Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS20090209521 A9
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 11/765,871
Publication dateAug 20, 2009
Filing dateJun 20, 2007
Priority dateMar 15, 2004
Also published asUS8076353, US20080064683
Publication number11765871, 765871, US 2009/0209521 A9, US 2009/209521 A9, US 20090209521 A9, US 20090209521A9, US 2009209521 A9, US 2009209521A9, US-A9-20090209521, US-A9-2009209521, US2009/0209521A9, US2009/209521A9, US20090209521 A9, US20090209521A9, US2009209521 A9, US2009209521A9
InventorsLiangxian Cao, Thomas Davis, Charles Romfo, Christopher Trotta
Original AssigneeLiangxian Cao, Davis Thomas W, Romfo Charles M, Trotta Christopher R
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Inhibition of VEGF Translation
US 20090209521 A9
Abstract
In accordance with the present invention, methods for inhibiting the translation of VEGF and methods for decreasing VEGF level by inhibiting VEGF translation are provided. In another aspect of the invention, compounds that inhibit the 5′-UTR-dependent translation of VEGF and methods for identifying such compounds are provided.
Images(4)
Previous page
Next page
Claims(39)
1. A method of inhibiting translation of VEGF in a subject in need thereof comprising administering an effective amount of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound to the subject, wherein translation of VEGF is inhibited.
2. The method of claim 1, wherein the subject has an elevated VEGF level.
3. The method of claim 1, wherein the subject has been diagnosed with a disease or condition associated with aberrant angiogenesis.
4. The method of claim 1, wherein the subject has been diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, a chronic inflammation-related disease or disorder, obesity, or exudative macular degeneration.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein the subject has been diagnosed with cancer.
6. The method of claim 5, wherein the subject diagnosed with cancer has been diagnosed with a solid tumor cancer.
7. The method of claim 6, wherein the subject diagnosed with cancer has been diagnosed with one or more cancer selected from the group consisting of Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, malignant melanoma, cervical cancer, lung cancer or colon cancer.
8. The method of claim 1, wherein the subject has an elevated VEGF level and has been diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, a chronic inflammation-related disease or disorder, obesity, exudative macular degeneration, or cancer.
9. The method of claim 1, wherein the subject is a human that has an elevated VEGF level.
10. The method of claim 1, wherein the subject is a human that has been diagnosed with a disease or condition associated with aberrant angiogenesis.
11. The method of claim 1, wherein the subject is a human that has been diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, a chronic inflammation-related disease or disorder obesity, or exudative macular degeneration.
12. The method of claim 1, wherein the subject is a human that has been diagnosed with cancer.
13. The method of claim 12, wherein the human diagnosed with cancer has been diagnosed with a solid tumor cancer.
14. The method of claim 12, wherein the human diagnosed with cancer has been diagnosed with one or more cancer selected from the group consisting of Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, malignant melanoma, cervical cancer, lung cancer or colon cancer.
15. The method of claim 1, wherein the subject is a human that has an elevated VEGF level and has been diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, a chronic inflammation-related disease or disorder, obesity, exudative macular degeneration, a disease or condition associated with aberrant angiogenesis, or cancer.
16. The method of claim 1, wherein the VEGF translation-inhibiting compound is a compound of Formula I.
wherein,
X is hydrogen; a C1 to C6 alkyl, optionally substituted with one or more halogens; a hydroxyl group; a halogen; a C1 to C5 alkoxy, optionally substituted with a C6 to C10 aryl group;
A is C or N;
B is C or N, with the proviso that at least one of A or B is N, and that when A is N, B is C;
R1 is a hydroxyl group; a C1 to C8 alkyl group, optionally substituted with an alkylthio group, a 5 to 10 membered heteroaryl, a C6 to C10 aryl group optionally substituted with at least one independently selected Ro group; a C2 to C8 alkenyl group; a C2 to C8 alkynyl group; a 3 to 12 membered heterocycle group, wherein the heterocycle group is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen, oxo, amino, alkylamino, acetamino, thio, or alkylthio group; a 5 to 12 membered heteroaryl group, wherein the heteroaryl group is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen, oxo, amino, alkylamino, acetamino, thio, or alkylthio group; or a C6 to C10 aryl group, optionally substituted with at least one independently selected Ro group;
Ro, is a halogen; a cyano; a nitro; a sulfonyl, wherein the sulfonyl is optionally substituted with a C1 to C6 alkyl or a 3 to 10 membered heterocycle; an amino group, wherein the amino group is optionally substituted with a C1 to C6 alkyl, —C(O)—Rb, —C(O)O—Rb, a sulfonyl, an alkylsulfonyl, a 3 to 10 membered heterocycle group optionally substituted with a —C(O)O—Rn; —C(O)—NH—Rb; a 5 to 6 membered heterocycle; a 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl; a C1 to C6 alkyl group, wherein the alkyl group is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected hydroxyl, halogen, amino, or 3 to 12 membered heterocycle group, wherein the amino group and heterocycle group are optionally substituted with at least one independently selected C1 to C4 alkyl group, which C1 to C4 alkyl group is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected C1 to C4 alkoxy group, amino group, alkylamino group, or 5 to 10 membered heterocycle group; a —C(O)—Rn group; or an —ORa group;
Ra is hydrogen; C2 to C8 alkylene; a —C(O)O—Rb group; a —C(O)—NH—Rb; a C1 to C8 alkyl, wherein the alkyl group is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected hydroxyl, halogen, C1 to C4 alkoxy, amino, alkylamino, acetamide, —C(O)—Rb, —C(O)O—Rb, C6 to C10 aryl, 3 to 12 membered heterocycle, or 5 to 12 heteroaryl group, further wherein the alkylamino is optionally substituted with a hydroxyl, a C1 to C4 alkoxy, or a 5 to 12 membered heteroaryl optionally substituted with a C1 to C4 alkyl, further wherein the acetamide is optionally substituted with a C1 to C4 alkoxy, sulfonyl, or alkylsulfonyl, further wherein and the heterocycle group is optionally substituted with a C1 to C4 alkyl optionally substituted with a hydroxyl group, —C(O)—Rn, —C(O)O—Rn, or an oxo group;
Rb is hydroxyl; an amino; an alkylamino, wherein the alkylamino is optionally substituted with a hydroxyl, an amino, an alkylamino, a C1 to C4 alkoxy, a 3 to 12 membered heterocycle optionally substituted with at least one independently selected C1 to C6 alkyl, oxo, —C(O)O—Rn, or a 5 to 12 membered heteroaryl optionally substituted with a C1 to C4 alkyl; a C1 to C4 alkoxy; a C2 to C8 alkenyl; a C2 to C8 alkynyl; a C6 to C10 aryl, wherein the aryl is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen or C1 to C4 alkoxy; a 5 to 12 membered heteroaryl; 3 to 12 membered heterocycle group, wherein the heterocycle is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected acetamide, —C(O)O—Rn, 5 to 6 membered heterocycle, or C1 to C6 alkyl optionally substituted with a hydroxyl, C1 to C4 alkoxy, amino group, or alkylamino group; or a C1 to C8 alkyl, wherein the alkyl is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected C1 to C4 alkoxy, C6 to C10 aryl, amino, or 3 to 12 membered heterocycle group, wherein the amino and heterocycle groups are optionally substituted with at least one independently selected C1 to C6 alkyl, oxo, or —C(O)O—Rn group;
R2 is a hydrogen; a hydroxyl; a 5 to 10 membered heteroaryl group; a C1 to C8 alkyl group, wherein the alkyl group is optionally substituted with a hydroxyl, a C1 to C4 alkoxy, a 3 to 10 membered heterocycle, a 5 to 10 membered heteroaryl, or C6 to C10 aryl group; a —C(O)—Rc group; a —C(O)O—Rd group, a —C(O)—N(RdRd) group; a —C(S)—N(RdRd) group; a —C(S)—O—Re, group; a —S(O2)—Re group; a —C(NRe)—S—Re group; or a —C(S)—S—Rf group;
Rc is hydrogen; an amino, wherein the amino is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected C1 to C6 alkyl or C6 to C10 aryl group; a C6 to C10 aryl, wherein the aryl is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen, haloalkyl, hydroxyl, C1 to C4 alkoxy, or C1 to C6 alkyl group; —C(O)—Rn; a 5 to 6 membered heterocycle, wherein the heterocycle is optionally substituted with a —C(O)—Rn group; a 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl; a thiazoleamino group; a C1 to C8 alkyl group, wherein the alkyl group is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen, a C1 to C4 alkoxy, a phenyloxy, a C6 to C10 aryl, —C(O)—Rn, —O—C(O)—Rn, hydroxyl, or amino group, optionally substituted with a —C(O)O—Rn group;
Rd is independently hydrogen; a C2 to C8 alkenyl group; a C2 to C8 alkynyl group; a C6 to C10 aryl group, wherein the aryl is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen, nitro, C1 to C6 alkyl, —C(O)O—Re, or —ORe or a C1 to C8 alkyl group, wherein the alkyl group is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen, C1 to C4 alkyl, C1 to C4 alkoxy, phenyloxy, C6 to C10 aryl, 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl, —C(O)—Rn, —O—C(O)—Rn, or hydroxyl group, wherein the C6 to C10 aryl group is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen or haloalkyl group;
Re is a hydrogen; a C1 to C6 alkyl group, wherein the alkyl group is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen or alkoxy group; or a C6 to C10 aryl group, wherein the aryl group is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen or alkoxy group;
Rf is a C1 to C6 alkyl group, optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen, hydroxyl, C1 to C4 alkoxy, cyano, C6 to C10 aryl, or —C(O)—Rn group, wherein the alkoxy group may be optionally substituted with at least one C1 to C4 alkoxy group and the aryl group may be optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen, hydroxyl, C1 to C4 alkoxy, cyano, or C1 to C6 alkyl group;
Rn is a hydroxyl, C1 to C4 alkoxy, amino, or C1 to C6 alkyl group;
R3 is hydrogen or —C(O)—Rg;
Rg is a hydroxyl group; an amino group, wherein the amino is optionally substituted with a C6 to C10 cycloalkyl group or a 5 to 10 membered heteroaryl group; or a 5 to 10 membered heterocycle group, wherein the heterocycle group is optionally substituted with a —C(O)—Rn group; and
n is 0, 1, 2, or 3.
