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Publication numberUS20090222076 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 12/084,421
PCT numberPCT/EP2006/010519
Publication dateSep 3, 2009
Filing dateNov 2, 2006
Priority dateNov 4, 2005
Also published asCA2627555A1, CA2627555C, DE102005052628A1, DE102005052628B4, EP1942834A1, EP1942834B1, US8062355, US20070142906, WO2007051620A1
Publication number084421, 12084421, PCT/2006/10519, PCT/EP/2006/010519, PCT/EP/2006/10519, PCT/EP/6/010519, PCT/EP/6/10519, PCT/EP2006/010519, PCT/EP2006/10519, PCT/EP2006010519, PCT/EP200610519, PCT/EP6/010519, PCT/EP6/10519, PCT/EP6010519, PCT/EP610519, US 2009/0222076 A1, US 2009/222076 A1, US 20090222076 A1, US 20090222076A1, US 2009222076 A1, US 2009222076A1, US-A1-20090222076, US-A1-2009222076, US2009/0222076A1, US2009/222076A1, US20090222076 A1, US20090222076A1, US2009222076 A1, US2009222076A1
InventorsHans-Reiner Figulla, Markus Ferrari
Original AssigneeJen. Cardiotec Gmbh
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Self-Expandable Medical Instrument for Treating of Defects in a Patient's Heart
US 20090222076 A1
Abstract
The invention relates to a self-expandable medical instrument (100) for treating defects in a patient's heart, in particular for the transvascular implantation of a prosthetic heart valve (30), wherein the medical instrument (100) is introducible into the body of a patient in a minimally-invasive procedure using a catheter system (40) and comprises a stent (1) made of a flexible mesh (2) of thin wires or filaments (2′). In order to realize a positioning of medical instrument (100) in the patient's heart which is as precise as possible and to securely anchor same there, it is provided for the stent (1) composed of the flexible mesh (2) to exhibit in the expanded state of the medical instrument (100) a distal retention area (10) with a laterally-inverted beaded portion (12) which is engageable in at least one pocket (51) of the patient's defective heart valve (50), a proximal retention area (20), and a center area (15) positioned between the distal and the proximal retention area (10, 20).
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Claims(17)
1. A self-expandable medical instrument (100) for treating defects in a patient's heart, in particular for the transvascular implantation of a prosthetic heart valve (30), wherein the medical instrument (100) can be introduced into the body of a patient in a minimally-invasive procedure using a catheter system (40) and comprises a stent (1) made from a flexible mesh (2) of thin wires or filaments (2′), wherein the stent (1) configured from flexible mesh (2) exhibits a first predefinable shape during the insertion of the medical instrument (100) in the patient's body and a second predefinable shape in the implanted state of the medical instrument (100), wherein said medical instrument (100) is in a collapsed state in the first shape of the stent (1) composed of the flexible mesh (2) and in an expanded state in the second shape of the stent (1) composed of the flexible mesh (2), and wherein the stent (1) composed of the flexible mesh (2) in its second predefinable shape and in the expanded state of the medical instrument (100) exhibits the following:
a distal retention area (10) having a laterally-inverted beaded portion (12), which in the implanted state of the medical instrument (100) is engageable in at least one pocket (51) of the patient's defective heart valve (50);
a proximal retention area (20); and
a center area (15) positioned between the distal and the proximal retention area (10, 20),
wherein the center area (15) of the stent (1) of the expanded medical instrument (100) exhibits a smaller diameter than the proximal and/or distal retention area (10, 20), and wherein the center area (15) is configured to form a positive connection with the vascular wall (52) at the height of the defective heart valve (50) in the implanted state of the medical instrument (100).
2. The self-expandable medical instrument (100) according to claim 1, wherein the stent (1) further exhibits a self-expandable prosthetic heart valve (30) disposed in the center area (15) which self-expands upon the medical instrument (100) being released from the catheter system (40).
3. The medical instrument (100) according to claim 1 or 2, wherein the mesh (2) is a mesh tube, and wherein the medical instrument (100) exhibits a form open to the proximal and distal end in its expanded state.
4. The medical instrument (100) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the beaded portion (12) at the distal retention area (10) of stent (1) in the expanded medical instrument (100) is formed by the mushroom-shaped outwardly turning back of the distal end of mesh (2).
