ between the extended index finger and thumb. The changing of the angle θ could correspond to a zoom command, such that the controller 26 is configured to change a zoom associated with the selected portion of the visual content. For example, the user could increase the angle θ to zoom-out to make the selected portion of the visual content smaller and could decrease the angle θ to zoom-in to make the selected portion of the visual content larger, or vice-versa.
  • [0053]
    FIG. 6 illustrates another example of hand gestures 250 for use in a gesture recognition interface system in accordance with an aspect of the invention. The hand gestures 250 include a gesture 252 in which the user's hand 24 alternates between a first gesture position 254 and a second gesture position 256. Specifically, the first gesture position 254 is demonstrated as a flat, open hand with all fingers extended and joined together and the thumb retracted alongside the hand 24. The second gesture position 256 is demonstrated as a closed-fist. The user can thus alternate from the first gesture position 254 to the second gesture position 256 back to the first gesture position 254 at least once. In response, the controller 26 can be configured to toggle between a list of menu items on an application in the visual content for every alternation between the first and second gesture positions 254 and 256. For example, the controller 26 can be configured to toggle between pen colors in a virtual dry-erase board application. Therefore, the controller 26 can select a different color every time the user's hand 24 is positioned in the second gesture position 256. It is to be understood that the gesture 252 is not limited to the manner demonstrated in the example of FIG. 6, but that the first and second gesture positions 254 and 256 can be switched, such that the gesture 252 begins with the second gesture position 256.
  • [0054]
    The hand gestures 250 also include gestures 258 and 260 in which the user's hand 24 begins positioned in the flat, open hand with all fingers extended and joined together and the thumb retracted alongside the hand 24. While maintaining the user's hand 24 in the flat, open hand position, the user then rotates the wrist approximately 180 degrees. The gesture 258 could also include a slight lateral motion of the user's hand 24 during the rotation, such as to simulate a stationary hinge on one side of the user's hand 24. In response to the gesture 258, the controller 26 can be configured to page-up or page-down in a selected document in the visual content, such that the gesture 258 intuitively simulates the turning of a page in a book. Therefore, the orientation of the palm of the user's hand 24, as well as the direction of rotation, can be indicative of whether the user is paging forward or paging backward. The gesture 260 is demonstrated as substantially the same as the gesture 258, except that the gesture 260 also includes a forward motion of the user's hand 24, such that the gesture 260 can be an alternative to the gesture 258 or can result in a similar function. As an example, the gesture 260 can correspond to the paging forward or backward by multiple pages instead of one page in the document.
  • [0055]
    In addition, the gestures 258 and 260 can also include subsequent gestures that can provide different device inputs via the controller 26. For example, upon implementing either of the gestures 258 or 260, the user's hand 24 could be maintained in the flat, open hand position and moved upward or downward to correspond to a slow scrolling of the document in the visual content. As another example, while substantially maintaining the flat, open hand position of the user's hand 24, the user can implement another gesture with the user's hand 24 or with the opposing hand 25 (not shown in the gestures 258 and 260), to page-up or page-down in the document again. For example, upon implementing the gesture 258 or 260, the user could flick the index finger, extend and retract the thumb, or perform a gesture with his or her other hand to repeat the page-up or page-down device input of the gesture 258 or the gesture 260. As yet a further example, the user could extend two or three fingers of the opposing hand 25 for a duration of time while substantially maintaining the flat, open hand position of the user's hand 24. As such, the controller 26 can be configured to initiate auto-turning of pages of the document while substantially maintaining the flat, open hand position of the user's hand 24, such that an acceleration and deceleration of the auto-turning can be controlled proportional to the duration of extension of the two or three fingers of the opposing hand 25.
  • [0056]
    The hand gestures 250 also include a gesture 262 that includes both of the user's hands 24 and 25. In the gesture 262, the user's hands 24 and 25 are each positioned with the index finger extended and pointing to the background surface and/or visual content. The index fingers could be in contact with the background surface and/or visual content or could be in free space in the foreground of the background surface and/or visual content. The ends of the index fingers are demonstrated at a distance “X” apart from each other at the beginning of the gesture 262. The user could then move the hands 24 and 25 laterally relative to each other to change the distance from “X” to “Y”. In the example of FIG. 6, the gesture 262 demonstrates movement of the index fingers further apart, but it is to be understood that the movement could also be closer together. In response, the controller 26 can be configured to zoom the visual content, such as a selected portion of the visual content or the entire visual content. As an example, the endpoints of the index fingers can correspond to reference points on the visual content, such that the movement of the endpoints relative to each other likewise proportionally moves the reference points on the visual content relative to each other to zoom the visual content by the proportional amount (i.e., by a ratio of X/Y or Y/X).
  • [0057]
    FIG. 7 illustrates yet another example of hand gestures 300 for use in a gesture recognition interface system in accordance with an aspect of the invention. The hand gestures 300 include gestures 302, 304, and 308 in which the user's hand 24 switches from a substantially flat, open hand gesture to a closed hand gesture. Specifically, in the gesture 302, the user's hand 24 switches from the flat, open hand gesture to a closed-fist. In the gesture 304, the user's hand 24 switches from the flat, open hand gesture to a grip in which the thumb is in contact with the distal ends of one or more fingers, demonstrated in the example of FIG. 7 as all of the fingers. In the gesture 306, the user's hand 24 switches from the flat, open hand gesture to a claw-like grip, in which all of the fingers and the thumb of the user's hand 24 are bent at a knuckle that is not the most proximal to the hand 24 itself. Each of the gestures 302, 304, and 306 can correspond to “grasping” a portion of the visual content. As an example, the user's hand 24 can touch the background surface and/or visual content corresponding to the portion of the visual content to be grasped, such that the gestures 302, 304, and 306 correspond to selection of the portion of visual content for further interaction.
  • [0058]
    As an example, in the gesture 302, the user's hand 24 can be moved in the X, Y, and/or Z direction while maintaining the closed-fist. In response, the controller 26 can be configured to move the corresponding portion of the visual content in the corresponding X, Y, and/or Z direction. As another example, in the gestures 304 and 306, the user's hand 24 can be rotated based on a rotation at the wrist while maintaining the thumb and finger contact of the gesture 304 or the claw-like grip of the gesture 306. In response, the controller 26 can be configured to rotate the corresponding portion of the visual content in the direction of rotation of the user's hand 24. In addition, in the gestures 302, 304, and 306, the user's hand 24 could be both moved and rotated, such that the controller could likewise both move and rotate the corresponding portion of the visual content.