17. The method of claim 1, wherein the VEGF translation-inhibiting compound is a compound selected from the group consisting of Compound Nos. 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 17, 23, 25, 81, 102, 112, 140, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 355, 816, 817, 818, 823, 824, 825, 830, 831, 832, 837, 838, 841, 842, and 843.
18. The method of claim 1, wherein the VEGF translation-inhibiting compound is administered orally.
19. The method of claim 1, wherein the VEGF translation-inhibiting compound is administered intravenously.
20. The method of claim 1, wherein the VEGF translation-inhibiting compound is administered at the site of a tumor.
21. The method of claim 1, wherein translation of VEGF is inhibited by at least about 25%.
22. The method of claim 1, wherein translation of VEGF is inhibited by at least about 33%.
23. The method of claim 1, wherein translation of VEGF is inhibited by at least about 50%.
24. The method of claim 1, wherein translation of VEGF is inhibited by at least about 75%.
25. The method of claim 1, wherein translation of VEGF is inhibited by at least about 85%.
26. The method of claim 1, wherein translation of VEGF is inhibited by at least about 95%.
27. The method of claim 1, wherein translation of VEGF is inhibited by at least about 98%.
28. The method of claim 1, wherein translation of VEGF is inhibited by at least about 99%.
29. The method of claim 1, wherein the method of inhibiting translation further comprises measuring the inhibition of translation.
30. The method of claim 29, wherein the inhibition of translation is measured by ELISA assay.
31. The method of claim 29, wherein the inhibition of translation is measured by quantitative immunofluorescence.
32. The method of claim 1, wherein the method of inhibiting translation further comprises treating a disease or condition associated with aberrant angiogenesis.
33. The method of claim 1, wherein the method of inhibiting translation further comprises treating diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis atherosclerosis chronic inflammation, a chronic inflammation-related disease or disorder, obesity or exudative macular degeneration in the subject.
34. The method of claim 1, wherein the method of inhibiting translation further comprises treating a disease or condition associated with aberrant angiogenesis in the subject.
35. The method of claim 1, wherein the method of inhibiting translation further comprises treating cancer in the subject.
36. A method of inhibiting translation of VEGF in a human with an elevated VEGF level, comprising administering an effective amount of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound to the human, wherein translation of VEGF is inhibited.
37. A method of decreasing VEGF level in a subject in need thereof comprising
inhibiting translation of VEGF in the subject by administration of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound; and
measuring a decrease in VEGF level in the subject.
38. A method of decreasing VEGF level in a human with an elevated VEGF level comprising
inhibiting translation of VEGF in the human by administration of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound; and
measuring a decrease in VEGF level in the human.
39. A method of identifying a compound as a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound comprising
contacting a test compound with one or more cells having an elevated VEGF level;
measuring a decrease in VEGF translation; and
identifying the test compound as a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound by the decrease in VEGF translation.
Description
    CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
  • [0001]
    This application claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application 60/814,868, filed Jun. 20, 2006; this application is also a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 11/079,420, filed Mar. 15, 2005, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/552,725, filed Mar. 15, 2004; this application is also a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 11/107,783, filed Apr. 18, 2005, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 11/079,420, filed Mar. 15, 2005, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/552,725, filed Mar. 15, 2004; this application is also a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 11/735,069, filed Apr. 13, 2007, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 11/107,783, filed Apr. 18, 2005, and of U.S. application Ser. No. 11/079,420, filed Mar. 15, 2005, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/552,725, filed Mar. 15, 2004; the entire contents of which applications are incorporated herein by reference.
  • FIELD OF THE INVENTION
  • [0002]
    In accordance with the present invention, methods for inhibiting the translation of VEGF and methods for decreasing VEGF level by inhibiting VEGF translation are provided. In another aspect of the invention, compounds that inhibit the 5′-UTR-dependent translation of VEGF and methods for identifying such compounds are provided.
  • BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
  • [0003]
    Aberrant angiogenesis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of numerous diseases, including malignant, ischemic, inflammatory and immune disorders. Numerous cytokines and growth factors that stimulate angiogenesis, such as VEGF, FGF-2, PDGF, IGF-1, TGF, TNF-α, G-CSF have been identified, among which, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) plays a central role in angiogenesis. VEGF, also known as VEGF-A, was initially identified for its ability to induce vascular permeability and to promote vascular endothelial cell proliferation. VEGF is encoded by a single gene that gives rise to four isoforms by alternative splicing. All four isoforms share the same long and GC rich 5′-UTR, as well as a 3′-UTR that includes multiple RNA stability determinants.
  • [0004]
    VEGF expression is regulated by a number of factors and agents including cytokines, growth factors, steroid hormones and chemicals, and mutations that modulate the activity of oncogenes such as ras or the tumor suppressor gene VHL. The stability and translation efficiency of the VEGF transcript are influenced by sequences in the 5′- and 3′-UTRs. The 5′-UTR contains an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) and mediates cap-independent translation initiation while the 3′-UTR harbors multiple AU-rich (AUR) stability determinants that have been reported to regulate turnover of VEGF mRNA.
  • [0005]
    Translation initiation of the VEGF transcript is uniquely regulated. Under hypoxic conditions, translation of most cellular transcripts mediated by cap-dependent translation initiation process is greatly impaired. Initiation of translation of the VEGF mRNA, however, is mediated via the IRES within the VEGF 5′-UTR under hypoxic conditions. Thus, this form of post-transcriptional regulation permits cells to produce large amounts of VEGF protein to support, for example, tumor growth or aberrant neovascularization in ocular diseases under hypoxic conditions. The stability of VEGF mRNA is also enhanced as a consequence of the binding of factors to elements in the 3′-UTR.
  • [0006]
    Inhibition of VEGF production may reduce angiogenesis and permit treatment of various disease states that are associated with aberrant angiogenesis. As such, there is a need to develop and characterize mechanisms by which VEGF production may be inhibited, including inhibition of VEGF translation.
  • [0007]
    Small molecules may inhibit VEGF production. Consequently, there is a need to develop, characterize, and optimize small molecules that inhibit translation of the VEGF gene. These molecules may be useful as anti-angiogenesis drugs, including as drugs for treatment of cancer and other pathologies where aberrant vascularization occurs.
  • [0008]
    All documents referred to herein are incorporated by reference into the present application as though fully set forth herein.
  • SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
  • [0009]
    The present invention includes and provides a method of inhibiting translation of VEGF in a subject in need thereof comprising administering an effective amount of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound to the subject, wherein translation of VEGF is inhibited.
  • [0010]
    The present invention also includes and provides a method of inhibiting translation of VEGF in a human with an elevated VEGF level comprising administering an effective amount of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound to the human, wherein translation of VEGF is inhibited.
  • [0011]
    The present invention further includes and provides a method of decreasing VEGF level in a subject in need thereof comprising inhibiting translation of VEGF in the subject by administration of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound; and measuring a decrease in VEGF level in the subject.
  • [0012]
    The present invention also includes and provides a method of decreasing VEGF level in a human with an elevated VEGF level comprising inhibiting translation of VEGF in the human by administration of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound; and measuring a decrease in VEGF level in the human.
  • [0013]
    The present invention includes and provides a method of identifying a compound as a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound comprising contacting a test compound with one or more cells having an elevated VEGF level; measuring a decrease in VEGF translation; and identifying the test compound as a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound by the decrease in VEGF translation.
  • [0014]
    These and other aspects of the invention will be more clearly understood with reference to the drawings, detailed description, and embodiments.
  • BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
  • [0015]
    FIG. 1 illustrates inhibition of firefly luciferase reporter gene expression in a VEGF UTR-dependent manner by a compound of Formula I in low nanomolar range.
  • [0016]
    FIG. 2 illustrates attenuated expression of four subunits of the endogenous VEGF gene (VEGF121 and 165, soluble, and VEGF189 and 206, cell associated) by a compound of Formula I, with protein levels monitored via ELISA assay (R&D Systems) in HeLa cells (left panel) and via quantitative immunoflouresence (In-Cell Western) in HT1080 cells (right panel).