5. The medical instrument (100) according to claim 4, wherein the beaded portion (12) at the distal retention area (10) of stent (1) in the expanded medical instrument (100) in the implanted state is invertible into at least one pocket (51) of the patient's defective heart valve (50) and thus serves as a means for positioning the medical instrument (100) at the height of the patient's defective heart valve (50).
6. The medical instrument (100) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein based upon the self-expanding properties of the mesh (2), the proximal retention area (20) of the stent (1) in the expanded medical instrument (100) is configured so as to form a force-fit connection with the vascular wall (52) in the direct proximity of the defective heart valve (50) in the implanted state of the medical instrument (100).
7. The medical instrument (100) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein based upon the self-expanding properties of the mesh (2), the center area (15) of the stent (1) in the expanded medical instrument (100) is configured so as to press the patient's defective heart valve (50) against the vascular wall (52) distal the defective heart valve (50) in the implanted state of the medical instrument (100).
8. The medical instrument (100) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the stent (1) in the expanded state of the medical instrument (100) exhibits a shape similar to a barbell.
9. The medical instrument (100) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the center area (15) of the stent (1) exhibits a smaller diameter in the expanded medical instrument (100) than the proximal and distal retention areas (10, 20), and wherein the center area (15) exhibits a length which corresponds approximately to the length of the defective heart valve (50).
10. The medical instrument (100) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the stent (1) made of mesh (2) with a self-expandable prosthetic heart valve (30) arranged at its center area (15) tapers to the diameter of the catheter system (40) used in the transvascular surgical procedure.
11. The medical instrument (100) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the stent (1) exhibits a mounting (4) engageable with an explantation catheter system (40) on its proximal and/or distal end, and wherein the medical instrument (100) is configured such that an external manipulation will effect its commuting from its expanded state into its collapsed state.
12. The medical instrument (100) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein in the implanted state of the expanded medical instrument (100), the flexible mesh (2), in particular wire mesh, of stent (1) is disposed in multi-layered arrangement around the defective heart valve (50).
13. The medical instrument (100) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the stent (1) made of flexible mesh (2), in particular wire mesh, having a self-expandable prosthetic heart valve (30) arranged at its center area (15) is configured such that the second shape of stent (1) is adaptable in such a manner to the anatomical conditions so as to achieve on the one hand a maximum expansion of prosthetic heart valve (30) and, on the other, an optimum lateral sealing to the vascular wall (52) in the implanted state of the expanded medical instrument (100).
14. The medical instrument (100) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the stent (1) made from flexible mesh (2), in particular wire mesh, having a self-expandable prosthetic heart valve (30) arranged at its center area (15) is configured such that the stent (1) with the prosthetic heart valve (30) can be withdrawn back into the catheter system (40) and removable from the body of the patient at any time during the implantation of the medical instrument (100).
15. The medical instrument (100) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the stent (1) made from flexible mesh (2), in particular wire mesh, having a self-expandable prosthetic heart valve (30) arranged at its center area (15) is configured such that using a catheter system (40) and guide wires (41), the stent (1) with the prosthetic heart valve (30) is again retractable and explantable following a successful release.
16. The medical instrument (100) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the flexible mesh (2) is made from a material having memory effect, in particular nitinol or memory plastics.
17. The medical instrument (100) according to any one of the preceding claims, wherein the stent (1) made from flexible mesh (2), in particular wire mesh, having a self-expandable prosthetic heart valve (30) arranged at its center area (15) is configured so as to replace a patient's aorta valve, mitral valve, pulmonary valve or tricuspid valve.
Description
  • [0001]
    The present invention relates to a self-expandable medical instrument for treating defects in a patient's heart, in particular for the transvascular implantation of a prosthetic heart valve, whereby the medical instrument can be introduced via a catheter system into the patient's body in a minimally-invasive procedure. In particular, the invention relates to a device for the transvascular replacement of diseased heart valves.
  • [0002]
    A device of this type is known in principle to medical technology. At present, biological or mechanical valve models are available to substitute for human heart valves which are usually fixedly sewn into the bed of the heart valve during a surgical procedure through an opening in the thorax after removal of the diseased heart valve. In this surgical procedure, the patient's circulation must be maintained by a heart-lung machine, whereby cardiac arrest is induced during the implantation of the prosthetic heart valve. This consequently makes the surgical procedure a risky one coupled with the associated risks for the patients and a lengthy post-operative treatment phase. In particular, the risks of such a surgical procedure are often no longer justifiable in the case of multimorbid patients.