  • [0059]
    The hand gestures 300 also include a gesture 308 in which the user's hand 24 is positioned with both an extended index finger and an extended thumb and a gesture 310 in which the user's hand 24 is positioned with an extended index finger, an extended middle finger, and an extended thumb. As an example, the gestures 308 and 310 could be implemented to point the extended index finger in the gesture 308 or both extended fingers in the gesture 310 to a portion of background surface and/or visual content. The user can then retract the thumb to initiate a tilt and/or pan command of the corresponding portion of the visual content to which the extended finger or fingers point. Therefore, the portion of the visual content can be tilted and/or panned based on rotation of the wrist and/or orientation of the index finger as long as the thumb remains retracted. Accordingly, the gestures 308 and 310 can be compound gestures, such as to include a reference sub-gesture (i.e., the pointing of the finger(s) to refer to the portion of the visual content) and an execution sub-gesture (i.e., the retraction of the thumb to initiate the pan and/or tilt).
  • [0060]
    The hand gestures 300 also include a gesture 312 in which the user's hand 24 is positioned with an extended index finger, an extended little finger, and an extended thumb. As an example, the extended fingers can refer to a portion of the visual content, such as a menu or document. The user can then retract the thumb to initiate a speed scrolling command of the corresponding portion of the visual content, such as similar to depressing the scroll wheel of a mouse. The speed scrolling can be initiated in a specific direction (e.g., forward) without additional motion of the user's hand 24, or can be direction specific based on motion of the hand 24 upward or downward. As an example, the speed scrolling can continue until the user extends the thumb again. Therefore, similar to as described above with respect to the gesture 310, the gesture 312 can be a compound gesture.
  • [0061]
    FIG. 8 illustrates yet a further example of hand gestures 350 for use in a gesture recognition interface system in accordance with an aspect of the invention. In the example of FIG. 8, the hand gestures 350 are all compound gestures that include both a reference sub-gesture and an execution sub-gesture. The hand gestures 350 include a gesture 352 in which the user's hand 24 is positioned such that an extended index finger can point to a portion of the visual content as a reference sub-gesture. The gesture 352 also includes an execution sub-gesture in which the user's hand 24 is moved forward toward the portion of the visual content. As an example, the portion of the visual content can be a menu tab or option list. Thus, in response to the motion of the hand 24 toward the portion of the visual content, the controller 26 can be configured to open (i.e., “pull down”) the menu or expand the option list, such as to reveal more options in the menu or option list.
  • [0062]
    The hand gestures 350 include a gesture 354 in which the user's hand 24 is positioned such that an extended index finger can point to a portion of the visual content as a reference sub-gesture. The gesture 354 also demonstrates that the thumb is likewise extended, although it could also be retracted. As an example, the portion of the visual content can be an Internet browser window. The gesture 354 also includes an execution sub-gesture in which the index finger of the user's hand 24 is “triggered”, such that it is rapidly bent at a distal knuckle and re-extended. In response to the triggering of the index finger, the controller 26 can be configured to return the Internet browser to an immediately preceding webpage, such as similar to clicking on a “Back” button of a given Internet browser. The gesture 354 can also include other components, such as a triggering (e.g., rapid retraction and re-extension) of the thumb being equivalent to a “Forward” button, or any of a variety of other gesture options.
  • [0063]
    The hand gestures 350 include gestures 356 and 358. The gesture 356 is demonstrated with the user's hand 24 while the gesture 358 is demonstrated as incorporating both of the user's hands 24 and 25. The gestures 356 and 358 each include a reference sub-gesture, demonstrated with the gesture 356 as a pointing of the index finger toward a portion of the visual content and demonstrated with the gesture 358 as the index finger of each of the user's hands 24 and 25 longitudinally joined together and pointing to a portion of the visual content. As an example, the user's hands 24 and 25 can also be held together, such as palm-to-palm, and could include interlocking of the remaining fingers.
  • [0064]
    The gestures 356 and 358 also each include an execution sub-gesture. The execution sub-gesture of the gesture 356 is demonstrated as a sudden drop of the user's hand 24 in the downward direction, followed by a slight upward motion, all while maintaining the extension of the index finger. The execution sub-gesture of the gesture 358 is demonstrated as a rapid jabbing motion with both of the user's hands 24 while maintaining the joining and pointing of the index fingers, such that the hands 24 and 25 are rapidly moved forward then backward. As an example, the execution sub-gestures of each of the gestures 356 and 358 can correspond to selection of the portion of the visual content for further interaction. As another example, the execution sub-gesture of the gesture 356 can correspond to movement of an entity in a computer assisted drawing (CAD) application, such as in the direction of the reference sub-gesture, or can correspond to sending a selected video feed to another display to which the index finger points.
  • [0065]
    The hand gestures 200, 250, 300, and 350 are not intended to be limited to the examples of FIGS. 5-8. Specifically, the hand gestures 200, 250, 300, and 350 are merely examples of gestures that can be implemented in the gesture recognition interface system 10, and are not intended to be an exhaustive list. In addition, the hand gestures 200, 250, 300, and 350 are not intended to be limited to the described corresponding device inputs. Therefore, any of a variety of additional gestures, variations of the hand gestures 200, 250, 300, and 350, and corresponding device inputs can be implemented in the gesture recognition interface system 10.
  • [0066]
    In view of the foregoing structural and functional features described above, a methodology in accordance with various aspects of the present invention will be better appreciated with reference to FIG. 9. While, for purposes of simplicity of explanation, the methodologies of FIG. 9 are shown and described as executing serially, it is to be understood and appreciated that the present invention is not limited by the illustrated order, as some aspects could, in accordance with the present invention, occur in different orders and/or concurrently with other aspects from that shown and described herein. Moreover, not all illustrated features may be required to implement a methodology in accordance with an aspect of the present invention.
  • [0067]
    FIG. 9 illustrates an example of a method 400 for providing device inputs in accordance with an aspect of the invention. At 402, hand gestures performed via a bare hand of a user in a foreground of a background surface are illuminated with at least one infrared (IR) light source. The bare hand could be the user's hand unadorned with sensors or gloves suited especially for gesture recognition. The bare hand could include both hands of the user. The hand gestures could be any of a variety of gestures intended to provide a device input to a gesture recognition interface system. The background surface can be a retroreflective screen, the floor beneath a vertical display screen, or an IR diffusive screen. At 404, a first plurality of silhouette images associated with the bare hand are generated based on an IR light contrast between the bare hand and the background surface. At 406, a second plurality of silhouette images associated with the bare hand are generated based on an IR light contrast between the bare hand and the background surface. The silhouette images can be based on bright IR light that is reflected or emitted from the background surface, or can be based on reflected IR light from the hand in contrast to a dark background. The images can be obtained from at least one camera, such as two stereo cameras that obtain the first and second pluralities of images, respectively. The time-divided images could be obtained from a single camera, such that the first and second silhouette images are based on alternating strobes of a first and second IR light source.
  • [0068]
    At 408, a plurality of three-dimensional features of the bare hand are determined relative to the background surface based on a parallax separation of the bare hand in the first plurality of silhouette images relative to the second plurality of silhouette images. The first and second pluralities of images can form matched sets of images that demonstrate the bare hand having a relative parallax separation that is determinative of the three-dimensional features. The three-dimensional features can include location, pitch and/or orientation of the hand, fingers, and fingertips. At 410, a provided input gesture is determined based on the plurality of three-dimensional features of the bare hand. The matched sets of images can be buffered, such that sequential images can be determinative of motion of the hand.