  • [0017]
    FIG. 3 illustrates immunoprecipitation studies of pulse-labeled VEGF to identify inhibition of VEGF translation or steps following translation (e.g. secretion or protein degradation).
  • DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
  • [0018]
    Aberrant up-regulation of VEGF, a key factor for angiogenesis, is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of disease states such as cancer, diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, other chronic inflammation-related diseases and disorders, obesity, and exudative macular degeneration. In accordance with the present invention, compounds that inhibit VEGF translation, referred to as VEGF translation-inhibiting compounds or translation-inhibiting compounds, have been identified and methods for their use provided. The VEGF translation-inhibiting compounds of the present invention preferably have nanomolar to sub-nanomolar activity for the inhibition of VEGF translation.
  • [0019]
    A VEGF translation-inhibiting compound, such as for example a compound for use in the methods of the present invention, may be obtained in any manner. In one embodiment, the VEGF translation-inhibiting compound is obtained by purchase. In another embodiment, the VEGF translation-inhibiting compound is obtained by synthesis. In further embodiments, the compound is obtained by gift or loan.
  • [0020]
    In various embodiments, compounds that inhibit VEGF translation may be useful in the inhibition of angiogenesis, and/or in the treatment of diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, a chronic inflammation related disease or disorder, obesity, exudative macular degeneration, or sepsis. In other embodiments, compounds that inhibit VEGF translation may be useful in the treatment of cancer, including for example, in the treatment of a solid tumor cancer, Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, malignant melanoma, cervical cancer, lung cancer, colon cancer, or any combination of such cancers.
  • [0021]
    Compounds that inhibit VEGF translation may include one or more chiral centers, and as such may exist as racemic mixtures (R/S) or as enantiomerically pure compositions. The compounds may exist as (R) or (S) isomers (when one chiral center is present) in enantiomerically pure compositions. In an embodiment, VEGF translation inhibition compounds are the (S) isomers and may exist as enantiomerically pure compositions comprising only the (S) isomer. As one of skill in the art will recognize, when more than one chiral center is present, the inhibitory compounds may exist as (R,R), (R,S), (S,R), (S,S), etc. isomers. In an embodiment, compounds are (S,S) or (S,R) isomers.
  • [0022]
    As used herein, “enantiomerically pure” refers to compositions consisting substantially of a single isomer, preferably consisting of greater than or equal to 90%, 92%, 95%, 98%, 99%, or equal to 100% of a single isomer.
  • [0023]
    As used herein, a “racemic mixture” is any mixture of isometric forms that are not “enantiomerically pure,” including, without limitation, about 50/50, about 60/40, and about 70/30 mixtures.
  • [0024]
    In an embodiment, a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound includes any compound that inhibits translation of VEGF. In another embodiment, exemplary VEGF translation-inhibiting compounds are carboline derivatives. In another embodiment, exemplary VEGF translation-inhibiting compounds are provided in U.S. Patent Application Publications 2005/0272759 and 2005/0282849, which publications are herein incorporated by reference in their entireties.
  • [0025]
    For example, preferred compounds of the present invention useful in the inhibition of VEGF translation include those compounds of Formula I:
    wherein
  • [0026]
    X is hydrogen; a C1 to C6 alkyl, optionally substituted with one or more halogens; a hydroxyl group; a halogen; a C1 to C5 alkoxy, optionally substituted with a C6 to C10 aryl group;
  • [0027]
    A is C or N;
  • [0028]
    B is C or N, with the proviso that at least one of A or B is N, and that when A is N, B is C;
  • [0029]
    R1 is a hydroxyl group; a C1 to C8 alkyl group, optionally substituted with an alkylthio group, a 5 to 10 membered heteroaryl, a C6 to C10 aryl group optionally substituted with at least one independently selected Ro group; a C2 to C8 alkenyl group; a C2 to C8 alkynyl group; a 3 to 12 membered heterocycle group, wherein the heterocycle group is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen, oxo, amino, alkylamino, acetamino, thio, or alkylthio group; a 5 to 12 membered heteroaryl group, wherein the heteroaryl group is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen, oxo, amino, alkyl amino, acetamino, thio, or alkylthio group; or a C6 to C10 aryl group, optionally substituted with at least one independently selected Ro group;
  • [0030]
    Ro is a halogen; a cyano; a nitro; a sulfonyl, wherein the sulfonyl is optionally substituted with a C1 to C6 alkyl or a 3 to 10 membered heterocycle; an amino group, wherein the amino group is optionally substituted with a C1 to C6 alkyl, —C(O)—Rb, —C(O)O—Rb, a sulfonyl, an alkylsulfonyl, a 3 to 10 membered heterocycle group optionally substituted with a —C(O)O—Rn; —C(O)—NH—Rb; a 5 to 6 membered heterocycle; a 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl; a C1 to C6 alkyl group, wherein the alkyl group is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected hydroxyl, halogen, amino, or 3 to 12 membered heterocycle group, wherein the amino group and heterocycle group are optionally substituted with at least one independently selected C1 to C4 alkyl group, which C1 to C4 alkyl group is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected C1 to C4 alkoxy group, amino group, alkylamino group, or 5 to 10 membered heterocycle group; a —C(O)—Rn group; or an —ORa group;
  • [0031]
    Ra is hydrogen; C2 to C8 alkylene; a —C(O)O—Rb group; a —C(O)—NH—Rb; a C1 to C8 alkyl, wherein the alkyl group is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected hydroxyl, halogen, C1 to C4 alkoxy, amino, alkylamino, acetamide, —C(O)—Rb, —C(O)O—Rb, C6 to C10 aryl, 3 to 12 membered heterocycle, or 5 to 12 heteroaryl group, further wherein the alkylamino is optionally substituted with a hydroxyl, a C1 to C4 alkoxy, or a 5 to 12 membered heteroaryl optionally substituted with a C1 to C4 alkyl, further wherein the acetamide is optionally substituted with a C1 to C4 alkoxy, sulfonyl, or alkylsulfonyl, further wherein and the heterocycle group is optionally substituted with a C1 to C4 alkyl optionally substituted with a hydroxyl group, —C(O)—Rn, —C(O)O—Rn, or an oxo group;
  • [0032]
    Rb is hydroxyl; an amino; an alkylamino, wherein the alkylamino is optionally substituted with a hydroxyl, an amino, an alkylamino, a C1 to C4 alkoxy, a 3 to 12 membered heterocycle optionally substituted with at least one independently selected C1 to C6 alkyl, oxo, —C(O)O—Rn, or a 5 to 12 membered heteroaryl optionally substituted with a C1 to C4 alkyl; a C1 to C4 alkoxy; a C2 to C8 alkenyl; a C2 to C8 alkynyl; a C6 to C10 aryl, wherein the aryl is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen or C1 to C4 alkoxy; a 5 to 12 membered heteroaryl; 3 to 12 membered heterocycle group, wherein the heterocycle is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected acetamide, —C(O)O—Rn, 5 to 6 membered heterocycle, or C1 to C6 alkyl optionally substituted with a hydroxyl, C1 to C4 alkoxy, amino group, or alkylamino group; or a C1 to C8 alkyl, wherein the alkyl is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected C1 to C4 alkoxy, C6 to C10 aryl, amino, or 3 to 12 membered heterocycle group, wherein the amino and heterocycle groups are optionally substituted with at least one independently selected C1 to C6 alkyl, oxo, or —C(O)O—Rn group;
  • [0033]
    R2 is a hydrogen; a hydroxyl; a 5 to 10 membered heteroaryl group; a C1 to C8 alkyl group, wherein the alkyl group is optionally substituted with a hydroxyl, a C1 to C4 alkoxy, a 3 to 10 membered heterocycle, a 5 to 10 membered heteroaryl, or C6 to C10 aryl group; a —C(O)—Rc group; a —C(O)O—Rd group; a —C(O)—N(RdRd) group; a —C(S)—N(RdRd) group; a —C(S)—O—Re group; a —S(O2)—Re, group; a —C(NRe)—S—Re group; or a —C(S)—S—Rf group;
  • [0034]
    Rc is hydrogen; an amino, wherein the amino is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected C1 to C6 alkyl or C6 to C10 aryl group; a C6 to C10 aryl, wherein the aryl is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen, haloalkyl, hydroxyl, C1 to C4 alkoxy, or C1 to C6 alkyl group; —C(O)—Rn; a 5 to 6 membered heterocycle, wherein the heterocycle is optionally substituted with a —C(O)—Rn group; a 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl; a thiazoleamino group; a C1 to C8 alkyl group, wherein the alkyl group is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen, a C1 to C4 alkoxy, a phenyloxy, a C6 to C10 aryl, —C(O)—Rn, —O—C(O)—Rn, hydroxyl, or amino group, optionally substituted with a —C(O)O—Rn group;
  • [0035]
    Rd is independently hydrogen; a C2 to C8 alkenyl group; a C2 to C8 alkynyl group; a C6 to C10 aryl group, wherein the aryl is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen, nitro, C1 to C6 alkyl, —C(O)O—Re, or —ORe; or a C1 to C8 alkyl group, wherein the alkyl group is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen, C1 to C4 alkyl, C1 to C4 alkoxy, phenyloxy, C6 to C10 aryl, 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl, —C(O)—Rn, —O—C(O)—Rn, or hydroxyl group, wherein the C6 to C10 aryl group is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen or haloalkyl group;
  • [0036]
    Re is a hydrogen; a C1 to C6 alkyl group, wherein the alkyl group is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen or alkoxy group; or a C6 to C10 aryl group, wherein the aryl group is optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen or alkoxy group;
  • [0037]
    Rf is a C1 to C6 alkyl group, optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen, hydroxyl, C1 to C4 alkoxy, cyano, C6 to C10 aryl, or —C(O)—Rn group, wherein the alkoxy group may be optionally substituted with at least one C1 to C4 alkoxy group and the aryl group may be optionally substituted with at least one independently selected halogen, hydroxyl, C1 to C4 alkoxy, cyano, or C1 to C6 alkyl group;
  • [0038]
    Rn is a hydroxyl, C1 to C4 alkoxy, amino, or C1 to C6 alkyl group;
  • [0039]
    R3 is hydrogen or —C(O)—Rg;
  • [0040]
    Rg is a hydroxyl group; an amino group, wherein the amino is optionally substituted with a C6 to C10 cycloalkyl group or a 5 to 10 membered heteroaryl group; or a 5 to 10 membered heterocycle group, wherein the heterocycle group is optionally substituted with a —C(O)—Rn group; and
  • [0041]
    n is 0, 1, 2, or 3.