  • [0003]
    Minimally-invasive treatment procedures of recent development are characterized in particular by the surgery being able to be performed under local anesthesia. One approach provides for implanting a self-expanding stent connected to a collapsible heart valve into the human body by means of an appropriate catheter system. The catheter systems is used to guide such a self-expanding prosthetic heart valve through the inguinal artery or vein to its site of implantation at the heart. After reaching the site of implantation, the stent, consisting for example of a plurality of self-expanding stent segments which can be bent relative one another in its longitudinal direction, can then be successively expanded. Following this expansion, anchoring hooks can for example support the anchoring of the prosthetic heart valve at least in the respective blood vessel close to the heart. The actual prosthetic heart valve itself is thereby in the direct proximal area of the stent.
  • [0004]
    Known for example from the DE 100 10 074 A1 printed publication is a device for fastening and anchoring prosthetic heart valves, which is essentially formed from wire-shaped interconnected elements. The device thereby provides for using various different arched elements in order to attain a secure fixation of and support for the prosthetic heart valve. To this end, the device described in this printed publication makes use of three identical pairs of arched elements, arranged to be offset from one another by 120. These arched elements are interconnected by means of solid articulations, whereby the solid articulations fulfill the function of pivot bearings. Additional arched elements bent opposite to each other are furthermore provided which form rocker arms as equal in length as possible in order to achieve a secure placement of the arched elements even when subject to peristaltic actions on the heart and blood vessels and a solid sealing for an implanted and anchored prosthetic heart valve.
  • [0005]
    In the known solutions, however, there is a risk of heart valve implant malalignment. This essentially relates to the exact positioning and longitudinal orientation of the prosthetic heart valve to be implanted. In particular, it is only with immense skill on the part of the attending surgeon—if at all—that a stent with the prosthetic heart valve at its proximal end winds up being positioned so precisely in the proximity of the patient's diseased heart valve that both sufficient lateral positioning accuracy as well as a suitable longitudinal placement to the prosthetic heart valve can be optimally ensured.
  • [0006]
    Among other complications, an implantation malalignment of a less than optimally positioned prosthetic heart valve can lead to, for example, leakage or valvular regurgitation, which puts a substantial burden on the ventricle. Should, for example, a prosthetic heart valve be implanted too far above the actual heart valve plane, this can lead to occlusion of the coronary artery origination (coronaries) and thus to a fatal coronary ischemia with myocardial infarction. It is therefore imperative for an implanted prosthetic heart valve to meet all the respective requirements for both the accuracy of the lateral positioning as well as the longitudinal placement.
  • [0007]
    In conventional implantation techniques in which self-expandable prosthetic heart valves are, for example, guided through a patient's inguinal artery to the site of deployment at the heart in a minimally-invasive procedure, the prosthesis is usually introduced using a guide wire and catheters, whereby conventional balloon catheters can also be used. Although such a surgical introduction can be monitored and controlled, for example with fluoroscopy (Cardiac Catheterization Laboratory=CCL) or with ultrasound (Transesophageal Echocardiogram=TEE), oftentimes—due to the limited maneuverability of the prosthetic heart valve which is still in a collapsed state during the introduction procedure and despite being in the collapsed state is still of relatively large size—it is not possible to ensure the required positioning accuracy and especially the longitudinal placement to the prosthetic heart valve implant with the corresponding anchoring elements affixed thereto. In particular—as a result of a possible coronary artery occlusion—an angle misalignment to the implanted prosthetic heart valve from the optimum site of deployment can pose a threat to the respective patient.
  • [0008]
    In designing a prosthetic heart valve, special consideration must in particular be given to the substantial forces also acting on the prosthetic during the filling period of the cardiac cycle (diastole), necessitating a secure anchorage in order to prevent the implanted prosthetic heart valve from dislodging.
  • [0009]
    Hence on the one hand, the prosthetic heart valve must be able to be maneuvered to the greatest extent possible in the respective coronary artery during the implantation procedure so as to ensure optimum positioning accuracy and, on the other hand, the implanted prosthesis must be able to be firmly anchored at its site of implantation in order to effectively prevent subsequent prosthesis misalignment.
  • [0010]
    The present invention addresses the problem that the known devices for transvascular implantation and fixation of prosthetic heart valves are often not suitable for a simple implantation of a prosthetic heart valve with the required positioning accuracy. Moreover, explanting a previously implanted prosthetic heart valve in a minimally-invasive procedure or accordingly correcting an incorrectly positioned prosthetic heart valve has to date often only been possible with great effort, if at all.
