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Publication numberUS20090325091 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 12/164,408
Publication dateDec 31, 2009
Filing dateJun 30, 2008
Priority dateJun 30, 2008
Also published asEP2141545A1, US8053151
Publication number12164408, 164408, US 2009/0325091 A1, US 2009/325091 A1, US 20090325091 A1, US 20090325091A1, US 2009325091 A1, US 2009325091A1, US-A1-20090325091, US-A1-2009325091, US2009/0325091A1, US2009/325091A1, US20090325091 A1, US20090325091A1, US2009325091 A1, US2009325091A1
InventorsJin Wu, Markus R. Silvestri, J. Robinson Cowdery-Corvan, David M. Skinner, Jean D. Van Epps, Jr.
Original AssigneeXerox Corporation
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Phosphonate containing photoconductors
US 20090325091 A1
Abstract
A photoconductor that includes, for example, a supporting substrate, a photogenerating layer, and at least one charge transport layer comprised of at least one charge transport component, and wherein the photogenerating layer contains a suitable phosphonate.
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Claims(32)
1. A photoconductor comprising a supporting substrate, a photogenerating layer, and at least one charge transport layer comprised of at least one charge transport component, and wherein said photogenerating layer contains a phosphonate as represented by
wherein R1 is at least one of alkyl and aryl; and R2 and R3 are at least one of hydrogen, alkyl, and aryl.
2. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 1 wherein said phosphonate is present in an amount of from about 0.01 to about 25 weight percent.
3. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 1 wherein said phosphonate is present in an amount of from about 0.1 to about 15 weight percent.
4. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 1 wherein said phosphonate is present in an amount of from about 1 to about 10 weight percent based on the weight percent of the photogenerating layer components.
5. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 1 wherein alkyl contains from 1 to about 18 carbon atoms, and aryl contains from about 6 to about 42 carbon atoms.
6. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 1 wherein said phosphonate is selected from the group consisting of at least one of N,N-bis-(2-hydroxylethyl)aminomethanephosphonic acid diethyl ester, methylthiomethyl)phosphonic acid diethyl ester, 2-hydroxyethylphosphonic acid dimethyl ester, cyanomethylphosphonic acid diethyl ester, di-n-butyl N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate, dibutyl N,N-diethylcarbamoylphosphonate, diethyl(phthalimidomethyl)phosphonate, diethyl 1-pyrrolidinemethylphosphonate, diethyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylphosphonate, diphenyl (2,3-dihydro-2-thioxo-3-benzoxazolyl)phosphonate, monoethyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-droxybenzylphosphonate, tetraethyl[4,4′-biphenylylenebis(methylene)]bisphosphonate, diethyl 4-methoxyphenylphosphonate, tetraethyl[anthracene-9,10-diylbis(methylene)]bisphosphonate, diethyl benzylphosphonate, bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) (methoxycarbonylmethyl)phosphonate, diethyl phenacylphosphonate, diethyl (3-chlorobenzyl)phosphonate, diethyl cyanophosphonate, and diethyl phenylphosphonate.
7. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 1 wherein said charge transport component is comprised of at least one of
wherein X is selected from the group consisting of at least one of alkyl, alkoxy, aryl, and halogen.
8. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 1 wherein said charge transport component is comprised of
wherein X, Y and Z are independently selected from the group consisting of at least one of alkyl, alkoxy, aryl, and halogen.
9. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 1 wherein said charge transport component is selected from the group consisting of N,N′-diphenyl-N,N-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-p-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-m-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-o-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(4-isopropylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(3-chlorophenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, and mixtures thereof; and wherein said at least one charge transport layer is from 1 to about 4 layers.
10. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 1 further including in at least one of said charge transport layers an antioxidant comprised of at least one of a hindered phenolic and a hindered amine, and wherein said at least one charge transport layer is from 1 to about 4 layers; and said phosphonate is selected from the group consisting of at least one of N,N-bis-(2-hydroxylethyl)aminomethane phosphonic acid diethyl ester, methylthiomethyl)phosphonic acid diethyl ester, 2-hydroxyethylphosphonic acid dimethyl ester, cyanomethylphosphonic acid diethyl ester, di-n-butyl N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate, dibutyl N,N-diethylcarbamoylphosphonate, diethyl(phthalimidomethyl)phosphonate, diethyl 1-pyrrolidinemethylphosphonate, diethyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl phosphonate, diphenyl (2,3-dihydro-2-thioxo-3-benzoxazolyl)phosphonate, monoethyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-droxybenzylphosphonate, tetraethyl[4,4′-biphenylylenebis(methylene)]bisphosphonate, diethyl 4-methoxyphenylphosphonate, tetraethyl[anthracene-9,10-diylbis(methylene)]bisphosphonate, diethyl benzylphosphonate, bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) (methoxycarbonylmethyl)phosphonate, diethyl phenacylphosphonate, diethyl (3-chlorobenzyl)phosphonate, diethyl cyanophosphonate, and diethyl phenylphosphonate.
11. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 1 wherein said photogenerating layer is comprised of at least one photogenerating pigment, and said phosphonate.
12. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 11 wherein said photogenerating pigment is comprised of at least one of a perylene, a metal phthalocyanine, and a metal free phthalocyanine.
13. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 11 wherein said photogenerating pigment is comprised of at least one of chlorogallium phthalocyanine, alkoxygallium phthalocyanine, hydroxygallium phthalocyanine, and titanyl phthalocyanine.
14. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 1 further including a hole blocking layer, and an adhesive layer.
15. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 1 wherein said at least one charge transport layer is comprised of a top charge transport layer and a bottom charge transport layer, and wherein said top layer is in contact with said bottom layer and said bottom layer is in contact with said photogenerating layer; and wherein said top and said bottom charge transport layer contain N,N′-diphenyl-N,N-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-p-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-m-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-o-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(4-isopropylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(3-chlorophenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, or mixtures thereof; and wherein said phosphonate is at least one of N,N-bis-(2-hydroxylethyl)aminomethanephosphonic acid diethyl ester, (methylthiomethyl)phosphonic acid diethyl ester, 2-hydroxyethylphosphonic acid dimethyl ester, cyanomethylphosphonic acid diethyl ester, di-n-butyl N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate, dibutyl N,N-diethylcarbamoylphosphonate, diethyl(phthalimidomethyl)phosphonate, diethyl 1-pyrrolidinemethylphosphonate, diethyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylphosphonate, diphenyl (2,3-dihydro-2-thioxo-3-benzoxazolyl)phosphonate, monoethyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl phosphonate, tetraethyl[4,4′-biphenylylenebis(methylene)]bisphosphonate, diethyl 4-methoxyphenylphosphonate, tetraethyl[anthracene-9,10-diylbis(methylene)]bisphosphonate, diethyl benzylphosphonate, bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) (methoxycarbonylmethyl)phosphonate, diethyl phenacylphosphonate, diethyl (3-chlorobenzyl)phosphonate, diethyl cyanophosphonate, and diethyl phenylphosphonate present in an amount of from about 1 to about 10 weight percent.
16. A photoconductor comprised in sequence of a photogenerating layer, and from 1 to about 4 charge transport layers; and wherein said photogenerating layer contains a phosphonate and a photogenerating pigment; and wherein said phosphonate is represented by at least one of
17. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 16 wherein said phosphonate is present in an amount of from about 1 to about 15 weight percent.
18. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 16 wherein said phosphonate is cyanomethylphosphonic acid diethyl ester.
19. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 16 wherein said phosphonate is N,N-bis-(2-hydroxylethyl)aminomethanephosphonic acid diethyl ester.
20. A photoconductor comprising a supporting substrate, a photogenerating layer, and a charge transport layer, and wherein said charge transport layer is comprised of at least one hole transport component, and said photogenerating layer includes a photogenerating component, and a phosphonate as represented by
wherein R1 is at least one of alkyl and aryl; and R2 and R3 are at least one of hydrogen, alkyl, and aryl.
21. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 20 wherein said phosphonate is at least one of N,N-bis-(2-hydroxylethyl)aminomethanephosphonic acid diethyl ester, (methylthiomethyl)phosphonic acid diethyl ester, 2-hydroxyethylphosphonic acid dimethyl ester, cyanomethylphosphonic acid diethyl ester, di-n-butyl N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate, dibutyl N,N-diethylcarbamoylphosphonate, diethyl(phthalimidomethyl)phosphonate, diethyl 1-pyrrolidinemethylphosphonate, diethyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl phosphonate, diphenyl (2,3-dihydro-2-thioxo-3-benzoxazolyl)phosphonate, monoethyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylphosphonate, tetraethyl[4,4′-biphenylylenebis(methylene)]bisphosphonate, diethyl 4-methoxyphenylphosphonate, tetraethyl[anthracene-9,10-diylbis(methylene)]bisphosphonate, diethyl benzylphosphonate, bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) (methoxycarbonylmethyl)phosphonate, diethyl phenacylphosphonate, diethyl (3-chlorobenzyl)phosphonate, diethyl cyanophosphonate, and diethyl phenylphosphonate, present in an amount of from about 0.1 to about 12 weight percent.
22. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 20 wherein said hole transport layer and said photogenerating layer each further contains a resin binder, and where said alkyl and said aryl further encompass derivatives thereof.
23. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 20 wherein said photogenerating layer contains a resin binder and a photogenerating pigment of a hydroxygallium phthalocyanine Type V, said phosphonate is present in an amount of from about 1 to about 10 weight percent, and which phosphonate is cyanomethylphosphonic acid diethyl ester, or N,N-bis-(2-hydroxylethyl)aminomethanephosphonic acid diethyl ester.
24. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 20 wherein said R1 is alkyl, R2 and R3 are alkyl, and which phosphonate is present in an amount of from about 1 to about 10 weight percent; and wherein said hole transport component is N,N′-diphenyl-N,N-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-p-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-m-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-o-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(4-isopropylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, or N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(3-chlorophenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine.
25. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 20 wherein said R, is alkyl, said R2 and R3 are aryl, and which phosphonate is present in an amount of from about 1 to about 10 weight percent; and wherein said hole transport component is N,N′-diphenyl-N,N-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-p-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-m-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-o-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(4-isopropylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, or N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(3-chlorophenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine.
26. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 20 wherein said R, is aryl, and said R2 and R3 are alkyl.
27. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 1 wherein said R1 is aryl, and said R2 and R3 are alkyl.
28. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 1 wherein said R1 is alkyl, and R2 and R3 are alkyl.
29. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 1 wherein said R1 is alkyl, and R2 and R3 are hydrogen.
30. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 1 wherein said R1 is aryl, and R2 and R3 are hydrogen.
31. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 1 wherein said R1 is at least one of N,N-bis-(2-hydroxylethyl)aminomethane, methylthiomethyl, 2-hydroxyethyl, cyanomethyl, N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethyl, N,N-diethylcarbamoyl, phthalimidomethyl, 1-pyrrolidinemethyl, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl, 2,3-dihydro-2-thioxo-3-benzoxazolyl, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl, 4-methoxyphenyl, benzyl, methoxycarbonylmethyl, phenacyl, 3-chlorobenzyl, phenyl, and cyano; and said R2 and R3 are at least one of hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, phenyl, and 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl.
32. A photoconductor in accordance with claim 1 wherein said charge transport component is an aryl amine represented by the following alternative formulas/structures
Description
CROSS REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