  • [0042]
    As will be evident to one of skill in the art, the compounds of Formula I comprise at least one stereocenter (e.g., at the R1 substituent), and may exist as a racemic mixture or as an enantiomerically pure composition. In an embodiment, the compounds of Formula I are the (S) isomer, in an enantiomerically pure composition.
  • [0043]
    As used herein, the term “alkyl” generally refers to saturated hydrocarbyl radicals of straight, branched or cyclic configuration including methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, sec-butyl, tert-butyl, n-pentyl, n-hexyl, cyclohexyl, n-heptyl, octyl, n-octyl, and the like. In some embodiments, alkyl substituents may include C1 to C8, C1 to C6, or C1 to C4 alkyl groups. The alkyl group may be optionally substituted with one or more halogen or alkoxy groups. For instance, the alkyl group may be a haloalkyl, dihaloalkyl, or trihaloalkyl.
  • [0044]
    As used herein, “alkenyl” generally refers to linear, branched or cyclic alkene radicals having one or more carbon-carbon double bonds, such as C2 to C8 and C2 to C6 alkenyl groups, including 3-propenyl.
  • [0045]
    As used herein, “alkynyl” generally refers to linear, branched or cyclic alkyne radicals having one or more carbon-carbon triple bonds, such as C2 to C8 and C2 to C6 alkynyl groups, including hex-3-yne.
  • [0046]
    As used herein, “aryl” refers to a carbocyclic aromatic zing structure. Included in the scope of aryl groups are aromatic rings having from five to twenty carbon atoms. Aryl ring structures include compounds having one or more ring structures, such as mono-, bi-, or tricyclic compounds. Examples of aryl groups that include phenyl, tolyl, anthracenyl, fluorenyl, indenyl, azulenyl, phenanthrenyl (i.e., phenanthrene), and napthyl (i.e., napthalene) ring structures. In certain embodiments, the aryl group may be optionally substituted.
  • [0047]
    As used herein, “heteroaryl” refers to cyclic aromatic ring structures in which one or more atoms in the ring, the heteroatom(s), is an element other than carbon. Heteroatoms are typically O, S or N atoms. Included within the scope of heteroaryl, and independently selectable, are O, N, and S heteroaryl ring structures. The ring structure may include compounds having one or more ring structures, such as mono-, bi-, or tricyclic compounds. In some embodiments, the heteroaryl groups may be selected from heteroaryl groups that contain one or more heteroatoms, two or more heteroatoms, three or more heteroatoms, or four or more heteroatoms. Heteroaryl ring structures may be selected from those that contain five or more atoms, six or more atoms, or eight or more atoms. Examples of heteroaryl ring structures include: acridine, benzimidazole, benzoxazole, benzodioxole, benzofuran, dihydro-chromen-4-only, 1,3-diazine, 1,2-diazine, 1,2-diazole, 1,4-diazanaphthalene, furan, furazan, imidazole, indole, isoxazole, isoquinoline, isothiazole, isoindolyl, oxazole, purine, pyridazine, pyrazole, pyridine, pyrazine, pyrimidine, pyrrole, quinoline, quinoxaline, thiazole, thiophene, 1,3,5-triazine, 1,2,4-triazine, 1,2,3-triazine, tetrazole and quinazoline. In certain embodiments, the heteroaryl may be optionally substituted.
  • [0048]
    As used herein, “heterocycle” refers to cyclic ring structures in which one or more atoms in the ring, the heteroatom(s), is an element other than carbon. Heteroatoms are typically O, S or N atoms. Included within the scope of heterocycle, and independently selectable, are O, N, and S heterocycle ring structures. The ring structure may include compounds having one or more ring structures, such as mono-, bi-, or tricyclic compounds. In some embodiments, the heterocycle groups may be selected from heterocycle groups that contain one or more heteroatoms, two or more heteroatoms, three or more heteroatoms, or four or more heteroatoms. Example of heterocycle groups include morpholinyl, pyrrolidinonyl, pyrrolidinyl, piperidinyl, piperazinyl, hydantoinyl, valerolactamyl, oxiranyl, oxetanyl, tetrahydrofuranyl, tetrahydropyranyl, tetrahydropyridinyl, tetrahydroprimidinyl, tetrahydrothiophenyl or tetrahydrothiopyranyl and the like. In certain embodiments, the heterocycle may optionally be substituted.
  • [0049]
    As used herein, “alkanoyl” generally refers to a group with the structure —C(O)—R. In certain embodiments, R may be a hydrogen, an alkyl, an 4-morpholinyl group, or a thiazoleamino group.
  • [0050]
    As used herein, “alkoxy” generally refers to a group with the structure —O—R. In certain embodiments, R may be an alkyl group, such as a C1 to C5 alkyl group.
  • [0051]
    For the purposes of this invention, halo substituents may be independently selected from the halogens such as fluorine, chlorine, bromine, iodine, and astatine.
  • [0052]
    In certain embodiments, X may be hydrogen, methoxy, hydroxyl, benzoxy, or a halogen, including bromide or chloride. In other embodiments, X may be a C1 to C4 alkyl or a haloalkyl.
  • [0053]
    R1 may be a C6 to C8 aryl group, optionally substituted with at least one R0 group. R0 may be methoxy, benzoxy, a C1 to C6 alkyl, a 5 to 6 membered heteroaryl (such as furyl or imidazole), cyano, nitro, tri-fluoro methyl, or a halogen, and in another embodiment, methoxy, benzoxy, iso-butyl or a halogen, and in another embodiment, methoxy, iso-butyl, bromide or chloride. Alternatively, R1 may be a 5 to 10 membered heteroaryl or 3 to 12 membered heterocycle, such as a pyridinyl group, a thiophene group, a furyl group, a tetrahydro furyl group, and a thiazole group dihydro-chromen-4-onyl group, a 1H-isoindolyl group, or a benzodioxole group.
  • [0054]
    R2 may be a —CH2-furyl group, a pyrimidyl group, or a —C(O)O—Rd group. Rd may be a C1 to C6 alkyl, optionally substituted with at least one halogen; or a C5 to C6 aryl, optionally substituted with at least one methyl, methoxy, or halogen.
  • [0055]
    In an embodiment, a class of VEGF translation-inhibiting compounds within Formula I includes those compounds of Formula (I-a) as shown below.
  • [0056]
    wherein X, R1 and R2 are defined as described with regard to Formula I and the embodiments described herein.
  • [0057]
    In an embodiment, another class of VEGF translation-inhibiting compounds within Formula I, includes those compounds of Formula (I-b) as shown below.
    wherein:
  • [0058]
    X is a halogen;
  • [0059]
    R2 is as described above with regard to Formula I;
  • [0060]
    R0 is as described above with regard to Formula I;
  • [0061]
    m is 0, 1, 2, or 3; and
  • [0062]
    n is 0, 1, 2, or 3.
  • [0063]
    In other embodiments, classes of translation-inhibiting compounds within Formula I include the following.
  • [0064]
    It is understood that substituents X and R1, Rc, Rd, and Re of the compounds of Formulas (I-c) to (I-i) are defined as in Formula I.
  • [0065]
    In other embodiments, translation-inhibiting compounds of the present invention include those of Formulas (I-i) through (I-l), as shown below. In the embodiments of Formulas (I-j) through (I-l), substituents X, R1, R2, R3, etc. are defined as in Formula I, as well as Formulas (I-a) to (I-i).
  • [0066]
    Also included within the scope of the invention are pharmaceutically acceptable salts, hydrates, solvates, clathrates, polymorphs, racemates and stereoisomers of the VEGF translation-inhibiting compounds described herein.