  • [0011]
    On the basis of the problems as set forth, one task on which the present invention is based is that of providing a device for the transvascular implantation and fixation of prosthetic heart valves which remedies the above-described disadvantages inherent to conventional implantation systems.
  • [0012]
    According to the invention, this task is solved by a medical self-expandable instrument for treating heart defects in a patient, in particular for the transvascular implantation of a prosthetic heart valve, whereby the medical instrument can be introduced into the patient's body in a minimally-invasive procedure using a catheter system and a stent made from a flexible mesh of thin wires or filaments. It is thereby provided for the stent or the mesh to exhibit a first predefinable shape while the medical instrument is being inserted into the patient's body and a second predefinable shape when the medical instrument is in its implanted state, whereby the medical instrument is in a collapsed state in the first shape of the stent or mesh and in an expanded state in the second shape of the stent or mesh. In particular, in its expanded state, the medical instrument according to the inventive solution exhibits a distal retention area with a laterally-inverted beaded portion, which in the implanted state of the medical instrument is engageable with at least one pocket of the patient's defective heart valve, a proximal retention area, as well as a center area positioned between the distal and the proximal retention area. In its expanded state, the center area of the medical instrument thereby exhibits a smaller diameter than the proximal and/or distal retention area, whereby in the implanted state of the medical instrument at the height of the patient's defective heart valve, the center area is designed to form a positive connection with the vascular wall at or in the direct proximity of the defective heart valve.
  • [0013]
    The advantages of the invention are in particular noted to be in the providing of a transvascularly introducible medical instrument, in particular for treating a patient's heart defects, whereby the medical instrument is suitable to be delivered by catheter to the defect to be treated in the patient's heart. Because the medical instrument is configured as a self-expandable instrument and essentially consists of a stent made of a flexible mesh of thin wires or filaments, one particularly advantageous result achieved is that the medical instrument—regardless of the size of the heart valve to be treated and regardless of the diameter to the defective heart valve—can self-adapt to the defective heart valve, and in such a way that, on the one hand, the portions of the medical instrument protruding into the bloodstream flowing past the implanted medical instrument are as small as possible, while at the same time, an optimal positioning, secure anchorage and optimal lateral sealing of the implanted medical instrument is ensured.
  • [0014]
    Accordingly, the medical instrument is optimally positionable at the defective heart valve and anchored there in extremely stable manner, whereby at the same time, embolism-related problems can be prevented. Using thin wires or filaments as the source material of the stent or the medical instrument according to the invention respectively yields the further advantage of the medical instrument exhibiting long-term mechanical stability. This thus sustainably prevents structural fractures from occurring in the instrument employed. The mesh furthermore has sufficient rigidity.
  • [0015]
    Briefly summarized, the solution according to the invention is characterized by the medical instrument comprising a stent made from a flexible mesh, in particular a wire mesh, which upon release from the catheter inverts in mushroom-shape form into the pockets of the diseased heart valve and is clamped there by this inversion. This thus provides an optimum positioning and stable anchoring of a prosthetic heart valve disposed or provided in the middle of the stent. At the same time, an optimum lateral sealing of the implanted prosthetic valve is ensured.
  • [0016]
    Preferred embodiments of the medical instrument are indicated in the subclaims.
  • [0017]
    A particularly preferred realization of the medical instrument according to the invention accordingly provides for the stent to furthermore exhibit a self-expandable prosthetic heart valve arranged in the center area which self-expands upon the medical instrument being released from the catheter system and which then assumes the function of the patient's defective heart valve. In this preferred embodiment, the mesh thus serves the medical instrument as a heart valve stent in the anchoring and positioning of the prosthetic heart valve arranged in the center area of the medical instrument. The medical instrument is in particular characterized by the fact that, due to its shape in the expanded state, it not only provides an extremely stable anchoring of the prosthetic heart valve, but also a self-positioning of same at the height of the defective heart valve to be replaced.
  • [0018]
    With respect to the mesh which forms the prosthetic heart valve stent, it is preferably provided for same to be a mesh tube such that the medical instrument exhibits a form open to the proximal and distal end in its expanded state. A mesh tube offers the advantage of blood being able to flow through the medical instrument in the implanted state of the expanded medical instrument, whereby—except for the prosthetic heart valve disposed in the center area of the medical instrument—virtually no foreign components protrude into the bloodstream.