  • [0069]
    At 412, the provided input gesture is compared with a plurality of predefined gesture inputs in a gesture library. The gesture library can be a memory having the predefined gestures. The predefined gestures can each correspond to a specific device input. The predefined gestures can correspond to any of the hand gestures 200, 250, 300, and 350 in the example of FIGS. 5-8. At 414, at least one device input corresponding to interaction with displayed visual content is provided based on the provided input gesture corresponding to one of the plurality of predefined gesture inputs. The device input can be a computer input that interacts with the visual content. The input gesture can be a compound gesture, such that a sub-gesture refers to a portion of the visual content and an execution sub-gesture performs a function on the referenced portion of the visual content.
  • [0070]
    What have been described above are examples of the present invention. It is, of course, not possible to describe every conceivable combination of components or methodologies for purposes of describing the present invention, but one of ordinary skill in the art will recognize that many further combinations and permutations of the present invention are possible. Accordingly, the present invention is intended to embrace all such alterations, modifications and variations that fall within the spirit and scope of the appended claims.
Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US200600 *Oct 18, 1877Feb 26, 1878P OneImprovement in fire-escapes
US4468694 *Oct 15, 1982Aug 28, 1984International Business Machines CorporationApparatus and method for remote displaying and sensing of information using shadow parallax
US4843568 *Apr 11, 1986Jun 27, 1989Krueger Myron WReal time perception of and response to the actions of an unencumbered participant/user
US4924506 *Nov 5, 1987May 8, 1990Schlumberger Systems & Services, Inc.Method for directly measuring area and volume using binocular stereo vision
US5220441 *Sep 28, 1990Jun 15, 1993Eastman Kodak CompanyMechanism for determining parallax between digital images
US5239373 *Dec 26, 1990Aug 24, 1993Xerox CorporationVideo computational shared drawing space
US5475422 *Jun 20, 1994Dec 12, 1995Nippon Telegraph And Telephone CorporationMethod and apparatus for reconstructing three-dimensional objects
US5483261 *Oct 26, 1993Jan 9, 1996Itu Research, Inc.Graphical input controller and method with rear screen image detection
US5528263 *Jun 15, 1994Jun 18, 1996Daniel M. PlatzkerInteractive projected video image display system
US5563988 *Aug 1, 1994Oct 8, 1996Massachusetts Institute Of TechnologyMethod and system for facilitating wireless, full-body, real-time user interaction with a digitally represented visual environment
US5805167 *Oct 30, 1996Sep 8, 1998Van Cruyningen; IzakPopup menus with directional gestures
US5913727 *Jun 13, 1997Jun 22, 1999Ahdoot; NedInteractive movement and contact simulation game
US5999185 *Mar 30, 1993Dec 7, 1999Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaVirtual reality control using image, model and control data to manipulate interactions
US6002808 *Jul 26, 1996Dec 14, 1999Mitsubishi Electric Information Technology Center America, Inc.Hand gesture control system
US6128003 *Dec 22, 1997Oct 3, 2000Hitachi, Ltd.Hand gesture recognition system and method
US6147678 *Dec 9, 1998Nov 14, 2000Lucent Technologies Inc.Video hand image-three-dimensional computer interface with multiple degrees of freedom
US6195104 *Dec 23, 1997Feb 27, 2001Philips Electronics North America Corp.System and method for permitting three-dimensional navigation through a virtual reality environment using camera-based gesture inputs
US6204852 *Dec 9, 1998Mar 20, 2001Lucent Technologies Inc.Video hand image three-dimensional computer interface
US6208329 *Aug 13, 1996Mar 27, 2001Lsi Logic CorporationSupplemental mouse button emulation system, method and apparatus for a coordinate based data input device
US6222465 *Dec 9, 1998Apr 24, 2001Lucent Technologies Inc.Gesture-based computer interface
US6222852 *Apr 3, 2000Apr 24, 2001Nortel Networks LimitedMethod and apparatus for transmitting dual speed ethernet information (10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX) across a physical layer device service interface
US6313853 *Apr 16, 1998Nov 6, 2001Nortel Networks LimitedMulti-service user interface
US6327381 *Jan 9, 1998Dec 4, 2001Worldscape, LlcImage transformation and synthesis methods
US6353428 *Feb 10, 1998Mar 5, 2002Siemens AktiengesellschaftMethod and device for detecting an object in an area radiated by waves in the invisible spectral range
US6359612 *Sep 29, 1999Mar 19, 2002Siemens AktiengesellschaftImaging system for displaying image information that has been acquired by means of a medical diagnostic imaging device
US6385331 *Mar 18, 1998May 7, 2002Takenaka CorporationHand pointing device
US6434255 *Oct 23, 1998Aug 13, 2002Takenaka CorporationHand pointing apparatus
US6512507 *Mar 26, 1999Jan 28, 2003Seiko Epson CorporationPointing position detection device, presentation system, and method, and computer-readable medium
US6624833 *Apr 17, 2000Sep 23, 2003Lucent Technologies Inc.Gesture-based input interface system with shadow detection
US6681031 *Aug 10, 1999Jan 20, 2004Cybernet Systems CorporationGesture-controlled interfaces for self-service machines and other applications
US6695770 *Apr 3, 2000Feb 24, 2004Dominic Kin Leung ChoySimulated human interaction systems
US6714901 *Nov 13, 1998Mar 30, 2004Inria Institut National De Recherche En Informatique Et En AutomatiqueElectronic device for processing image-data, for simulating the behaviour of a deformable object
US6720949 *Aug 21, 1998Apr 13, 2004Timothy R. PryorMan machine interfaces and applications
US6788809 *Jun 30, 2000Sep 7, 2004Intel CorporationSystem and method for gesture recognition in three dimensions using stereo imaging and color vision
US6796656 *Jun 14, 2003Sep 28, 2004Imatte, Inc.Generating a matte signal from a retro reflective component of a front projection screen
US6806849 *Mar 20, 2002Oct 19, 2004Lightspace Technologies AbMulti-planar volumetric display system and method of operation using multi-planar interlacing
US6857746 *May 7, 2003Feb 22, 2005Io2 Technology, LlcMethod and system for free-space imaging display and interface
US6950534 *Jan 16, 2004Sep 27, 2005Cybernet Systems CorporationGesture-controlled interfaces for self-service machines and other applications
US6956573 *Nov 14, 1997Oct 18, 2005Sarnoff CorporationMethod and apparatus for efficiently representing storing and accessing video information
US6983065 *Dec 28, 2001Jan 3, 2006Cognex Technology And Investment CorporationMethod for extracting features from an image using oriented filters
US7042440 *Jul 21, 2003May 9, 2006Pryor Timothy RMan machine interfaces and applications
US7129927 *Sep 13, 2002Oct 31, 2006Hans Arvid MattsonGesture recognition system
US7259747 *May 28, 2002Aug 21, 2007Reactrix Systems, Inc.Interactive video display system