Copending U.S. application Ser. No. (not yet assigned—Attorney Docket No. 20071313-US-NP) on Phenolic Resin Hole Blocking Layer Photoconductors, filed concurrently herewith the listed plurality of individuals of Jin Wu at al., the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference.

Copending U.S. application Ser. No. (not yet assigned—Attorney Docket No. 20072036-US-NP) on Polymer Containing Charge Transport Photoconductors, filed concurrently herewith the listed individual of Jin Wu, the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference.

Copending U.S. application Ser. No. (not yet assigned—Attorney Docket No. 20080016-US-NP) on Tris(enylaryl)amine Containing Photoconductors, filed concurrently herewith the listed individual of Jin Wu, the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference.

Copending U.S. application Ser. No. (not yet assigned—Attorney Docket No. 20080017-US-NP) on Tris(enylaryl)arylamine Containing Photoconductors, filed concurrently herewith the listed individual of Jin Wu, the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference.

Copending U.S. application Ser. No. (not yet assigned—Attorney Docket No. 20080018-US-NP) on Tris and Bis(enylaryl)arylamine Mixtures Containing Photoconductors, filed concurrently herewith the listed individual of Jin Wu, the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference.

Copending U.S. application Ser. No. (not yet assigned—Attorney Docket No. 20080293-US-NP) on (Enylaryl)bisarylamine Containing Photoconductors, filed concurrently herewith the listed individual of Jin Wu, the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference.

U.S. application Ser. No. 11/869,231 (Attorney Docket No. 20070138-US-NP) filed Oct. 9, 2007, entitled Additive Containing Photogenerating Layer Photoconductors, the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference, illustrates a photoconductor comprising a supporting substrate, a photogenerating layer, and at least one charge transport layer comprised of at least one charge transport component, and wherein the photogenerating layer contains at least one of an ammonium salt and an imidazolium salt.

U.S. application Ser. No. 11/869,246 (Attorney Docket No. 20070139-US-NP) filed Oct. 9, 2007, entitled Phosphonium Containing Photogenerating Layer Photoconductors, the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference, illustrates a photoconductor comprising a supporting substrate, a phosphonium salt containing photogenerating layer, and at least one charge transport layer comprised of at least one charge transport component.

U.S. application Ser. No. 11/869,265 (Attorney Docket No. 20070214-US-NP) filed Oct. 9, 2007, entitled Phosphonium Containing Charge Transport Layer Photoconductors, the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference, there is disclosed a photoconductor comprising a supporting substrate, a photogenerating layer, and at least one charge transport layer comprised of at least one charge transport component, and wherein the at least one charge transport layer contains at least one phosphonium salt.

U.S. application Ser. No. 11/869,279 (Attorney Docket No. 20070253-US-NP) filed Oct. 9, 2007, entitled Charge Trapping Releaser Containing Photogenerating Layer Photoconductors, the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference, there is disclosed a photoconductor comprising a supporting substrate, a photogenerating layer, and at least one charge transport layer comprised of at least one charge transport component, and wherein the photogenerating layer contains at least one charge trapping releaser component.

U.S. application Ser. No. 11/869,284 (Attorney Docket No. 20070497-US-NP) filed Oct. 9, 2007, entitled Salt Additive Containing Photoconductors, the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference, illustrates a photoconductor comprising a supporting substrate, a photogenerating layer, and at least one charge transport layer comprised of at least one charge transport component, and wherein at least one of the photogenerating layer and the charge transport layer contains at least one of a pyridinium salt and a tetrazolium salt.

In U.S. application Ser. No. 12/129,969 (Attorney Docket No. 20071011-US-NP) on Amine Phosphate Containing Photogenerating Layer Photoconductors, filed May 30, 2008, the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference.

In U.S. application Ser. No. 12/129,977 (Attorney Docket No. 20071092-US-NP) on Phosphonate Hole Blocking Layer Photoconductors, filed May 30, 2008, the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference.

In U.S. application Ser. No. 11/800,129 (Attorney Docket No. 20061671-US-NP), entitled Photoconductors, filed May 4, 2007, the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference, there is illustrated a photoconductor comprising a supporting substrate, a photogenerating layer, and at least one charge transport layer comprised of at least one charge transport component, and wherein the photogenerating layer contains a bis(pyridyl)alkylene.