  • [0019]
    It is furthermore conceivable for the beaded portion at the distal retention area of the stent in the expanded medical instrument to be formed by the mushroom-shaped outwardly turned-back distal end of the mesh. In particular, the beaded portion at the distal retention area of the expanded medical instrument in the implanted state of the medical instrument is thereby invertible in the at least one pocket of the patient's defective heart valve and thus serves as a self-positioning means for positioning the medical instrument at the height of the patient's defective heart valve.
  • [0020]
    According to a further aspect of the present invention, because of the self-expanding properties of the stent made from the flexible mesh, the proximal retention area of the stent forms a force-fit connection with the vascular wall when the medical instrument is in its expanded state, thus ensuring a stable anchoring of the implanted medical instrument.
  • [0021]
    On the other hand, the center area of the stent in the expanded medical instrument is advantageously configured such that based on the self-expanding properties of the stent made from the flexible mesh, the center area presses the patient's defective heart valve against the vascular wall distal the defective heart valve in the implanted state of the medical instrument.
  • [0022]
    With respect to the shape of the medical instrument in its expanded state, the stent in its second shape respectively, it is preferable for same to be of a shape similar to a barbell, whereby both the distal as well as the proximal retention area are respectively configured in the shape of a mushroom cap. It is furthermore preferred for the center area of the stent to exhibit a smaller diameter in the expanded medical instrument compared to the proximal and distal retention areas, whereby the center area exhibits a length which corresponds approximately to the length of the defective heart valve.
  • [0023]
    It is particularly preferred for the mesh-based stent having a self-expandable prosthetic heart valve arranged at its center area to taper to the diameter of the catheter system used in the transvascular surgical procedure.
  • [0024]
    In order to allow for a medical instrument already implanted into the body of the patient being able to be subsequently explanted, a preferred further development of the solution according to the invention provides for the stent to exhibit a mounting engageable with an explantation catheter system on its proximal and/or distal end, wherein the medical instrument is moreover configured such that an external manipulation will effect its alteration from the expanded state to its collapsed state so that the medical instrument, the stent with the prosthetic heart valve respectively, will be as simple as possible to explant.
  • [0025]
    A further aspect of the invention provides for the flexible mesh forming the stent for the self-expandable medical instrument to have a multi-layered configuration around the patient's defective heart valve in the implanted state of the medical instrument.
  • [0026]
    Because a stent formed from a flexible mesh is used and because of the self-expanding properties to the medical instrument thus attained, it is particularly preferable for the stent with the self-expandable prosthetic heart valve arranged at its center area to be configured such that in the implanted state of the expanded medical instrument, the second shape of the stent, and thus the medical instrument, adapts to the anatomical conditions in such a manner that the prosthetic heart valve attains a maximum expansion on the one hand and, on the other, an optimum lateral sealing to the vascular wall is provided.
  • [0027]
    It is of particular advantage for the stent made of flexible mesh, in particular wire mesh, with a self-expanding prosthetic heart valve arranged in its center area to be configured such that the stent with the prosthetic heart valve can be withdrawn back into the catheter system, and thus removable from the patient's body, at any time during the implantation of the medical instrument.
  • [0028]
    It is provided for the flexible mesh to be made from nitinol or another material having shape-memory or memory effect. Other applicable materials would include, for example, copper/zinc/aluminum alloys, gold/cadmium alloys or also iron-based alloys such as, for example, iron/manganese, silicon alloys, as well as also plastics, which are all characterized by the fact that they have extremely high memory capabilities.
  • [0029]
    Lastly, with regard to the use of the medical instrument, it is particularly preferred for the flexible stent of mesh with the prosthetic heart valve at its center area to be used not only for replacing aorta valves but also mitral, pulmonary and tricuspid valves.
  • [0030]
    The following will make reference to the accompanying figures in describing the invention in greater detail, wherein the figures are as follows:
  • [0031]
    FIG. 1 shows a preferred embodiment of the medical instrument according to the invention during insertion into the body of a patient, whereby the flexible mesh, which here forms the aorta valve stent, exhibits its first predefined shape;
  • [0032]
    FIG. 2 shows the medical instrument of FIG. 1 in a first state in which the aorta valve stent is released from the insertion catheter system;
  • [0033]
    FIG. 3 shows the medical instrument of FIG. 2 in a further second state during the release of the aorta valve stent from the insertion catheter system;
  • [0034]
    FIG. 4 shows the medical instrument of FIG. 3 in a further advanced third state during the release of the aorta valve stent from the insertion catheter system;
  • [0035]
    FIG. 5 shows a state in which the aorta valve stent and thus the medical instrument according to FIGS. 1 to 4 is fully expanded and implanted at the height of the patient's heart valve;
  • [0036]
    FIG. 6 shows a perspective view of the expanded medical instrument according to the preferred embodiment;
  • [0037]
    FIG. 7 shows a conceivable route of implantation for the medical instrument according to the preferred embodiment.