  • [0067]
    In another aspect of the invention, translation-inhibiting compounds of the present invention include those of Formula (I-l) as shown below.
    wherein,
  • [0068]
    X is hydrogen; a hydroxyl group; a halogen; a C1-C4 alkyl; a C1 to C5 alkoxy, optionally substituted with a C6 to C8 aryl group;
  • [0069]
    R1 is a hydroxyl group; a C1 to C8 alkyl group, optionally substituted with a C6 to C8 aryl group, wherein the C6 to C8 aryl group is optionally substituted with at least one R0 group; a heterocycle group; a heteroaryl group; and a C6 to C8 aryl group, optionally substituted with at least one R0 group;
  • [0070]
    R0 is a halogen; a C1 to C6 alkyl, optionally substituted with one or more halogen groups; a cyano group; a nitro group; an amino group; an aminoalkyl group; an acetamide group; an imidazole group; or ORa;
  • [0071]
    Ra is hydrogen; a C1 to C6 alkyl, optionally substituted with a heterocycle group or a C6 to C8 aryl group; or a —C(O)O—Rb;
  • [0072]
    Rb is C1 to C4 alkyl group;
  • [0073]
    R2 is a hydrogen; a hydroxyl; a heteroaryl group; a C1 to C8 alkyl group, optionally substituted with an alkoxy, hydroxyl, heteroaryl, or C6 to C8 aryl group; a —C(O)—Rc group; a —C(O)O—Rd group; a —C(O)NH—Rd group; a —C(S)NH—Rd group; a —S(O2)—Re group; or (1S)-isopropyl-carbamic acid tert-butyl ester;
  • [0074]
    Rc is hydrogen; a 4-morpholinyl group; a thiazoleamino group; a piperazinyl group, optionally substituted with a —C(O)CH3 group; a C1 to C6 alkyl group, optionally substituted with a halogen, an alkoxy, or hydroxyl group;
  • [0075]
    Rd is hydrogen; a benzyl group; a C1 to C8 alkyl group, optionally substituted with a halogen or an alkoxy group; a C6 to C8 aryl group, optionally substituted with at least one halogen, C1 to C5 alkyl, —C(O)ORe, or ORe;
  • [0076]
    Re is a hydrogen; a C1 to C6 alkyl group, optionally substituted with at least one halogen or alkoxy group; or a C6 to C8 aryl group; and
  • [0077]
    n is 0, 1, 2, or 3.
  • [0078]
    In another embodiment, compounds of Formulas (II), (III) and (IV) are provided, which can be useful for inhibiting VEGF translation:
  • [0079]
    wherein X, R1, R2, Ro and Rd are defined as described above with regard with Formula I.
  • [0080]
    For the purposes of this invention, where one or more functionalities encompassing X, R1, R2, R0, Ra, Rb, Rc, Rd, and Re, are incorporated into a molecule of Formulas (I), (II), and (III), including Formulas (I-a) to (I-k), each of the functionalities appearing at any location within the disclosed may be independently selected, and as appropriate, independently substituted. Further, where a more generic substituent is set forth for any position in the molecules of the present invention, it is understood that the generic substituent may be replaced with more specific substituents, and the resulting molecules are within the scope of the molecules of the present invention.
  • [0081]
  • [0082]
    In certain embodiments, preferred compounds for inhibition of VEGF translation include those with an EC50 in the VEGF ELISA assay described in Example 5 of less than about 2 uM, more preferably between about 2 uM and about 0.04 uM (2000 nM to 40 nM); more preferably from about 0.04 uM to about 0.008 uM to (40 nM to 8 nM); and more preferably less than about 0.008 uM (<8 nM). Preferred compounds are Compound Nos: 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 17, 23, 25, 81, 102, 112, 140, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 355, 816, 817, 818, 823, 824, 825, 830, 831, 832, 837, 838, 841, 842, 843, and regioisomers thereof. In one embodiment, the compounds of the invention form a racemic mixture, and in another embodiment, the compounds of the invention are the (R), (S), (R,R), (S,S), (R,S), (S,R) isomer, in an enantiomerically pure composition. In a further embodiment, the compounds of the invention are the (S) isomers, in an enantiomerically pure composition.
  • [0083]
    In an embodiment, the above compounds provide examples of VEGF translation-inhibiting compounds. In an embodiment, such compounds may be used in the methods of the invention. In addition, based upon the instant disclosure, the skilled artisan will recognize other compounds intended to be included within the scope of the presently claimed invention.
  • [0084]
    The present invention includes and provides a method of inhibiting translation of VEGF in a subject comprising administering an effective amount of one or more VEGF translation-inhibiting compounds to a subject in need thereof, wherein translation of VEGF is inhibited. The present invention includes and provides a method of inhibiting translation of VEGF in a subject comprising administering an effective amount of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound to a subject in need thereof, wherein translation of VEGF is inhibited. In a further embodiment, the present invention includes and provides a method of inhibiting translation of VEGF in a human with an elevated VEGF level comprising administering an effective amount of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound to the human, wherein translation of VEGF is inhibited.
  • [0085]
    In an embodiment of the present invention, a “subject” may include any animal. In an embodiment, a subject may include any mammal, such as by way of non-limiting example a human. A “subject” may also include pets (e.g., dogs, cats, horses), as well as livestock, such as for example cows, pigs, and sheep. In a preferred embodiment, a subject is a human.
  • [0086]
    As used herein, a “subject in need thereof” is any subject who may benefit from administration of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound. In another embodiment, a subject in need thereof may benefit from a decrease in VEGF level. Exemplary, non-limiting subjects who may benefit from the methods of the invention include those who have or who are at risk of having elevated VEGF levels, cancer, angiogenesis, chronic inflammatory diseases, and combinations thereof.
  • [0087]
    In a preferred embodiment, the subject in need of VEGF translation inhibition has an elevated VEGF level. In two embodiments, an elevated VEGF level refers to an elevated plasma VEGF level or an elevated serum VEGF level. In another embodiment, an elevated VEGF level refers to an elevated local VEGF level, such as by way of non-limiting example an elevated tumor VEGF level. In another embodiment, an elevated VEGF level refers to an elevated VEGF level in any tissue sample, including for example without limitation, whole blood, cyst or tumor biopsy, or excised tumor. In a further embodiment, an elevated VEGF level refers to an elevated VEGF level in any bodily fluid, including without limitation, sweat, saliva, semen, vaginal secretion, tears, or mucous. In a further embodiment, an elevated VEGF level refers to any combination of such elevated VEGF levels.
  • [0088]
    In another embodiment, an elevated VEGF level is a VEGF level in a subject that is higher than normal for that subject when healthy. In another aspect, an elevated VEGF level is a VEGF protein level in a subject that is higher than normal for a healthy population of the same species as the subject. In a further embodiment, an elevated VEGF level is a VEGF level in a tissue of a subject that is locally higher than normal in that tissue when the subject is healthy. In another embodiment, an elevated VEGF level is a VEGF level in a tissue of a subject that is locally higher than normal for a healthy population of the same species as the subject. In an embodiment, an elevated VEGF level may be about 10%, about 25%, about 50%, about 75%, about 100%, about 200% about 300%, about 500%, about 1000%, or more than about 1000% higher than normal for the subject when healthy or for a healthy population.
  • [0089]
    In further embodiments, an elevated VEGF level is a serum VEGF level that is greater than about 300 pg/mL, greater than about 350 pg/mL, greater than about 400 pg/mL, greater than about 450 pg/mL, greater than about 500 pg/mL, greater than about 550 pg/mL, greater than about 600 pg/mL, greater than about 650 pg/mL, greater than about 700 pg/mL, greater than about 750 pg/mL, greater than about 800 pg/mL, greater than about 900 pg/mL, greater than about 1000 pg/mL, greater than about 1250 pg/mL, or greater than about 1500 pg/mL, measured by ELISA assay.
  • [0090]
    In another aspect, a subject in need has cancer or angiogenesis or both cancer and angiogenesis. In yet another aspect, a subject in need has been diagnosed with cancer. In another embodiment, a subject has an elevated VEGF level and has cancer. In another embodiment, a subject in need has an elevated VEGF level and has been diagnosed with cancer.
  • [0091]
    As used herein, diagnosis of a subject with any disease or condition refers to an assessment of disease or condition, such as for example by medical or laboratory personnel or a combination of such personnel.
  • [0092]
    In another embodiment, a subject in need includes a subject with a solid tumor cancer. Solid tumor cancers include by way of non-limiting example solid tumor carcinomas and solid tumor sarcomas. Solid tumor carcinomas include, but are not limited to, pediatric solid tumors, such as Wilms tumor and neuroblastoma, and carcinomas of the epidermis, such as malignant melanomas, as well as lung cancers, cervical cancers, colon cancers and renal cancers. Solid tumor sarcomas include, but are not limited to, fibrosarcomas. The methods of treating cancer can further include the administration of one or more additional agents useful for treating cancer. In an embodiment, a subject with a solid tumor cancer has an elevated VEGF level.