BACKGROUND

This disclosure is generally directed to imaging, such as xerographic imaging and printing members, photoreceptors, photoconductors, and the like. More specifically, the present disclosure is directed to drum, multilayered drum, and flexible, belt imaging members, or devices comprised of a supporting medium like a substrate, a photogenerating layer, and a charge transport layer, including a plurality of charge transport layers, such as a first charge transport layer and a second charge transport layer, and wherein the photogenerating layer contains as an additive or dopant of a phosphonate and a photoconductor comprised of a supporting medium like a substrate, a phosphonate containing photogenerating layer, and a charge transport layer that results in photoconductors with a number of advantages, such as in embodiments, the minimization or substantial elimination of undesirable ghosting on developed images, such as xerographic images, including acceptable ghosting at various relative humidities; excellent cyclic and stable electrical properties; compatibility with the photogenerating and charge transport resin binders; and acceptable lateral charge migration (LCM) characteristics, such as for example, excellent LCM resistance. At least one in embodiments refers, for example, to one, from 1 to about 10, from 2 to about 6; from 2 to about 4; 2, and the like.

Ghosting refers, for example, to when a photoconductor is selectively exposed to positive charges in a number of xerographic print engines, some of the charges enter the photoconductor and manifest themselves as a latent image in the next printing cycle. This print defect can cause a change in the lightness of the half tones, and is commonly referred to as a “ghost” that is generated in the previous printing cycle. An example of a source of the positive charges is the stream of positive ions emitted from the transfer corotron. Since the paper sheets are situated between the transfer corotron and the photoconductor, the photoconductor is shielded from the positive ions from the paper sheets. In the areas between the paper sheets, the photoconductor is fully exposed, thus in this paper free zone the positive charges may enter the photoconductor. As a result, these charges cause a print defect or ghost in a half tone print if one switches to a larger paper format that covers the previous paper print free zone.

Also included within the scope of the present disclosure are methods of imaging and printing with the photoconductor devices illustrated herein. These methods generally involve the formation of an electrostatic latent image on the imaging member, followed by developing the image with a toner composition comprised, for example, of thermoplastic resin, colorant such as pigment, charge additive, and surface additives, reference U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,560,635; 4,298,697 and 4,338,390, the disclosures of which are totally incorporated herein by reference, subsequently transferring the image to a suitable substrate, and permanently affixing the image thereto. In those environments wherein the device is to be used in a printing mode, the imaging method involves the same operation with the exception that exposure can be accomplished with a laser device or image bar. More specifically, the imaging members and flexible belts disclosed herein can be selected for the Xerox Corporation iGEN3® machines that generate with some versions over 100 copies per minute. Processes of imaging, especially xerographic imaging and printing, including digital, and/or color printing are thus encompassed by the present disclosure.

The photoconductors disclosed herein are in embodiments sensitive in the wavelength region of, for example, from about 400 to about 900 nanometers, and in particular from about 650 to about 850 nanometers, thus diode lasers can be selected as the light source. Moreover, the photoconductors disclosed herein are in embodiments useful in high resolution color xerographic applications, particularly high-speed color copying and printing processes.

REFERENCES

Layered photoresponsive imaging members have been described in numerous U.S. patents, such as U.S. Pat. No. 4,265,990, the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference, wherein there is illustrated an imaging member comprised of a photogenerating layer, and an aryl amine hole transport layer.

Further, in U.S. Pat. No. 4,555,463, the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference, there is illustrated a layered imaging member with a chloroindium phthalocyanine photogenerating layer. In U.S. Pat. No. 4,587,189, the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference, there is illustrated a layered imaging member with, for example, a perylene, pigment photogenerating component. Both of the aforementioned patents disclose an aryl amine component, such as N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine dispersed in a polycarbonate binder as a hole transport layer. The above components, such as the photogenerating compounds and the aryl amine charge transport, can be selected for the imaging members of the present disclosure in embodiments thereof.

Illustrated in U.S. Pat. No. 5,521,306, the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference, is a process for the preparation of Type V hydroxygallium phthalocyanine comprising the in situ formation of an alkoxy-bridged gallium phthalocyanine dimer, hydrolyzing the dimer to hydroxygallium phthalocyanine, and subsequently converting the hydroxygallium phthalocyanine product to Type V hydroxygallium phthalocyanine.

Illustrated in U.S. Pat. No. 5,482,811, the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference, is a process for the preparation of hydroxygallium phthalocyanine photogenerating pigments which comprises hydrolyzing a gallium phthalocyanine precursor pigment by dissolving the hydroxygallium phthalocyanine in a strong acid, and then reprecipitating the resulting dissolved pigment in basic aqueous media; removing any ionic species formed by washing with water; concentrating the resulting aqueous slurry comprised of water and hydroxygallium phthalocyanine to a wet cake; removing water from said slurry by azeotropic distillation with an organic solvent, and subjecting said resulting pigment slurry to mixing with the addition of a second solvent to cause the formation of said hydroxygallium phthalocyanine polymorphs.