  • [0038]
    The embodiment depicted in the figures of the inventive self-expandable medical instrument 100 for treating defects of a patient's heart relates to a self-expandable medical instrument for the transvascular implantation of a prosthetic heart valve 30, wherein the medical instrument 100 can be introduced into a patient's body in minimally-invasive fashion by means of a catheter system 40 and consists of a stent 1 made from a flexible mesh (2) of thin wires or filaments 2′.
  • [0039]
    As FIG. 1 shows, the stent 1 configured from flexible mesh 2 is in a first predefined shape during the insertion of the medical instrument 100 into the patient's body. The stent 1 further exhibits a self-expandable prosthetic heart valve 30 at its center area 15, which is covered by mesh 2 in FIG. 1 and thus not explicitly shown. As will be described below, the self-expandable prosthetic heart valve 30 unfolds by itself upon the medical instrument 100, the stent 1 respectively, being released from the catheter system 40.
  • [0040]
    What can in particular be noted from FIG. 1 is that the stent 1 configured from mesh 2 with the prosthetic heart valve 30 arranged at its center area 15 (not explicitly shown in FIG. 1) tapers to the diameter of the catheter system 40 used for the transvascular procedure. In this state, the medical instrument 100 is seen as being in its collapsed state.
  • [0041]
    FIG. 1 specifically depicts a state immediately prior to the medical instrument 100 in its collapsed state being brought through the defective aorta valve 50 of the patient to the ascending aorta by means of a guide wire 41, and after the medical instrument 100 having been transseptally inserted into the left ventricle by an insertion catheter system 40. As already indicated, only the flexible mesh 2 can be recognized in the depiction of the medical instrument 100 shown in the FIG. 1 representation, same assuming the function of the aorta valve stent 1 and with the (not explicitly depicted) collapsed prosthetic heart valve 50 disposed at its center area 15.
  • [0042]
    FIG. 2 shows a state in which—starting from the position shown in FIG. 1—the first portion of the inner wire mesh 2 of stent 1 is mushroomed out of the corresponding insertion catheter system 40, whereby this portion forms the beaded portion 12 at the distal retention area 10 of the stent in the fully expanded state of medical instrument 100, arching laterally in a mushroom shape. In the implanted state of medical instrument 100, the laterally outward capping beaded portion 12 engages in at least one pocket 51 of the patient's defective heart valve 50, as will be described in detail below.
  • [0043]
    FIG. 3 shows a further state in which the entire stent 1 is drawn back to the height of the defective aorta valve 50, where the defective valve 50 is hooked in form-fit manner to the “midriff” of stent 1; i.e., the center area 15 of the double-mushroomed stent 1 after full expansion, after the distal (upper) portion of the wire mesh 2 inverts into place and the beaded portion 12 is fully formed.
  • [0044]
    FIG. 4 meanwhile shows a state in which by the further extending of stent 1 formed from the mesh 2 out of the catheter system 40, the self-expandable prosthetic heart valve 30 disposed in the center area 15 within stent 1 emerges. In this state, the patient's defective (old) valve 50 engages with the midsectioned center area 15 of stent 1. The beaded portion 12 at the distal retention area 10 of stent 1 is furthermore turned inside out by the mushroom-shaped inverting of the distal end of mesh 2, whereby the beaded portion 12 turns to fit into the pockets 51 of the patient's defective heart valve 50 so as to serve as a means for positioning the medical instrument 100 at the height of the patient's defective heart valve 50.
  • [0045]
    Upon stent 1 being further extended from the catheter system 40, the proximal retention area 20 of stent 1 finally unfolds, whereby same then forms a force-fit connection with the vascular wall 52 in the direct proximity of the defective heart valve 50 due to the self-expanding properties of the mesh 2. At the same time, the center area 15 of stent 1 presses against the aorta wall 52, whereby the self-expandable mesh 2 expands further, thereby clamping the prosthetic valve 30.