US7348963 *Aug 5, 2005Mar 25, 2008Reactrix Systems, Inc.Interactive video display system
US7411575 *Sep 16, 2003Aug 12, 2008Smart Technologies UlcGesture recognition method and touch system incorporating the same
US7598942 *Feb 8, 2006Oct 6, 2009Oblong Industries, Inc.System and method for gesture based control system
US7701439 *Jul 13, 2006Apr 20, 2010Northrop Grumman CorporationGesture recognition simulation system and method
US7956847 *Jun 7, 2011Apple Inc.Gestures for controlling, manipulating, and editing of media files using touch sensitive devices
US20010006426 *Jan 25, 2001Jul 5, 2001Korea Institute Of Science And TechnologyHolographic projection screen for displaying a three-dimensional color images and optical display system using the holographic screen
US20010043719 *Mar 18, 1998Nov 22, 2001Kenichi HarakawaHand pointing device
US20020090146 *Jan 7, 2002Jul 11, 2002Siemens AktiengesellschaftHand recognition with position determination
US20020093666 *Jan 17, 2001Jul 18, 2002Jonathan FooteSystem and method for determining the location of a target in a room or small area
US20020122113 *Nov 20, 2001Sep 5, 2002Foote Jonathan T.Method and system for compensating for parallax in multiple camera systems
US20020126161 *May 30, 2001Sep 12, 2002Hitachi, Ltd.Information processing system
US20020186251 *Jun 7, 2001Dec 12, 2002International Business Machines CorporationMethod, apparatus and computer program product for context-sensitive scrolling
US20030058341 *Jul 3, 2002Mar 27, 2003Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.Video based detection of fall-down and other events
US20030067537 *Nov 14, 2001Apr 10, 2003Myers Kenneth J.System and method for three-dimensional data acquisition
US20030085866 *Jun 6, 2001May 8, 2003Oliver BimberExtended virtual table: an optical extension for table-like projection systems
US20030156756 *Feb 18, 2003Aug 21, 2003Gokturk Salih BurakGesture recognition system using depth perceptive sensors
US20030218761 *Sep 17, 2002Nov 27, 2003Carlo TomasiMethod and apparatus for approximating depth of an object's placement onto a monitored region with applications to virtual interface devices
US20040046747 *Sep 26, 2001Mar 11, 2004Eugenio BustamanteProviding input signals
US20040108990 *Nov 26, 2001Jun 10, 2004Klony LiebermanData input device
US20040113885 *May 22, 2002Jun 17, 2004Yakup GencNew input devices for augmented reality applications
US20040125207 *Jul 30, 2003Jul 1, 2004Anurag MittalRobust stereo-driven video-based surveillance
US20040183775 *Dec 15, 2003Sep 23, 2004Reactrix SystemsInteractive directed light/sound system
US20040193413 *Dec 1, 2003Sep 30, 2004Wilson Andrew D.Architecture for controlling a computer using hand gestures
US20050002074 *Jul 2, 2004Jan 6, 2005Holotouch, Inc.Holographic human-machine interfaces
US20050012817 *Jul 15, 2003Jan 20, 2005International Business Machines CorporationSelective surveillance system with active sensor management policies
US20050052714 *Jul 26, 2004Mar 10, 2005Zebra Imaging, Inc.Enhanced environment visualization using holographic stereograms
US20050068537 *Jun 1, 2004Mar 31, 2005New York UniversityMethod and apparatus for determining a bidirectional reflectance distribution function of a subject
US20050088714 *Dec 5, 2004Apr 28, 2005Kremen Stanley H.Method for creating a holographic screen that reconstructs uniformly magnified three-dimensional images from projected integral photographs
US20050110964 *Sep 20, 2004May 26, 2005Matthew BellInteractive video window display system
US20050151850 *Dec 2, 2004Jul 14, 2005Korea Institute Of Science And TechnologyInteractive presentation system
US20050166163 *Jan 23, 2004Jul 28, 2005Chang Nelson L.A.Systems and methods of interfacing with a machine
US20050252714 *Apr 25, 2003Nov 17, 2005Hirofumi GodaSound absorbing body, sound absorbing structural body, and method of manufacturing these bodies
US20060026536 *Jan 31, 2005Feb 2, 2006Apple Computer, Inc.Gestures for touch sensitive input devices
US20060036944 *Aug 10, 2004Feb 16, 2006Microsoft CorporationSurface UI for gesture-based interaction
US20060052953 *Dec 23, 2003Mar 9, 2006Sociedad Espanola De Carburos Metalicos, S.A.Analyzing system for the detection of reducing and oxidizing gases in a carrier gas with a metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor arrangement
US20060125799 *Nov 23, 2005Jun 15, 2006Hillis W DTouch driven method and apparatus to integrate and display multiple image layers forming alternate depictions of same subject matter
US20060187196 *Feb 8, 2006Aug 24, 2006Underkoffler John SSystem and method for gesture based control system
US20060203363 *Aug 4, 2004Sep 14, 2006Patrick Levy-RosenthalThree-dimensional image display system
US20060209021 *Oct 17, 2005Sep 21, 2006Jang Hee YooVirtual mouse driving apparatus and method using two-handed gestures
US20070024590 *May 19, 2005Feb 1, 2007Krepec Rafal JCamera assisted pen tablet
US20070064092 *Sep 9, 2005Mar 22, 2007Sandbeg Roy BMobile video teleconferencing system and control method
US20070252898 *Jun 22, 2007Nov 1, 2007Bruno DeleanRemote control apparatus using gesture recognition
US20070257891 *May 3, 2006Nov 8, 2007Esenther Alan WMethod and system for emulating a mouse on a multi-touch sensitive surface
US20080005703 *Jun 28, 2006Jan 3, 2008Nokia CorporationApparatus, Methods and computer program products providing finger-based and hand-based gesture commands for portable electronic device applications
US20080013793 *Jul 13, 2006Jan 17, 2008Northrop Grumman CorporationGesture recognition simulation system and method
US20080013826 *Jul 13, 2006Jan 17, 2008Northrop Grumman CorporationGesture recognition interface system
US20080028325 *Jul 25, 2006Jan 31, 2008Northrop Grumman CorporationNetworked gesture collaboration system
US20080043106 *Aug 10, 2006Feb 21, 2008Northrop Grumman CorporationStereo camera intrusion detection system
US20080055247 *Sep 5, 2007Mar 6, 2008Marc BoillotMethod and Apparatus for Touchless Calibration
US20080150913 *Oct 30, 2007Jun 26, 2008Matthew BellComputer vision based touch screen
US20080244468 *Jun 5, 2008Oct 2, 2008Nishihara H KeithGesture Recognition Interface System with Vertical Display
US20090015791 *Jul 12, 2007Jan 15, 2009Nelson Liang An ChangSystem and method for generating correspondence mappings using infrared patterns
US20090115721 *Nov 2, 2007May 7, 2009Aull Kenneth WGesture Recognition Light and Video Image Projector
US20090116742 *Nov 1, 2007May 7, 2009H Keith NishiharaCalibration of a Gesture Recognition Interface System
US20090128516 *Nov 6, 2008May 21, 2009N-Trig Ltd.Multi-point detection on a single-point detection digitizer
US20100027843 *Feb 4, 2010Microsoft CorporationSurface ui for gesture-based interaction
US20100050133 *Aug 22, 2008Feb 25, 2010Nishihara H KeithCompound Gesture Recognition
Non-Patent Citations
Reference
1 *Manresa, et al. "Hand Tracking and Gesture Recognition for Human-Computer Interaction." Electronic Letters on Computer Vision and Image Analysis. Computer Vision Center. 2005. pp. 96-104.