  • [0093]
    In a further embodiment of the present invention, methods are provided wherein a subject in need has been diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, a chronic inflammation-related disease or disorder, obesity, or exudative macular degeneration. In another embodiment, a subject in need has an elevated VEGF level and has been diagnosed with diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, a chronic inflammation-related disease or disorder, obesity, or exudative macular degeneration.
  • [0094]
    In another embodiment, a subject in need has been diagnosed with a disease or condition associated with aberrant angiogenesis. In an embodiment, a subject diagnosed with a disease or condition associated with aberrant angiogenesis has an elevated VEGF level.
  • [0095]
    In an embodiment, aberrant angiogenesis refers to any angiogenesis that is inappropriate to the healthy state of a subject. In another embodiment, aberrant angiogenesis refers to any angiogenesis that contributes to the disease state of a subject. In an embodiment, aberrant angiogenesis refers to angiogenesis associated with tumorigenesis. In further embodiments, non-limiting examples of diseases or conditions associated with aberrant angiogenesis include diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, a chronic inflammation-related disease or disorder, obesity, or exudative macular degeneration, cancer, including a solid tumor cancer, Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, malignant melanoma, cervical cancer, lung cancer or colon cancer. Additional diseases and conditions associated with aberrant angiogenesis are apparent to those of skill in the art.
  • [0096]
    The terms VEGF translation inhibiting amount, anti-angiogenic amount, and effective amount, as used herein, refer to an amount of a pharmaceutical agent to treat, ameliorate, or prevent the identified disease or condition, or to exhibit a detectable therapeutic or inhibitory effect. For example, in an embodiment, an effective amount of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound is an amount sufficient to produce a detectable inhibition of VEGF translation.
  • [0097]
    The precise effective amount for a subject will depend upon the subject's body weight, size, and health; the nature and extent of the condition; and the therapeutic or combination of therapeutics selected for administration. Therapeutically effective amounts for a given subject can be determined by routine experimentation that is within the skill and judgment of the clinician.
  • [0098]
    In an embodiment of the present invention, VEGF translation-inhibiting compounds may be administered to a subject via any drug delivery route known in the art. Specific exemplary administration routes include oral, ocular, rectal, buccal, topical, nasal, ophthalmic, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous (bolus and infusion), intracerebral, transdermal, and pulmonary. In one embodiment, a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound is administered orally. In another embodiment, a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound is administered intravenously. In another embodiment, the VEGF translation-inhibiting compound is administered at the site of a tumor. Administration at the site of a tumor may include without limitation administering to one or more sites at the periphery of a tumor, to the entire periphery of a tumor, or injection directly into a tumor.
  • [0099]
    For any compound, the therapeutically effective amount can be estimated initially either in cell culture assays, e.g., of neoplastic cells, or in animal models, usually rats, mice, rabbits, dogs, or pigs. The animal model may also be used to determine the appropriate concentration range and route of administration. Such information can then be used to determine useful doses and routes for administration in humans. Therapeutic/prophylactic efficacy and toxicity may be determined by standard pharmaceutical procedures in cell cultures or experimental animals, e.g., ED50 (the dose therapeutically effective in 50% of the population) and LD50 (the dose lethal to 50% of the population). The dose ratio between toxic and therapeutic effects is the therapeutic index, and it can be expressed as the ratio, LD50/ED50. Pharmaceutical compositions that exhibit large therapeutic indices are preferred. The data obtained from cell culture assays and animal studies may be used in formulating a range of dosage for human use. The dosage contained in such compositions is preferably within a range of circulating concentrations that include an ED50 with little or no toxicity. The dosage may vary within this range depending upon the dosage form employed, sensitivity of the patient, and the route of administration.
  • [0100]
    More specifically, the concentration-biological effect relationships observed with regard to the compound(s) of the present invention indicate an initial target plasma concentration ranging from approximately 0.1 μg/mL to approximately 100 μg/mL, preferably from approximately 5 μg/mL to approximately 50 μg/mL, more preferably from approximately 5 μg/mL to approximately 10 μg/mL. To achieve such plasma concentrations, the compounds of the invention may be administered at doses that vary from 0.1 μg to 100,000 mg, depending upon the route of administration. Guidance as to particular dosages and methods of delivery is provided in the literature and is generally available to practitioners in the art. In general the dose will be in the range of about 1 mg/day to about 10 g/day, or about 0.1 g to about 3 g/day, or about 0.3 g to about 3 g/day, or about 0.5 g to about 2 g/day, in single, divided, or continuous doses for a patient weighing between about 40 to about 100 kg (which dose may be adjusted for patients above or below this weight range, particularly children under 40 kg).
  • [0101]
    The exact dosage will be determined by the practitioner, in light of factors related to the subject that requires treatment. Dosage and administration are adjusted to provide sufficient levels of the active agent(s) or to maintain the desired effect. Factors which may be taken into account include the severity of the disease state, general health of the subject, age, weight, and gender of the subject, diet, time and frequency of administration, drug combination(s), reaction sensitivities, and tolerance/response to therapy. Long-acting pharmaceutical compositions may be administered every 3 to 4 days, every week, or once every two weeks depending on half-life and clearance rate of the particular formulation.
  • [0102]
    In an embodiment, more than one compound of the invention may be administered to a subject in order to inhibit VEGF translation. In another embodiment, a second active ingredient, such as for example an ingredient useful in the treatment of cancer, diabetic retinopathy, or exudative macular degeneration, may be formulated together or separately, and may be administered concurrently with, or sequentially to one or more VEGF translation-inhibiting compounds. In an embodiment, the administration of more than one compound to a subject may have a synergistic effect.
  • [0103]
    In various embodiments, administration of an effective amount of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound produces inhibition of translation. In an embodiment, inhibition is measured as percentage reduction in VEGF translation following administration of a translation-inhibiting compound. e.g., expressed as ((original VEGF level minus VEGF level after administration)/original VEGF translation)×100. In an embodiment, VEGF translation is inhibited by at least about 10%, by at least about 17%, by at least about 25%), by at least about 33%, by at least about 50%, by at least about 75%, by at least about 80%, by at least about 85%, by at least about 90%, by at least about 95%, by at least about 98%, or by at least about 99%. In another embodiment, translation of VEGF is completely (100%) inhibited.
  • [0104]
    In other embodiments, translation of VEGF is inhibited between about 10% and about 100%, between about 25% and about 99%, between about 33% and about 99%, between about 50% and about 99%, between about 75% and about 99%, or between about 92% and about 99%.
  • [0105]
    In a preferred embodiment, inhibition of VEGF translation is measured by measuring a reduction in VEGF protein level. In another preferred embodiment, inhibition of VEGF translation is measured by measuring a reduction in VEGF protein level using R&D Systems ELISA assay according to manufacturer's instructions.
  • [0106]
    In an embodiment, inhibition of VEGF translation is measured by comparing VEGF protein level before and after administration of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound. In an embodiment, VEGF protein level is measured at any time before administration of a translation-inhibiting compound. In another embodiment, VEGF protein level before administration is measured by measuring protein level at about 15 minutes, about 30 minutes, about 1 hour, about 3 hours, about 5 hours, about 10 hours, about 24 hours, about 2 days, about 5 days, about 7 days, about 10 days, about 20 days, about 30 days, about 60 days, about 100 days, or more than one year prior to administration of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound. In another embodiment, VEGF protein level is measured at about 15 minutes, about 30 minutes, about 1 hour, about 3 hours, about 5 hours, about 10 hours, about 24 hours, about 2 days, about 5 days, about 7 days, about 10 days, about 20 days, about 30 days, about 60 days, about 100 days, more than one year, or more than five years after administration of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound.
  • [0107]
    In another embodiment, VEGF protein level measured at any time before administration of a translation-inhibiting compound is compared with VEGF protein level measured at about 15 minutes, about 30 minutes, about 1 hour, about 3 hours, about 5 hours, about 10 hours, about 24 hours, about 2 days, about 5 days, about 7 days, about 10 days, about 20 days, about 30 days, about 60 days, about 100 days, more than one year, or more than five years after administration of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound. In a further embodiment, VEGF protein level measured at about 1 hour, about 3 hours, about 5 hours, about 10 hours, about 24 hours, about 2 days, about 5 days, about 7 days, about 10 days, about 20 days, about 30 days before administration of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound is compared with VEGF level measured at about 1 hour, about 3 hours, about 5 hours, about 10 hours, about 24 hours, about 2 days, about 5 days, about 7 days, about 10 days, about 20 days, about 30 days, about 60 days, about 100 days, or more than one year after administration of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound.
  • [0108]
    In an embodiment, reduction in VEGF protein level may be expressed as a percentage change compared to VEGF level prior to administration of a translation-inhibiting compound, for example as ((VEGF protein level before administering a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound minus VEGF protein level after administration)/VEGF protein level before administration)×100.
  • [0109]
    In an embodiment, VEGF protein level may be reduced by about 10%, about 20%, about 30%, about 40%, about 50%, about 60%, about 70%, about 75%, about 80%, about 85%, about 90%, about 92%, about 95%, about 97%, about 98%, about 99%, or about 100% as compared with VEGF protein level prior to administration of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound.