Also, in U.S. Pat. No. 5,473,064, the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference, there is illustrated a process for the preparation of photogenerating pigments of hydroxygallium phthalocyanine Type V essentially free of chlorine, where a pigment precursor Type I chlorogallium phthalocyanine is prepared by the reaction of gallium chloride in a solvent, such as N-methylpyrrolidone, present in an amount of from about 10 parts to about 100 parts, with 1,3-diiminoisoindolene (DI3) in an amount of from about 1 part to about 10 parts, for each part of gallium chloride that is reacted; hydrolyzing said pigment precursor chlorogallium phthalocyanine Type I by standard methods, for example acid pasting, whereby the pigment precursor is dissolved in concentrated sulfuric acid and then reprecipitated in a solvent, such as water, or a dilute ammonia solution, for example from about 10 to about 15 percent; and subsequently treating the resulting hydrolyzed pigment hydroxygallium phthalocyanine Type I with a solvent, such as N,N-dimethylformamide, present in an amount of from about 1 volume part to about 50 volume parts, for each weight part of pigment hydroxygallium phthalocyanine that is used by, for example, ball milling the Type I hydroxygallium phthalocyanine pigment in the presence of spherical glass beads, approximately 1 millimeter to 5 millimeters in diameter, at room temperature, about 25° C., for a period of from about 12 hours to about 1 week, and preferably about 24 hours.

The appropriate components and processes of the above recited patents may be selected for the present disclosure in embodiments thereof.

SUMMARY

Disclosed are photoconductors that contain a dopant in the photogenerating layer, and where there are permitted for the developed images generated in, for example, a xerographic printing apparatus, minimal ghosting characteristics, acceptable photoinduced discharge (PIDC) values, excellent lateral charge migration (LCM) resistance, and excellent cyclic stability properties.

Additionally disclosed are flexible belt imaging members containing optional hole blocking layers comprised of, for example, amino silanes (throughout in this disclosure plural also includes nonplural, thus there can be selected a single amino silane), metal oxides, phenolic resins, and optional phenolic compounds, and which phenolic compounds contain at least two, and more specifically, two to ten phenol groups or phenolic resins with, for example, a weight average molecular weight ranging from about 500 to about 3,000, permitting, for example, a hole blocking layer with excellent efficient electron transport which usually results in a desirable photoconductor low residual potential Vlow.

EMBODIMENTS

Aspects of the present disclosure are directed to a photoconductor comprising a supporting substrate, a photogenerating layer, and at least one charge transport layer comprised of at least one charge transport component, and wherein the photogenerating layer contains a phosphonate as represented by

wherein R1 is at least one of alkyl and aryl; and R2 and R3 are at least one of hydrogen, alkyl, and aryl; a photoconductor comprised in sequence of an optional supporting substrate, a photogenerating layer, and from 1 to about 4 charge transport layers; and wherein the photogenerating layer contains a phosphonate and a photogenerating pigment; and wherein the phosphonate is represented by at least one of

and a photoconductor comprising a supporting substrate, a photogenerating layer, and a charge transport layer, and wherein the charge transport layer is comprised of at least one hole transport component, and a phosphonate as represented by

wherein R1 is at least one of alkyl and aryl; and R2 and R3 are at least one of hydrogen, alkyl, and aryl.

The present disclosure illustrates a photoconductor comprising a supporting substrate, a photogenerating layer, and at least one charge transport layer comprised of at least one charge transport component, and where the photogenerating layer contains at least one photogenerating component and the phosphonate additive or dopant as illustrated herein; a photoconductor comprising a supporting substrate, a phosphonate containing photogenerating layer, and a charge transport layer comprised of at least one charge transport component; a photoconductor comprised in sequence of an optional supporting substrate, a hole blocking layer, an adhesive layer, a phosphonate containing photogenerating layer, and at least one, such as from 1 to 3 charge transport layers; a photoconductor wherein the charge transport component included in the charge transport layer, or layers, is an aryl amine selected from the group consisting of N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine, tetra-p-tolyl-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine, N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,1-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-p-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-m-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-o-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(4-isopropylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(3-chlorophenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, and mixtures thereof; a photoconductor wherein the photogenerating pigment is a hydroxygallium phthalocyanine, a titanyl phthalocyanine, a halogallium phthalocyanine, an alkoxy phthalocyanine, a metal free phthalocyanine or a perylene; a photoconductor wherein the phosphonate is present in the photogenerating layer in an amount of, for example, from about 0.01 to about 25, from about 0.1 to about 15, or from about 1 to about 10 weight percent; a photoconductor wherein the substrate is comprised of a conductive material, and a flexible photoconductive imaging member comprised in sequence of a supporting substrate, photogenerating layer thereover, a charge transport layer, and a protective top overcoat layer; a photoconductor which includes a hole blocking layer and an adhesive layer where the adhesive layer is situated between the hole blocking layer and the photogenerating layer, and the hole blocking layer is situated between the substrate and the adhesive layer; and a photoconductor wherein the additive or dopant can be selected in various effective amounts, such as for example, from about 1 to about 10 weight percent.

Additive/Dopant Examples

Examples of the photogenerating additive or dopant include, for example, a number of suitable phosphonates.

Phosphonate examples included in the photogenerating layer or layers can be represented by the following structure/formula

wherein R1 is alkyl or aryl, and derivatives thereof; and R2 and R3 are each independently hydrogen, an alkyl or an aryl, and derivatives thereof.

Examples of R alkyl groups include those that contain from 1 to about 25 carbon atoms, and from 1 to about 10 carbon atoms, such as methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl; aryl with, for example, from 6 to about 42 carbon atoms, and from 6 to about 24 carbon atoms, such as phenyl, naphthyl, styryl, biphenylyl; and the like; and derivatives include, for example, alkyl, aryl, alkoxy, halo, and the like.