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7701439 *Jul 13, 2006Apr 20, 2010Northrop Grumman CorporationGesture recognition simulation system and method
US7719569 *Apr 17, 2009May 18, 2010Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaImage processing apparatus and image processing method
US8013890Mar 30, 2010Sep 6, 2011Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaImage processing apparatus and image processing method for recognizing an object with color
US8121640Mar 19, 2009Feb 21, 2012Microsoft CorporationDual module portable devices
US8139110Nov 1, 2007Mar 20, 2012Northrop Grumman Systems CorporationCalibration of a gesture recognition interface system
US8180114 *May 15, 2012Northrop Grumman Systems CorporationGesture recognition interface system with vertical display
US8234578Jul 31, 2012Northrop Grumman Systems CorporatiomNetworked gesture collaboration system
US8345920Jan 1, 2013Northrop Grumman Systems CorporationGesture recognition interface system with a light-diffusive screen
US8373654 *Feb 12, 2013Acer IncorporatedImage based motion gesture recognition method and system thereof
US8381108 *Jun 21, 2010Feb 19, 2013Microsoft CorporationNatural user input for driving interactive stories
US8396252May 20, 2010Mar 12, 2013Edge 3 TechnologiesSystems and related methods for three dimensional gesture recognition in vehicles
US8432448Aug 10, 2006Apr 30, 2013Northrop Grumman Systems CorporationStereo camera intrusion detection system
US8452057 *Oct 6, 2010May 28, 2013Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd.Projector and projection control method
US8457353 *May 18, 2010Jun 4, 2013Microsoft CorporationGestures and gesture modifiers for manipulating a user-interface
US8467599Aug 31, 2011Jun 18, 2013Edge 3 Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for confusion learning
US8515128Oct 7, 2010Aug 20, 2013Qualcomm IncorporatedHover detection
US8547327 *Oct 13, 2009Oct 1, 2013Qualcomm IncorporatedProximity object tracker
US8582866Feb 10, 2011Nov 12, 2013Edge 3 Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for disparity computation in stereo images
US8589824Jul 13, 2006Nov 19, 2013Northrop Grumman Systems CorporationGesture recognition interface system
US8615108Jul 22, 2013Dec 24, 2013Imimtek, Inc.Systems and methods for initializing motion tracking of human hands
US8625855Feb 7, 2013Jan 7, 2014Edge 3 Technologies LlcThree dimensional gesture recognition in vehicles
US8633890Feb 16, 2010Jan 21, 2014Microsoft CorporationGesture detection based on joint skipping
US8644554Jun 20, 2011Feb 4, 2014Ricoh Company, Ltd.Method, device, and computer-readable medium for detecting object in display area
US8644599May 20, 2013Feb 4, 2014Edge 3 Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for spawning specialist belief propagation networks
US8655021Jul 15, 2013Feb 18, 2014Imimtek, Inc.Systems and methods for tracking human hands by performing parts based template matching using images from multiple viewpoints
US8655093Feb 10, 2011Feb 18, 2014Edge 3 Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for performing segmentation of an image
US8660300 *Dec 12, 2008Feb 25, 2014Silicon Laboratories Inc.Apparatus and method for optical gesture recognition
US8666144Feb 10, 2011Mar 4, 2014Edge 3 Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for determining disparity of texture
US8686943May 14, 2012Apr 1, 2014Imimtek, Inc.Two-dimensional method and system enabling three-dimensional user interaction with a device
US8693724 *May 28, 2010Apr 8, 2014Microsoft CorporationMethod and system implementing user-centric gesture control
US8693726 *Jun 29, 2011Apr 8, 2014Amazon Technologies, Inc.User identification by gesture recognition
US8693731Jan 16, 2013Apr 8, 2014Leap Motion, Inc.Enhanced contrast for object detection and characterization by optical imaging
US8705877Nov 15, 2011Apr 22, 2014Edge 3 Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for fast computational stereo
US8718387Dec 12, 2011May 6, 2014Edge 3 Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for enhanced stereo vision
US8723789Feb 3, 2012May 13, 2014Imimtek, Inc.Two-dimensional method and system enabling three-dimensional user interaction with a device
US8761509Nov 15, 2011Jun 24, 2014Edge 3 Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for fast computational stereo
US8773512Jun 29, 2012Jul 8, 2014Aquifi, Inc.Portable remote control device enabling three-dimensional user interaction with at least one appliance
US8798358Oct 9, 2013Aug 5, 2014Edge 3 Technologies, Inc.Apparatus and method for disparity map generation
US8798669Feb 15, 2012Aug 5, 2014Microsoft CorporationDual module portable devices
US8818027 *Jan 25, 2011Aug 26, 2014Qualcomm IncorporatedComputing device interface
US8818716Mar 15, 2013Aug 26, 2014Honda Motor Co., Ltd.System and method for gesture-based point of interest search
US8823647 *Sep 13, 2012Sep 2, 2014Konami Digital Entertainment Co., Ltd.Movement control device, control method for a movement control device, and non-transitory information storage medium
US8830312Jul 15, 2013Sep 9, 2014Aquifi, Inc.Systems and methods for tracking human hands using parts based template matching within bounded regions
US8840466Apr 20, 2012Sep 23, 2014Aquifi, Inc.Method and system to create three-dimensional mapping in a two-dimensional game
US8847881 *Mar 20, 2012Sep 30, 2014Sony CorporationGesture and voice recognition for control of a device
US8849570Mar 19, 2009Sep 30, 2014Microsoft CorporationProjected way-finding
US8854433Feb 1, 2013Oct 7, 2014Aquifi, Inc.Method and system enabling natural user interface gestures with an electronic system
US8866781May 2, 2013Oct 21, 2014Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.Contactless gesture-based control method and apparatus
US8873841 *Apr 21, 2011Oct 28, 2014Nokia CorporationMethods and apparatuses for facilitating gesture recognition
US8886399Mar 15, 2013Nov 11, 2014Honda Motor Co., Ltd.System and method for controlling a vehicle user interface based on gesture angle
US8891859Jan 1, 2014Nov 18, 2014Edge 3 Technologies, Inc.Method and apparatus for spawning specialist belief propagation networks based upon data classification