  • [0110]
    In an embodiment, inhibition of VEGF translation is measured by a reduction in serum VEGF level. In another embodiment, inhibition of VEGF translation is measured by a reduction in plasma VEGF level. In a further embodiment, inhibition of VEGF translation is measured by a reduction in local VEGF level, including for example a reduction in VEGF level in a tumor, tissue sample, or bodily fluid.
  • [0111]
    In an embodiment, reduction of VEGF protein level can be measured by ELISA assay or by quantitative immunofluorescence. In another embodiment, reduction of VEGF protein level can be measured as in Example 4. In a preferred embodiment, VEGF protein levels are measured according to manufacturer's instructions, using R&D Systems ELISA assay for determining VEGF level.
  • [0112]
    In an embodiment of the invention, a method of inhibiting VEGF translation further comprises measuring the inhibition of translation.
  • [0113]
    In another embodiment, a method of inhibiting VEGF translation further comprises treating sepsis.
  • [0114]
    In another embodiment, a method of inhibiting VEGF translation further comprises treating angiogenesis in a subject. In another embodiment, a method of inhibiting VEGF translation further comprises treating a disease or condition associated with aberrant angiogenesis.
  • [0115]
    In other embodiments, a method of inhibiting VEGF translation further comprises treating diabetic retinopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, atherosclerosis, chronic inflammation, a chronic inflammation-related disease or disorder, obesity, or exudative macular degeneration.
  • [0116]
    In another embodiment, a method of inhibiting VEGF translation further comprises treating cancer. In an embodiment, a method of inhibiting VEGF translation further comprises treating a solid tumor cancer. In another embodiment, a method of inhibiting VEGF translation comprises treating Wilms tumor, neuroblastoma, malignant melanoma, cervical cancer, lung cancer or colon cancer.
  • [0117]
    In a further embodiment, a method of inhibiting VEGF translation further comprises slowing tumorigenesis at a pre-vascular stage. A pre-vascular stage of tumorigenesis is known as “carcinoma in situ”, and tumors at this stage are characterized by their reliance on nearby blood vessels for oxygen and diffusion nutrients, due to a lack of vascular infrastructure in the tumor itself at this stage.
  • [0118]
    In another embodiment, a method of inhibiting VEGF translation further comprises reducing perivascularly sequestered or intratumoral VEGF. In this aspect, reduced perivascularly sequestered VEGF is an in situ comparison of perivascular VEGF in tumors treated with a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound and tumors not treated with a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound. In another embodiments reduced perivascularly sequestered VEGF is compared with levels of perivascular VEGF in tumors treated with antibodies to VEGF.
  • [0119]
    Another embodiment of the present invention relates to a method of decreasing VEGF level in a subject in need thereof comprising inhibiting translation of VEGF in the subject by administration of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound; and measuring a decrease in VEGF level in the subject. A further embodiment of the present invention relates to a method of decreasing VEGF level in a human with an elevated VEGF level comprising inhibiting translation of VEGF in the human by administration of a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound; and measuring a decrease in VEGF level in the human.
  • [0120]
    Another embodiment of the present invention relates to a method of identifying a compound as a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound, the method comprising contacting a test compound with one or more cells having an elevated VEGF level; measuring a decrease in VEGF translation; and identifying the test compound as a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound by a decrease in VEGF translation.
  • [0121]
    In an embodiment, a test compound is any compound being tested for VEGF translation-inhibition activity. In one embodiment, the test compound has not previously been identified as a VEGF translation-inhibiting compound. In another embodiment, the test compound has not previously been used to treat angiogenesis or cancer. In a further embodiment, the test compound is a compound of Formula I.
  • [0122]
    In an embodiment of the present invention, contacting a test compound with one or more cells having an elevated VEGF level refers to placing the compound and cells in the same container or solution. In another embodiment, contacting refers to permitting the compound and the cells to touch one another. In an embodiment, contacting is performed in vitro. In another embodiment, contacting is performed in cell culture. In a further embodiment, contacting is performed in vivo.
  • [0123]
    The following Examples describe aspects and embodiments of the present invention and are provides for illustrative purposes only. These Examples are not meant to limit the scope of the invention in any way.
  • EXAMPLES Example 1 Amplification of VEGF 3′- and 5′-UTRs
  • [0124]
    VEGF-A 5′- & 3′-UTRs are amplified from a HeLa cell cDNA library and cloned into a GEMS (Gene Expression Modulation by Small Molecules) reporter construct by cloning into the polylinker of pcDNA3.1 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, Calif.).
  • [0125]
    The VEGF 5′-UTR is quite long and because of its high GC-content, is highly structured. The 5′-UTR of VEGF contains an IRES element that bypasses the stress-induced (e.g. hypoxia) shutdown of translation initiation. Additionally, the 3′UTR contains multiple AREs (AU-rich elements) that, without being limited by any theory, are believed to be involved in mRNA stability in both stress and developmentally regulated VEGF expression. These features of the VEGF mRNA make VEGF a desirable GEMS target.
  • Example 2 Screening of VEGF-Inhibiting Compounds
  • [0126]
    High-throughput screening (HTS) assays are conducted using compounds of Formula I. Each compound is screened for inhibition of reporter activity at a single concentration (7.5 μM). Compounds are dissolved in DMSO to a final DMSO concentration of 0.5%. 293T cells stably expressing luciferase reporter construct from Example 1 are seeded at 10,000 cells/well in a 384-well plate and incubated with compound at 7.5 uM overnight for about 16 hrs. Luciferase activity is monitored by adding 20 uL of LucliteŽ (Perkin Elmer, Wellesley, Mass.) and measuring fluorescence in a ViewLux. Percent inhibition is calculated by the following formula [((1-treated sample)/untreated control)*100].
  • [0127]
    Compounds exhibiting more than 62% inhibition of reporter activity are selected for cherry-picking and reconfirmation assays. This results in about 1100 hits. Approximately 60% of all HTS hits are confirmed in subsequent HTS reporter assays. These compounds are repurchased for further analysis, including UTR-specificity assays, endogenous protein assays (e.g. ELISAs), and selectivity assays.
  • Example 3
  • [0128]
    Compounds that inhibit luciferase activity in HTS are assayed in a dose-dependent manner in the firefly luciferase reporter system as described above.
  • [0129]
    The activity of hits against stable cell lines that contain the VEGF 5′ and 3′ untranslated regions is compared to activity against constructs containing other post-transcriptionally controlled UTRs (IRES, HIF1a and DPPIV) or a synthetic, non-post-transcriptionally regulated UTR. As shown in FIG. 1, a compound of Formula I specifically inhibits reporter gene expression in a VEGF UTR-dependent manner when compared to the other UTR-containing constructs in a low nanomolar range.
  • [0130]
    In cell based reporter assays, UTR specificity does not require a physical association between the compound and the 5′- and 3′-UTR RNAs. Compounds can modulate gene expression in a UTR-dependent manner by interacting with proteins or complexes of proteins that are involved in post-transcriptional control of gene expression. For example, in the case of VEGF, compounds could interfere with one or more of the required cofactors for cap-independent translation which would result in the UTR-dependent inhibition of both the luciferase reporter and, likely, endogenous VEGF.
  • Example 4 Inhibition of VEGF Variants
  • [0131]
    VEGF is alternatively spliced to produce four variants (VEGF121, 165, 189 and 206). The two smaller forms of VEGF (VEGF121 and 165) are secreted and soluble while the larger forms (VEGF189 & 206) are both cell associated and remain bound to the extracellular matrix. To determine if the compound of Formula I attenuates expression of the major forms of the endogenous VEGF gene, protein levels are monitored via ELISA assay (R&D Systems) in HeLa cells (FIG. 2, left panel) and quantitative immunoflouresence (In-Cell Western) in HT1080 cells (FIG. 2, right panel).
  • [0132]
    The ELISA (R&D Systems, Catalog No. DY293B) monitors the soluble isoforms of VEGF in the conditioned media and the In-Cell Western monitors the larger, cell-associated forms of VEGF. The Western is performed with three independent antibodies against VEGF, including ELISA capture antibody (R&D Systems, Catalog No. DY293B), C-1 (Santa Cruz Biotechnology, Catalog No. sc-7269), and G143-850 (BD PharMingen, Catalog No. 554539).
  • [0133]
    The results suggest that the compound of Formula I inhibits all four alternatively spliced isoforms of VEGF. In addition, the compound of Formula I inhibits VEGF in a wide variety of cell lines and tumor types, exhibiting EC50s in the 5-10 nM range.
  • Example 5 Epitope-Tagged VEGF Expression Constructs
  • [0134]
    To show that the VEGF 5′-UTR plays a role in the activity and specificity of the compound of Formula I, epitope-tagged VEGF expression constructs are constructed in which the VEGF coding sequence contains a C-terminal VS epitope tag and is preceded by the VEGF or control (or non-specific) 5′-UTR. Cell lines exhibiting stable expression of epitope-tagged exogenous VEGF are generated to permit greater sensitivity in monitoring differences in VEGF expression and to provide sufficient VEGF expression for pulse-labeling immunoprecipitation studies.