Phosphonate examples include, for example, wherein R1 is at least one of N,N-bis-(2-hydroxylethyl)aminomethane, methylthiomethyl, 2-hydroxyethyl, cyanomethyl, N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethyl, N,N-diethylcarbamoyl, phthalimidomethyl, 1-pyrrolidinemethyl, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl, 2,3-dihydro-2-thioxo-3-benzoxazolyl, 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl, 4-methoxyphenyl, benzyl, methoxycarbonylmethyl, phenacyl, 3-chlorobenzyl, phenyl, cyano, and the like; and wherein R2 and R3 are at least one of hydrogen, methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, phenyl, 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl, and the like.

Specific phosphonate examples are N,N-bis-(2-hydroxylethyl)aminomethanephosphonic acid diethyl ester, (methylthiomethyl)phosphonic acid diethyl ester, 2-hydroxyethylphosphonic acid dimethyl ester, cyanomethylphosphonic acid diethyl ester, di-n-butyl N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate, dibutyl N,N-diethylcarbamoylphosphonate, diethyl(phthalimidomethyl)phosphonate, diethyl 1-pyrrolidinemethylphosphonate, diethyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl phosphonate, diphenyl (2,3-dihydro-2-thioxo-3-benzoxazolyl)phosphonate, monoethyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylphosphonate, tetraethyl[4,4′-biphenylylenebis(methylene)]bisphosphonate, diethyl 4-methoxyphenylphosphonate, tetraethyl[anthracene-9,10-diylbis(methylene)]bisphosphonate, diethyl benzylphosphonate, bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) (methoxycarbonylmethyl)phosphonate, diethyl phenacylphosphonate, diethyl (3-chlorobenzyl)phosphonate, diethyl cyanophosphonate, diethyl phenylphosphonate, and the like

In embodiments, the phosphonate incorporated into the photogenerating layer, and which layer also includes at least one photogenerating pigment and a resin binder is represented by or encompassed by at least one of the following structures/formulas

Photoconductive Layer Components

There can be selected for the photoconductors disclosed herein a number of known layers, such as substrates, photogenerating layers, charge transport layers, hole blocking layers, adhesive layers, protective overcoat layers, and the like. Examples, thicknesses, and specific components of many of these layers include the following.

A number of known supporting substrates can be selected for the photoconductors illustrated herein, such as those substrates that will permit the layers thereover to be effective. The thickness of the substrate layer depends on many factors, including economical considerations, electrical characteristics, and the like, thus this layer may be of substantial thickness, for example over 3,000 microns, such as from about 1,000 to about 3,500, from about 1,000 to about 2,000, from about 300 to about 700 microns, or of a minimum thickness of, for example, about 100 to about 500 microns. In embodiments, the thickness of this layer is from about 75 to about 300 microns, or from about 100 to about 150 microns.

The substrate may be comprised of a number of different materials, such as those that are opaque or substantially transparent, and may comprise any suitable material. Accordingly, the substrate may comprise a layer of an electrically nonconductive or conductive material, such as an inorganic or an organic composition. As electrically nonconducting materials, there may be employed various resins known for this purpose including polyesters, polycarbonates, polyamides, polyurethanes, and the like, which are flexible as thin webs. An electrically conducting substrate may be any suitable metal of, for example, aluminum, nickel, steel, copper, and the like, or a polymeric material, as described above, filled with an electrically conducting substance, such as carbon, metallic powder, and the like, or an organic electrically conducting material. The electrically insulating or conductive substrate may be in the form of an endless flexible belt, a web, a rigid cylinder, a sheet, and the like. The thickness of the substrate layer depends on numerous factors including strength desired and economical considerations. For a drum, this layer may be of a substantial thickness of, for example, up to many centimeters, or of a minimum thickness of less than a millimeter. Similarly, a flexible belt may be of a substantial thickness of, for example, about 250 microns, or of a minimum thickness of less than about 50 microns, provided there are no adverse effects on the final electrophotographic device. In embodiments where the substrate layer is not conductive, the surface thereof may be rendered electrically conductive by an electrically conductive coating. The conductive coating may vary in thickness over substantially wide ranges depending upon the optical transparency, degree of flexibility desired, and economic factors.

Illustrative examples of substrates are as illustrated herein, and more specifically, layers selected for the imaging members of the present disclosure, and which substrates can be opaque or substantially transparent comprise a layer of insulating material including inorganic or organic polymeric materials, such as MYLAR® a commercially available polymer, MYLAR® containing titanium, a layer of an organic or inorganic material having a semiconductive surface layer, such as indium tin oxide or aluminum arranged thereon, or a conductive material inclusive of aluminum, chromium, nickel, brass, or the like. The substrate may be flexible, seamless, or rigid, and may have a number of many different configurations, such as for example, a plate, a cylindrical drum, a scroll, an endless flexible belt, and the like. In embodiments, the substrate is in the form of a seamless flexible belt. In some situations, it may be desirable to coat on the back of the substrate, particularly when the substrate is a flexible organic polymeric material, an anticurl layer, such as for example polycarbonate materials commercially available as MAKROLON®.