US8891868Aug 4, 2011Nov 18, 2014Amazon Technologies, Inc.Recognizing gestures captured by video
US8897496Jul 3, 2013Nov 25, 2014Qualcomm IncorporatedHover detection
US8929612Nov 18, 2011Jan 6, 2015Microsoft CorporationSystem for recognizing an open or closed hand
US8934675May 21, 2013Jan 13, 2015Aquifi, Inc.Systems and methods for tracking human hands by performing parts based template matching using images from multiple viewpoints
US8957851Sep 13, 2012Feb 17, 2015Casio Computer Co., Ltd.Projection apparatus, projection control method and storage medium storing program
US8970589Jul 24, 2011Mar 3, 2015Edge 3 Technologies, Inc.Near-touch interaction with a stereo camera grid structured tessellations
US8972902Aug 22, 2008Mar 3, 2015Northrop Grumman Systems CorporationCompound gesture recognition
US8983178Oct 9, 2013Mar 17, 2015Edge 3 Technologies, Inc.Apparatus and method for performing segment-based disparity decomposition
US8994652 *Feb 15, 2013Mar 31, 2015Intel CorporationModel-based multi-hypothesis target tracker
US8998718Mar 30, 2011Apr 7, 2015Bandai Namco Games Inc.Image generation system, image generation method, and information storage medium
US9043709 *Aug 29, 2011May 26, 2015Lg Electronics Inc.Electronic device and method for providing menu using the same
US9070019Dec 21, 2012Jun 30, 2015Leap Motion, Inc.Systems and methods for capturing motion in three-dimensional space
US9092665May 22, 2013Jul 28, 2015Aquifi, IncSystems and methods for initializing motion tracking of human hands
US9098516 *Jul 18, 2012Aug 4, 2015DS Zodiac, Inc.Multi-dimensional file system
US9098739May 21, 2013Aug 4, 2015Aquifi, Inc.Systems and methods for tracking human hands using parts based template matching
US9105103Jan 23, 2014Aug 11, 2015Leap Motion, Inc.Systems and methods of tracking object movements in three-dimensional space
US9111135Jun 11, 2013Aug 18, 2015Aquifi, Inc.Systems and methods for tracking human hands using parts based template matching using corresponding pixels in bounded regions of a sequence of frames that are a specified distance interval from a reference camera
US9122917Oct 22, 2014Sep 1, 2015Amazon Technologies, Inc.Recognizing gestures captured by video
US9129155Jun 11, 2013Sep 8, 2015Aquifi, Inc.Systems and methods for initializing motion tracking of human hands using template matching within bounded regions determined using a depth map
US9141193 *Aug 31, 2009Sep 22, 2015Microsoft Technology Licensing, LlcTechniques for using human gestures to control gesture unaware programs
US9152853Dec 2, 2013Oct 6, 2015Edge 3Technologies, Inc.Gesture recognition in vehicles
US9153028Dec 13, 2013Oct 6, 2015Leap Motion, Inc.Systems and methods for capturing motion in three-dimensional space
US9171200 *Mar 4, 2011Oct 27, 2015Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.Gestural interaction identification
US9201585 *Sep 17, 2012Dec 1, 2015Amazon Technologies, Inc.User interface navigation gestures
US9207773Mar 21, 2014Dec 8, 2015Aquifi, Inc.Two-dimensional method and system enabling three-dimensional user interaction with a device
US9213411Mar 18, 2013Dec 15, 2015Casio Computer Co., Ltd.Input user interface device, projecting device, command deciding method and program storage medium storing command deciding method program
US9213420 *Mar 20, 2012Dec 15, 2015A9.Com, Inc.Structured lighting based content interactions
US9218119Mar 25, 2011Dec 22, 2015Blackberry LimitedSystem and method for gesture detection and feedback
US9223405 *Mar 14, 2012Dec 29, 2015Electronics And Telecommunications Research InstituteApparatus and method for inputting information based on events
US9223415Jan 17, 2012Dec 29, 2015Amazon Technologies, Inc.Managing resource usage for task performance
US9251409 *Oct 18, 2011Feb 2, 2016Nokia Technologies OyMethods and apparatuses for gesture recognition
US9274747Feb 19, 2013Mar 1, 2016Microsoft Technology Licensing, LlcNatural user input for driving interactive stories
US9285874Feb 9, 2012Mar 15, 2016Apple Inc.Gaze detection in a 3D mapping environment
US9285893Jan 18, 2013Mar 15, 2016Leap Motion, Inc.Object detection and tracking with variable-field illumination devices
US9298266Aug 12, 2013Mar 29, 2016Aquifi, Inc.Systems and methods for implementing three-dimensional (3D) gesture based graphical user interfaces (GUI) that incorporate gesture reactive interface objects
US9304646Mar 20, 2012Apr 5, 2016A9.Com, Inc.Multi-user content interactions
US9310891Sep 3, 2014Apr 12, 2016Aquifi, Inc.Method and system enabling natural user interface gestures with user wearable glasses
US9317134Aug 21, 2013Apr 19, 2016Qualcomm IncorporatedProximity object tracker
US9323395Jan 20, 2015Apr 26, 2016Edge 3 TechnologiesNear touch interaction with structured light
US9324154Mar 27, 2014Apr 26, 2016Edge 3 TechnologiesMethod and apparatus for enhancing stereo vision through image segmentation
US9330470Dec 19, 2013May 3, 2016Intel CorporationMethod and system for modeling subjects from a depth map
US9342146 *Aug 7, 2013May 17, 2016Apple Inc.Pointing-based display interaction
US9342189 *Feb 12, 2014May 17, 2016Canon Kabushiki KaishaInformation processing apparatus and information processing method for obtaining three-dimensional coordinate position of an object
US9342230 *Mar 13, 2013May 17, 2016Microsoft Technology Licensing, LlcNatural user interface scrolling and targeting
US9363549 *May 12, 2014Jun 7, 2016Sony CorporationGesture and voice recognition for control of a device
US9367124Mar 20, 2012Jun 14, 2016A9.Com, Inc.Multi-application content interactions
US20080013793 *Jul 13, 2006Jan 17, 2008Northrop Grumman CorporationGesture recognition simulation system and method
US20080013826 *Jul 13, 2006Jan 17, 2008Northrop Grumman CorporationGesture recognition interface system
US20080028325 *Jul 25, 2006Jan 31, 2008Northrop Grumman CorporationNetworked gesture collaboration system
US20080043106 *Aug 10, 2006Feb 21, 2008Northrop Grumman CorporationStereo camera intrusion detection system
US20080244468 *Jun 5, 2008Oct 2, 2008Nishihara H KeithGesture Recognition Interface System with Vertical Display