  • [0135]
    The expression levels of secreted and intracellular exogenous epitope-tagged VEGF is monitored in HT1080 VEGF-V5+/−5′-UTR stable clones following an overnight treatment of the compound of Formula I dose response curve (starting concentration of 100 nM with serial three-fold dilutions) with a polyclonal anti-V5 antibody. Actin levels are also monitored as a control. Supernatant and lysate VEGF protein levels remain unchanged with varying compound concentration in the absence of 5′ UTR. Supernatant and lysate VEGF protein levels are reduced with increasing compound concentration in the presence of a 5′ UTR. Actin levels remain unchanged in the presence of 5′UTR and varying amounts of compound. These results suggest the involvement of the VEGF 5′-UTR in inhibition of both secreted and intracellular VEGF.
  • Example 6 Determination of Inhibition of VEGF Translation
  • [0136]
    To determine if compounds of Formula I inhibit VEGF translation or steps following protein synthesis (e.g. secretion or protein degradation), immunoprecipitation studies of pulse-labeled VEGF are performed. HT1080 clones stably expressing epitope-tagged VEGF with the 5′-UTR are pretreated overnight with 100 nM of a compound of Formula I, followed by a four hour “pulse” of 35S-Met along with various secretion and proteasome blocking agents. As shown in FIG. 3, the compound of Formula I (100 nM) significantly inhibits VEGF expression (lane 1 compared to lane 3).
  • [0137]
    To determine if the reduction of VEGF in conditioned media upon treatment by the compound of Formula I is a result of a block in the VEGF secretory pathway, the effect of the compound of Formula I is compared to a known secretion blocking agent, Brefeldin A (BFA). (Sigma, Catalog No. B6542). HT1080 clones stably expressing epitope-tagged VEGF with the 5′-UTR are pretreated overnight with 100 nM of a compound of Formula I, followed by a four hour “pulse” of 35S-Met along with BFA at a final concentration of 1.6 uM.
  • [0138]
    While BFA resulted in a block in secretion and a dramatic accumulation of intracellular VEGF (FIG. 3, lanes 2 and 1 compared to lanes 8 and 6), the compound of Formula I does not prevent detection of VEGF in the conditioned media or result in an increase in intracellular VEGF levels (FIG. 3, lanes 3 and 1 compared to lanes 9 and 6). Therefore, the compound of Formula I does not inhibit secretion of VEGF.
  • [0139]
    To determine if the compound of Formula I accelerates ER-associated proteasomal degradation of VEGF, the effect of the compound of Formula I is compared to a known 20S proteasome inhibitor, MG132 (Calbiochem, Catalog No. 474790). HT1080 clones stably expressing epitope-tagged VEGF with the 5′-UTR are pretreated overnight with 100 nM of a compound of Formula I, followed by a four hour “pulse” of 35S-Met along with MG132 at a final concentration of 2 uM.
  • [0140]
    Co-incubation of the compound of Formula I with MG132 did not significantly increase the levels of VEGF in either the conditioned media or the lysate (FIG. 3, lane 4 compared to lane 3 and lane 10 compared to lane 9). This strongly suggests that proteasomal degradation of VEGF does not play a role in the inhibition of VEGF by the compound of Formula I.
  • [0141]
    To determine if the compound of Formula I blocks the synthesis of VEGF, the amount of intracellular VEGF in the presence of the compound of Formula I and MG132 is compared when secretion of VEGF is completely blocked. HT1080 clones stably expressing epitope-tagged VEGF with the 5′-UTR are pretreated overnight with 100 nM of the compound of Formula I, followed by a four hour “pulse” of 35S-Met along with BFA at a final concentration of 1.6 uM and MG132 at a final concentration of 2 uM.
  • [0142]
    The compound of Formula I inhibits intracellular VEGF expression when both secretion and proteasome degradation is blocked (FIG. 3, lane 11 compared to lane 8), indicating that inhibition of VEGF production by the compound of Formula I at the level of translation.
  • [0143]
    All publications and patent applications identified above are herein incorporated by reference.
  • [0144]
    Although certain embodiments have been described in detail above, those having ordinary skill in the art will clearly understand that many modifications are possible in the embodiments without departing from the teachings thereof. All such modifications are intended to be encompassed within the claims of the invention.
Patent Citations
Cited PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3492304 *Jun 24, 1968Jan 27, 1970Warner Lambert Pharmaceutical5,6,7,7a,8,8a,9,10,12,12a-decahydro-11h-benz(b)indolo(3,2,1-ij) 1,5 naphthyridin-11-ones
US4014890 *Mar 23, 1976Mar 29, 1977Pfizer Inc.Process for preparing indole derivatives
US4720484 *Nov 20, 1986Jan 19, 1988Adir S.A.R.L.Peptide compounds having a nitrogenous polycyclic structure
US4754038 *Feb 26, 1987Jun 28, 1988American Home Products CorporationCarboline histamine H1 antagonists
US5166204 *Oct 30, 1990Nov 24, 1992Toyama Chemical Co., Ltd.Isoindole derivatives and salts thereof and antitumor agent comprising the same
US5314908 *Nov 17, 1992May 24, 1994Whitby Research, Inc.Compounds useful as antiproliferative agents
US5451600 *Apr 19, 1994Sep 19, 1995Hoffmann-La Roche Inc.Substituted tetrahydrobenzopyrrolylfuranoic acid derivatives as phospholipase A2 inhibitors
US5760051 *Jun 7, 1995Jun 2, 1998Eli Lilly And CompanyTetrahydro-beta-carbolines
US6069150 *Mar 27, 1997May 30, 2000F. Hoffman-La Roche AgUse of derivatives of tetrahydro-beta-carbolines as antimetastatic agents
US6175015 *Aug 12, 1997Jan 16, 2001Neurogen CorporationFused indolecarboxamides: dopamine receptor subtype specific ligands
US6514981 *Apr 1, 1999Feb 4, 2003Sugen, Inc.Methods of modulating tyrosine protein kinase function with indolinone compounds
US6630589 *Mar 26, 2002Oct 7, 2003Message PharmaceuticalsIdentification of compounds for the treatment or prevention of proliferative diseases
US6653132 *Feb 25, 1998Nov 25, 2003Qbi Enterprises, Ltd.IRES sequences with high translational efficiency and expression vectors containing the sequence
US6667152 *Mar 22, 2002Dec 23, 2003Rigel Pharmaceuticals, Inc.Method for selective inactivation of viral replication
US6706750 *Aug 4, 2000Mar 16, 2004Vernalis Research LimitedIndole derivatives process for their preparation, pharmaceutical compositions containing them and their medicinal application
US7601840 *Mar 15, 2005Oct 13, 2009Ptc Therapeutics, Inc.Carboline derivatives useful in the inhibition of angiogenesis
US7767689 *Apr 18, 2005Aug 3, 2010Ptc Therapeutics, Inc.Carboline derivatives useful in the treatment of cancer
US20020016298 *Dec 21, 2000Feb 7, 2002Hay Bruce A.Somatostatin antagonists and agonists that act at the sst subtype 2 receptor
US20020091125 *Sep 17, 2001Jul 11, 2002Hay Bruce A.Somatostatin antagonists and agonists that act at the SST subtype 2 receptor
US20020128206 *Mar 7, 2002Sep 12, 2002Hay Bruce A.Somatostatin antagonists and agonists that act at the sst subtype 2 receptor
US20030040527 *Apr 3, 2002Feb 27, 2003Yeh Sheau Farn1-substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-beta-carboline and 3,4-dihydro-beta-carboline and analogs as antitumor agents
US20040214223 *May 24, 2004Oct 28, 2004Liangxian CaoMethods and agents for screening for compounds capable of modulating VEGF expression
US20050143371 *Jul 20, 2004Jun 30, 2005Pharmacia CorporationBeta-carboline compounds and analogues thereof as mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-2 inhibitors
US20050282849 *Apr 18, 2005Dec 22, 2005Young-Choon MoonCarboline derivatives useful in the treatment of cancer
US20070254878 *Apr 13, 2007Nov 1, 2007Liangxian CaoAdministration of carboline derivatives useful in the treatment of cancer and other diseases
US20080103213 *Oct 5, 2007May 1, 2008Board Of Regents, The University Of Texas SystemLiposomal curcumin for treatment of neurofibromatosis
US20080293766 *Apr 11, 2008Nov 27, 2008Regents Of The University Of CaliforniaSmall-molecule inhibitors of the androgen receptor
US20090017021 *Apr 17, 2008Jan 15, 2009Coley Pharmaceutical Group, Ltd.Methods and compositions for inducing innate immune responses
US20100125065 *Jul 21, 2009May 20, 2010Young-Choon MoonCarboline derivatives useful in the inhibition of angiogenesis
US20100158858 *Apr 12, 2008Jun 24, 2010Liangxian CaoAdministration of carboline derivatives useful in the treatment of cancer and other diseases
US20100179132 *Mar 2, 2010Jul 15, 2010Ptc Therapeutics, Inc.Carboline derivatives useful in the inhibition of angiogenesis
Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
WO2013067409A1 *Nov 2, 2012May 10, 2013Alcon Research, Ltd.Antimicrobial carboline compounds