The photogenerating layer in embodiments is comprised of an optional binder, and known photogenerating pigments, and more specifically, hydroxygallium phthalocyanine, titanyl phthalocyanine, and chlorogallium phthalocyanine, and a resin binder. Generally, the photogenerating layer can contain known photogenerating pigments, such as metal phthalocyanines, metal free phthalocyanines, alkylhydroxyl gallium phthalocyanines, hydroxygallium phthalocyanines, chlorogallium phthalocyanines, perylenes, especially bis(benzimidazo)perylene, titanyl phthalocyanines, and the like, and more specifically, vanadyl phthalocyanines, Type V hydroxygallium phthalocyanines, and inorganic components, such as selenium, selenium alloys, and trigonal selenium. The photogenerating pigment can be dispersed in a resin binder similar to the resin binders selected for the charge transport layer, or alternatively no resin binder need be present. Generally, the thickness of the photogenerating layer depends on a number of factors, including the thicknesses of the other layers, and the amount of photogenerating material contained in the photogenerating layer. Accordingly, this layer can be of a thickness of, for example, from about 0.05 to about 10 microns, and more specifically, from about 0.25 to about 2 microns when, for example, the photogenerating compositions are present in an amount of from about 30 to about 75 percent by volume. The maximum thickness of this layer in embodiments is dependent primarily upon factors, such as photosensitivity, electrical properties, and mechanical considerations. The photogenerating layer binder resin is present in various suitable amounts, for example from about 1 to about 50 weight percent, and more specifically, from about 1 to about 10 weight percent, and which resin may be selected from a number of known polymers, such as poly(vinyl butyral), poly(vinyl carbazole), polyesters, polycarbonates, polyarylates, poly(vinyl chloride), polyacrylates and methacrylates, copolymers of vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate, phenolic resins, polyurethanes, poly(vinyl alcohol), polyacrylonitrile, polystyrene, other known suitable binders, and the like. It is desirable to select a coating solvent that does not substantially disturb or adversely affect the previously coated layers of the device. Examples of coating solvents for the photogenerating layer are ketones, alcohols, aromatic hydrocarbons, halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, silanols, amines, amides, esters, and the like. Specific solvent examples are cyclohexanone, acetone, methyl ethyl ketone, methanol, ethanol, butanol, amyl alcohol, toluene, xylene, chlorobenzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, methylene chloride, trichloroethylene, dichloroethane, tetrahydrofuran, dioxane, diethyl ether, dimethyl formamide, dimethyl acetamide, butyl acetate, ethyl acetate, methoxyethyl acetate, and the like.

The photogenerating layer may comprise amorphous films of selenium and alloys of selenium and arsenic, tellurium, germanium, and the like; hydrogenated amorphous silicon; and compounds of silicon and germanium, carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and the like fabricated by vacuum evaporation or deposition. The photogenerating layers may also comprise inorganic pigments of crystalline selenium and its alloys; Group II to VI compounds; and organic pigments, such as quinacridones, polycyclic pigments, such as dibromo anthanthrone pigments, perylene and perinone diamines, polynuclear aromatic quinones, azo pigments including bis-, tris- and tetrakis-azos; and the like dispersed in a film forming polymeric binder, and fabricated by solvent coating techniques.

Moreover, the photogenerating layer can be comprised of a titanyl phthalocyanine component generated, for example, by the processes as illustrated in copending application U.S. application Ser. No. 10/992,500, U.S. Publication No. 20060105254 (Attorney Docket No. 20040735-US-NP), the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference.

A number of titanyl phthalocyanines, or oxytitanium phthalocyanines are suitable photogenerating pigments known to absorb near infrared light around 800 nanometers and may exhibit improved sensitivity compared to other pigments, such as, for example, hydroxygallium phthalocyanine. Generally, titanyl phthalocyanine is known to have five main crystal forms known as Types I, II, III, X, and IV. For example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,189,155 and 5,189,156, the entire disclosures of which are incorporated herein by reference, disclose a number of methods for obtaining various polymorphs of titanyl phthalocyanine. Additionally, U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,189,155 and 5,189,156 are directed to processes for obtaining Types I, X, and IV phthalocyanines. U.S. Pat. No. 5,153,094, the entire disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference, relates to the preparation of titanyl phthalocyanine polymorphs including Types I, II, III, and IV polymorphs. U.S. Pat. No. 5,166,339, the disclosure of which is totally incorporated herein by reference, discloses processes for preparing Types I, IV, and X titanyl phthalocyanine polymorphs, as well as the preparation of two polymorphs designated as Type Z-1 and Type Z-2.

To obtain a titanyl phthalocyanine-based photoreceptor having high sensitivity to near infrared light, it is believed of value to control not only the purity and chemical structure of the pigment, as is generally the situation with organic photoconductors, but also to prepare the pigment in a certain crystal modification. Consequently, it is still desirable to provide a photoconductor where the titanyl phthalocyanine is generated by a process that will provide high sensitivity titanyl phthalocyanines.

In embodiments, the Type V phthalocyanine pigment included in the photogenerating layer can be generated by dissolving Type I titanyl phthalocyanine in a solution comprising a trihaloacetic acid and an alkylene halide; adding the resulting mixture comprising the dissolved Type I titanyl phthalocyanine to a solution comprising an alcohol and an alkylene halide thereby precipitating a Type Y titanyl phthalocyanine; and treating the resulting Type Y titanyl phthalocyanine with monochlorobenzene.