US20090115721 *Nov 2, 2007May 7, 2009Aull Kenneth WGesture Recognition Light and Video Image Projector
US20090116742 *Nov 1, 2007May 7, 2009H Keith NishiharaCalibration of a Gesture Recognition Interface System
US20090295927 *Dec 3, 2009Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaImage processing apparatus and image processing method
US20090316952 *Jun 20, 2008Dec 24, 2009Bran FerrenGesture recognition interface system with a light-diffusive screen
US20100050133 *Aug 22, 2008Feb 25, 2010Nishihara H KeithCompound Gesture Recognition
US20100066676 *Mar 18, 2010Oblong Industries, Inc.Gestural Control of Autonomous and Semi-Autonomous Systems
US20100150399 *Dec 12, 2008Jun 17, 2010Miroslav SvajdaApparatus and method for optical gesture recognition
US20100183221 *Mar 30, 2010Jul 22, 2010Kabushiki Kaisha ToshibaImage processing apparatus and image processing method
US20100240390 *Mar 19, 2009Sep 23, 2010Microsoft CorporationDual Module Portable Devices
US20100241348 *Mar 19, 2009Sep 23, 2010Microsoft CorporationProjected Way-Finding
US20100241987 *Mar 19, 2009Sep 23, 2010Microsoft CorporationTear-Drop Way-Finding User Interfaces
US20100241999 *Mar 19, 2009Sep 23, 2010Microsoft CorporationCanvas Manipulation Using 3D Spatial Gestures
US20100295783 *May 20, 2010Nov 25, 2010Edge3 Technologies LlcGesture recognition systems and related methods
US20100306714 *Dec 2, 2010Microsoft CorporationGesture Shortcuts
US20100306716 *May 29, 2009Dec 2, 2010Microsoft CorporationExtending standard gestures
US20100321289 *Jun 14, 2010Dec 23, 2010Samsung Electronics Co. Ltd.Mobile device having proximity sensor and gesture based user interface method thereof
US20100321293 *Jan 6, 2010Dec 23, 2010Sonix Technology Co., Ltd.Command generation method and computer using the same
US20110055846 *Aug 31, 2009Mar 3, 2011Microsoft CorporationTechniques for using human gestures to control gesture unaware programs
US20110080490 *Apr 7, 2011Gesturetek, Inc.Proximity object tracker
US20110179368 *Jul 21, 2011King Nicholas V3D View Of File Structure
US20110234543 *Sep 29, 2011User Interfaces In Sweden AbSystem and method for gesture detection and feedback
US20110243380 *Oct 6, 2011Qualcomm IncorporatedComputing device interface
US20110267258 *Apr 29, 2010Nov 3, 2011Acer IncorporatedImage based motion gesture recognition method and system thereof
US20110267262 *Nov 3, 2011Jacques GollierLaser Scanning Projector Device for Interactive Screen Applications
US20110268365 *Nov 3, 2011Acer Incorporated3d hand posture recognition system and vision based hand posture recognition method thereof
US20110280441 *Nov 17, 2011Hon Hai Precision Industry Co., Ltd.Projector and projection control method
US20110289456 *Nov 24, 2011Microsoft CorporationGestures And Gesture Modifiers For Manipulating A User-Interface
US20110296353 *Dec 1, 2011Canesta, Inc.Method and system implementing user-centric gesture control
US20110304613 *Dec 15, 2011Sony Ericsson Mobile Communications AbAutospectroscopic display device and method for operating an auto-stereoscopic display device
US20110314381 *Jun 21, 2010Dec 22, 2011Microsoft CorporationNatural user input for driving interactive stories
US20120016960 *Apr 16, 2009Jan 19, 2012Gelb Daniel GManaging shared content in virtual collaboration systems
US20120050007 *Aug 24, 2010Mar 1, 2012Babak ForutanpourMethods and apparatus for interacting with an electronic device application by moving an object in the air over an electronic device display
US20120096406 *Apr 19, 2012Lg Electronics Inc.Electronic device and method for providing menu using the same
US20120120029 *Nov 20, 2009May 17, 2012Mccarthy John PDisplay to determine gestures
US20120139827 *Jun 7, 2012Li Kevin AMethod and apparatus for interacting with projected displays using shadows
US20120192118 *Mar 31, 2011Jul 26, 2012Migos Charles JDevice, Method, and Graphical User Interface for Navigating through an Electronic Document
US20120235906 *Sep 20, 2012Electronics And Telecommunications Research InstituteApparatus and method for inputting information based on events
US20120272194 *Apr 21, 2011Oct 25, 2012Nokia CorporationMethods and apparatuses for facilitating gesture recognition
US20120319813 *Jan 14, 2011Dec 20, 2012Electronics And Telecommunications Research Inst.Apparatus and method for processing a scene
US20130004016 *Jun 29, 2011Jan 3, 2013Karakotsios Kenneth MUser identification by gesture recognition
US20130033422 *Aug 6, 2012Feb 7, 2013Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Electronic apparatus using motion recognition and method for controlling electronic apparatus thereof
US20130127712 *Mar 20, 2012May 23, 2013Koji MatsubayashiGesture and voice recognition for control of a device
US20130141327 *Dec 3, 2012Jun 6, 2013Wistron Corp.Gesture input method and system
US20130194175 *Sep 13, 2012Aug 1, 2013Konami Digital Entertainment Co., Ltd.Movement control device, control method for a movement control device, and non-transitory information storage medium
US20130249937 *Mar 20, 2012Sep 26, 2013A9.Com, Inc.Structured lighting based content interactions
US20130300662 *Mar 15, 2013Nov 14, 2013Hung-Ta LIUControl system with gesture-based input method
US20130321271 *Aug 7, 2013Dec 5, 2013Primesense LtdPointing-based display interaction
US20130343611 *Mar 4, 2011Dec 26, 2013Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.Gestural interaction identification
US20140028546 *Jul 24, 2013Jan 30, 2014Lg Electronics Inc.Terminal and control method thereof
US20140028861 *Jul 26, 2013Jan 30, 2014David HolzObject detection and tracking
US20140085265 *Sep 27, 2012Mar 27, 2014Apple Inc.Directional Light Sensors
US20140157209 *Mar 12, 2013Jun 5, 2014Google Inc.System and method for detecting gestures
US20140160013 *Nov 26, 2013Jun 12, 2014Pixart Imaging Inc.Switching device
US20140160030 *Aug 7, 2012Jun 12, 2014Cypress Semiconductor CorporationSensor system and method for mapping and creating gestures
US20140219515 *Apr 7, 2014Aug 7, 2014Amazon Technologies, Inc.User identification by gesture recognition
US20140232631 *Feb 15, 2013Aug 21, 2014Intel CorporationModel-based multi-hypothesis target tracker