  • [0046]
    Both FIG. 5 a and FIG. 5 b show a state in which the mechanical prosthetic heart valve 30 is correctly positioned and fully closed, whereby the defective (old) valve 50 remains in the heart and is pressed against the vascular wall 52. Moreover indicated is how, following a check of the proper seating and the error-free functioning of the mechanical prosthetic heart valve 30, the guide wire 41 can then be removed again. It is hereby pointed out that in the event of valve malfunction, the guide wire 41 can retract stent 1 with the integrated prosthetic heart valve 30 back into the insertion catheter system as necessary and the stent can be replaced by another stent with an integrated prosthetic heart valve.
  • [0047]
    FIG. 6 shows a perspective view of the expanded medical instrument 100 in accordance with the preferred embodiment. It can be recognized that in the expanded state of medical instrument 100, the stent 1 exhibits a barbell-like shape, whereby the stent 1 formed from the flexible mesh 2 with the self-expandable prosthetic heart valve 30 disposed within the center area 15 of stent 1 (not recognizable in FIG. 6) is configured such that the second shape of stent 1 in the implanted state of the expanded medical instrument 100 can adapt to the anatomical conditions in such a manner that the prosthetic heart valve 30 attains maximum expansion on the one hand and, on the other, achieves an optimum lateral sealing to vascular wall 52.
  • [0048]
    It can further be noted from FIG. 6 that in the expanded state of medical instrument 100, the center area 15 of stent 1 exhibits a smaller diameter than the proximal and distal retention areas 10 and 20, whereby the center area 15 exhibits a length which corresponds approximately to the length of the defective heart valve 50.
  • [0049]
    The embodiment of the medical instrument 100 as depicted moreover provides for the stent 1 to have a mounting 4 in the form of a ring at its proximal end which can be brought into engagement with a (not shown) explantation catheter system, whereby the medical instrument 100 is configured such that external manipulation can commute it from its expanded state into its collapsed state.
  • [0050]
    FIG. 7 shows how a guide wire 41 can be fed through the vena cava to the right atrium and the interatrial septum in the left atrium and further into the left ventricle and from there through the left ventricular outflow tract and the aorta valve to the ascending aorta.
  • [0051]
    It is particularly preferred for the transvascular replacement of a patient's defective aorta valve 50, for example, to sew or otherwise fasten a suitable prosthetic valve 30 in the middle of the center area 15 of the stent 1 configured from flexible mesh 2. The stent 1 with the integrated prosthetic valve 30 can then be tapered to the diameter of the catheter system 40 used in the transvascular surgical procedure and brought through the venous system, passing the interatrial septum, from the right atrium into the left atrium and from there, further into the left ventricle and the left ventricular outflow tract by means of the insertion catheter system.
  • [0052]
    The stent 1 configured from mesh 2 is released from the insertion catheter system 40 at the height of the defective (old) aorta valve 50, as is shown in FIG. 1. Because stent 1 is discharged successively, at first only the distal retention area 10 is released such that it upends inside out in mushroom shape, as depicted in FIGS. 2 to 4. Subsequent thereto, a careful guiding of the medical instrument 100 toward the ventricles will bring the beaded portion 12 into a form-fit connection in the pockets 51 of the patient's defective old valve 50. The middle midriff, the center area 15 respectively, of stent 1, in which the prosthetic valve 30 is disposed, is now in form-fit seating at the height of the old heart valve (50), as shown in FIG. 4.
  • [0053]
    The proximal retention area 20 of stent 1 is then also subsequently ejected from the catheter system 40, whereby the artificial prosthetic valve 30 expands and at the same time, the old defective heart valve 50 is pressed against wall 52 due to the self-expanding properties of the wire mesh 2 (cf. FIG. 5). In this state, the beaded or flanged portion 12 at the distal retention area 10 turns inversely outward into the left ventricular outflow tract and thus effects an additional mechanical support and secure anchorage for the medical instrument. In the event of any malfunctioning of stent 1 with the integrated prosthetic valve 30, the guide wire 41 still tethered to stent 1 can effect its removal as necessary, as is indicated in FIGS. 5 a and 5 b.
  • [0054]
    It is not imperative to have the route of implantation for the double-mushroom-shaped heart valve stent 1 be transvenous and through the interatrial septum. It is just as conceivable to perform a retrograde implantation procedure through the aortic arch with a catheter system 40 in the manner as described above. The heart valve stent 1 constructed in this manner with its given medial midriff 15 furthermore offers the opportunity of the integrated mounting (ring) of stent 1 subsequently re-fixing onto the integrated prosthetic heart valve 30 and collapsing same by the longitudinal extension of the wire mesh such that it can be removed again through a catheter tube.