US20140232696 *Feb 12, 2014Aug 21, 2014Canon Kabushiki KaishaInformation processing apparatus and information processing method
US20140282223 *Mar 13, 2013Sep 18, 2014Microsoft CorporationNatural user interface scrolling and targeting
US20140286535 *Oct 18, 2011Sep 25, 2014Nokia CorporationMethods and Apparatuses for Gesture Recognition
US20140289778 *May 12, 2014Sep 25, 2014Sony CorporationGesture and voice recognition for control of a device
US20140347263 *Nov 20, 2013Nov 27, 2014Fastvdo LlcMotion-Assisted Visual Language For Human Computer Interfaces
US20140368434 *Jun 13, 2013Dec 18, 2014Microsoft CorporationGeneration of text by way of a touchless interface
US20150002391 *Jun 27, 2014Jan 1, 2015Chia Ming ChenSystems and methods for controlling device operation according to hand gestures
US20150015542 *Mar 31, 2014Jan 15, 2015Lenovo (Beijing) Co., Ltd.Control Method And Electronic Device
US20150199018 *Jan 14, 2014Jul 16, 2015Microsoft Corporation3d silhouette sensing system
US20150199021 *Nov 6, 2014Jul 16, 2015Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.Display apparatus and method for controlling display apparatus thereof
US20150248582 *Jan 7, 2015Sep 3, 2015Electronics And Telecommunications Research InstituteMethod and apparatus for recognizing hand motion
US20150309681 *Apr 23, 2014Oct 29, 2015Google Inc.Depth-based mode switching for touchless gestural interfaces
CN102012740A *Nov 15, 2010Apr 13, 2011中国科学院深圳先进技术研究院Man-machine interaction method and system
CN102870122A *Apr 30, 2010Jan 9, 2013汤姆森特许公司Method and apparatus of PUSH & PULL gesture recognition in 3D system
CN103019014A *Sep 21, 2012Apr 3, 2013卡西欧计算机株式会社Projection apparatus, and projection control method
CN103069363A *Aug 24, 2011Apr 24, 2013高通股份有限公司Methods and apparatus for interacting with an electronic device application by moving an object in the air over an electronic device display
CN103154868A *Apr 27, 2011Jun 12, 2013康宁公司Laser scanning projector device for interactive screen applications
CN103208002A *Apr 10, 2013Jul 17, 2013桂林电子科技大学Method and system used for recognizing and controlling gesture and based on hand profile feature
CN103229127A *May 21, 2012Jul 31, 2013华为技术有限公司Method and device for contact-free control by hand gesture
CN103324282A *Mar 21, 2013Sep 25, 2013卡西欧计算机株式会社Input user interface device, projecting device and command deciding method
CN103425238A *May 21, 2012Dec 4, 2013刘鸿达Control system cloud system with gestures as input
CN103425239A *May 21, 2012Dec 4, 2013刘鸿达Control system with facial expressions as input
CN103440035A *Aug 20, 2013Dec 11, 2013华南理工大学Gesture recognition system in three-dimensional space and recognition method thereof
CN104145276A *Jan 16, 2013Nov 12, 2014厉动公司Enhanced contrast for object detection and characterization by optical imaging
EP2369443A2 *Mar 25, 2011Sep 28, 2011User Interface in Sweden ABSystem and method for gesture detection and feedback
EP2371434A3 *Mar 31, 2011Jun 19, 2013NAMCO BANDAI Games Inc.Image generation system, image generation method, and information storage medium
EP2457143A1 *Nov 20, 2009May 30, 2012Hewlett-Packard Development Company, L.P.Display to determine gestures
EP2619640A4 *Sep 11, 2011Dec 30, 2015Microsoft Technology Licensing LlcInteractive display
EP2631739A2 *May 21, 2012Aug 28, 2013Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.Method and device for contact-free control by hand gesture
EP2631739A4 *May 21, 2012Sep 11, 2013Huawei Tech Co LtdContactless gesture-based control method and apparatus
EP2853989A1 *May 21, 2012Apr 1, 2015Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd.Contactless gesture-based control method and apparatus
EP2894544A1 *Dec 29, 2014Jul 15, 2015Samsung Electronics Co., LtdDisplay apparatus and method for controlling display apparatus thereof
WO2011134112A1 *Apr 30, 2010Nov 3, 2011Thomson LicensingMethod and apparatus of push & pull gesture recognition in 3d system
WO2013003424A1 *Jun 27, 2012Jan 3, 2013Amazon Technologies, Inc.User identification by gesture recognition
WO2013109609A2 *Jan 16, 2013Jul 25, 2013Leap Motion, Inc.Enhanced contrast for object detection and characterization by optical imaging
WO2013109609A3 *Jan 16, 2013Oct 31, 2013Leap Motion, Inc.Enhanced contrast for object detection and characterization by optical imaging
WO2014116882A1 *Jan 23, 2014Jul 31, 2014Leap Motion, Inc.Systems and methods of tracking object movements in three-dimensional space
WO2014210502A1 *Jun 27, 2014Dec 31, 2014Chia Ming ChenControlling device operation according to hand gestures
WO2015160849A1 *Apr 14, 2015Oct 22, 2015Motionsavvy, Inc.Systems and methods for recognition and translation of gestures
WO2016021022A1 *Aug 7, 2014Feb 11, 2016日立マクセル株式会社Projection image display device and method for controlling same
Classifications
U.S. Classification382/103, 345/156
International ClassificationG09G5/00, G06K9/00
Cooperative ClassificationG06F3/0304, G06K9/00355, G06F3/0425, G06F3/017
European ClassificationG06F3/042C, G06F3/03H, G06F3/01G, G06K9/00G2
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Dec 17, 2008ASAssignment
Owner name: NORTHROP GRUMMAN SPACE AND MISSION SYSTEMS CORPORA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:NISHIHARA, H. KEITH;HSU, SHI-PING;KAEHLER, ADRIAN;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:021996/0212;SIGNING DATES FROM 20081210 TO 20081216
Nov 30, 2009ASAssignment
Owner name: NORTHROP GRUMMAN SPACE & MISSION SYSTEMS CORP.,CAL
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORTION;REEL/FRAME:023699/0551
Effective date: 20091125
Owner name: NORTHROP GRUMMAN SPACE & MISSION SYSTEMS CORP., CA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NORTHROP GRUMMAN CORPORTION;REEL/FRAME:023699/0551
Effective date: 20091125
Feb 10, 2010ASAssignment
Owner name: NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS CORPORATION,CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NORTHROP GRUMMAN SPACE & MISSION SYSTEMS CORP.;REEL/FRAME:023915/0446
Effective date: 20091210
Owner name: NORTHROP GRUMMAN SYSTEMS CORPORATION, CALIFORNIA
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNOR:NORTHROP GRUMMAN SPACE & MISSION SYSTEMS CORP.;REEL/FRAME:023915/0446
Effective date: 20091210