  • [0055]
    The entire detailed route of implantation is depicted in FIG. 7. A guide wire 41 is first introduced through the venous system to the right atrium and through the interatrial septum into the left atrium. From the left atrium, the guide wire is pushed through the left ventricle and the left ventricular outflow tract into the aorta (FIG. 7). Using the guide wire 41 as a rail, the insertion catheter 40 is now advanced into the left ventricular outflow tract and the aortic valve plane. The implantation of the valve as described above now follows.
  • [0056]
    Alternatively, a guide wire 41 coming from the aortic arch can be pushed in retrograde manner through the aortic valve into the left ventricle. A similar implantation of the aortic valve stent 1 as indicated above is now possible here with a modified catheter tube.
  • [0057]
    By a design-contingent integration of retaining elements on the self-expandable stent 1, same can also be explanted again with a special catheter subsequent a successful implantation. To this end, the distal or proximal retention area 10, 20 of stent 1 should be drawn by guide wire 41 into a catheter 40 at a plurality of, preferably more than three retaining punctures. In so doing, reversed as in implantation, the mushroom-shaped proximal beaded portion 22 at the proximal retention area 20 of stent 1 is buffeted back, whereby the wire mesh 2 expands again and assumes a state as shown in FIG. 4. Subsequently, the engagement or anchoring of the beaded portion 12 on distal retention area 10 of stent 1 with the pockets 51 of the body's own defective heart valve can be disengaged.
  • [0058]
    The stent 1 composed of the flexible wire mesh 2 with the prosthetic valve 30 integrated in its center area 15 and adapted to the valve ring and, where necessary, to the outflow tract of the human heart, can be used in similar fashion for replacing mitral valves as well as replacing pulmonary or tricuspid valves.
  • [0059]
    It is obvious that the following features in particular distinguish the solution according to the invention over the medical instruments as known to date for the transvascular replacement of diseased heart valves:
      • 1. With the stent configured from the self-expandable mesh with a prosthetic valve disposed in the middle thereof, the old diseased heart valve is enfolded, reversely pushed in and pressed against the vascular wall.
      • 2. The prosthetic valve in the stent can be implanted both in antegrade (via transseptal puncture) as well as retrograde procedures.
      • 3. The stent, the flexible mesh respectively, optimally self-adapts to the anatomical conditions of the valve ring and the heart's outflow tract, which thereby achieves a better lateral sealing for the implanted medical instrument.
      • 4. In the event of the prosthetic valve malfunctioning, the stent with the integrated prosthetic valve can be retracted back through the insertion catheter system and removed completely from the patient's body.
      • 5. Compared to conventional stent valves, the great degree of flexibility to the wire mesh allows implantation even in the case of highly angular approaches.
      • 6. The self-expanding wire mesh can be used to replace both the valves of the left as well as the right ventricle and to replace both the atrioventricular valve as well as also the semilunar valve of the heart, since it flexibly adapts to the anatomical conditions and surrounds the old diseased valve.
      • 7. Reversely pushing in the old diseased valve into the self-expanding wire mesh prevents embolization of portions of the old valve.
      • 8. The design-contingent integration of retaining elements on the self-expanding wire mesh also allows for same to be explanted again with a special catheter subsequent a successful implantation.
  • [0068]
    It is pointed out that the realization of the invention is not restricted to the embodiments described with reference to FIGS. 1 to 7, but is also possible in a plurality of other variants.
  • REFERENCE NUMERALS
  • [0000]
    • 1 stent
    • 2 mesh
    • 2′ filaments/wire of the mesh
    • 4 mounting
    • 10 distal retention area of the stent
    • 12 beaded portion at the distal retention area
    • 15 center area of the stent
    • 20 proximal retention area of the stent
    • 22 beaded portion at the proximal retention area
    • 30 prosthetic valve
    • 40 catheter system
    • 41 guide wire
    • 50 body's own heart valve
    • 51 pocket of body's own heart valve
    • 52 vascular wall
    • 100 medical instrument
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Classifications
U.S. Classification623/1.2, 623/1.11
International ClassificationA61F2/95
Cooperative ClassificationA61F2230/0078, A61F2/2436, A61F2002/9528, A61F2/2418, A61F2230/008
European ClassificationA61F2/24D6, A61F2/24H4
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