With further respect to the titanyl phthalocyanines selected for the photogenerating layer, such phthalocyanines exhibit a crystal phase that is distinguishable from other known titanyl phthalocyanine polymorphs, and are designated as Type V polymorphs prepared by converting a Type I titanyl phthalocyanine to a Type V titanyl phthalocyanine pigment. The processes include converting a Type I titanyl phthalocyanine to an intermediate titanyl phthalocyanine, which is designated as a Type Y titanyl phthalocyanine, and then subsequently converting the Type Y titanyl phthalocyanine to a Type V titanyl phthalocyanine.

In embodiments, examples of polymeric binder materials that can be selected as the matrix for the photogenerating layer are thermoplastic and thermosetting resins, such as polycarbonates, polyesters, polyamides, polyurethanes, polystyrenes, polyarylsilanols, polyarylsulfones, polybutadienes, polysulfones, polysilanolsulfones, polyethylenes, polypropylenes, polyimides, polymethylpentenes, poly(phenylene sulfides), poly(vinyl acetate), polysiloxanes, polyacrylates, polyvinyl acetals, polyamides, polyimides, amino resins, phenylene oxide resins, terephthalic acid resins, phenoxy resins, epoxy resins, phenolic resins, polystyrene and acrylonitrile copolymers, poly(vinyl chloride), vinyl chloride and vinyl acetate copolymers, acrylate copolymers, alkyd resins, cellulosic film formers, poly(amideimide), styrene butadiene copolymers, vinylidene chloride-vinyl chloride copolymers, vinyl acetate-vinylidene chloride copolymers, styrene-alkyd resins, poly(vinyl carbazole), and the like. These polymers may be block, random, or alternating copolymers.

The photogenerating composition or pigment is present in the resinous binder composition in various amounts. Generally, however, from about 5 percent by weight to about 90 percent by weight of the photogenerating pigment is dispersed in about 10 percent by weight to about 95 percent by weight of the resinous binder, or from about 20 percent by weight to about 50 percent by weight of the photogenerating pigment is dispersed in about 80 percent by weight to about 50 percent by weight of the resinous binder composition. In one embodiment, about 50 percent by weight of the photogenerating pigment is dispersed in about 50 percent by weight of the resinous binder composition. The total weight percent of components in the photogenerating layer is about 100.

Various suitable and conventional known processes may be used to mix, and thereafter apply the photogenerating layer coating mixture like spraying, dip coating, roll coating, wire wound rod coating, vacuum sublimation, and the like. For some applications, the photogenerating layer may be fabricated in a dot or line pattern. Removal of the solvent of a solvent-coated photogenerating layer may be effected by any known conventional techniques such as oven drying, infrared radiation drying, air drying, and the like.

The coating of the photogenerating layer in embodiments of the present disclosure can be accomplished to achieve a final dry thickness of the photogenerating layer as illustrated herein, and for example, from about 0.01 to about 30 microns after being dried at, for example, about 40° C. to about 150° C. for about 1 to about 90 minutes. More specifically, a photogenerating layer of a thickness, for example, of from about 0.1 to about 30 microns, or from about 0.5 to about 2 microns can be applied to or deposited on the substrate, on other surfaces in between the substrate and the charge transport layer, and the like. A charge blocking layer or hole blocking layer may optionally be applied to the electrically conductive surface prior to the application of a photogenerating layer. When desired, an adhesive layer may be included between the charge blocking, hole blocking layer, or interfacial layer, and the photogenerating layer. Usually, the photogenerating layer is applied onto the blocking layer, and a charge transport layer, or plurality of charge transport layers are formed on the photogenerating layer. The photogenerating layer may be applied on top of or below the charge transport layer.

In embodiments, a suitable known adhesive layer can be included in the photoconductor. Typical adhesive layer materials include, for example, polyesters, polyurethanes, and the like. The adhesive layer thickness can vary and in embodiments is, for example, from about 0.05 micron (500 Angstroms) to about 0.3 micron (3,000 Angstroms). The adhesive layer can be deposited on the hole blocking layer by spraying, dip coating, roll coating, wire wound rod coating, gravure coating, Bird applicator coating, and the like. Drying of the deposited coating may be effected by, for example, oven drying, infrared radiation drying, air drying and the like.

As an optional adhesive layer or layers usually in contact with or situated between the hole blocking layer and the photogenerating layer, there can be selected various known substances inclusive of copolyesters, polyamides, poly(vinyl butyral), poly(vinyl alcohol), polyurethane, and polyacrylonitrile. This layer is, for example, of a thickness of from about 0.001 to about 1 micron, or from about 0.1 to about 0.5 micron. Optionally, this layer may contain effective suitable amounts, for example from about 1 to about 10 weight percent, of conductive and nonconductive particles, such as zinc oxide, titanium dioxide, silicon nitride, carbon black, and the like, to provide, for example, in embodiments of the present disclosure further desirable electrical and optical properties.

The hole blocking or undercoat layer or layers for the photoconductors of the present disclosure can contain a number of components including known hole blocking components, such as amino silanes, doped metal oxides, a metal oxide like titanium, chromium, zinc, tin and the like; a mixture of phenolic compounds and a phenolic resin, or a mixture of two phenolic resins, and optionally a dopant such as SiO2. The phenolic compounds usually contain at least two phenol groups, such as bisphenol A (4,4′-isopropylidenediphenol), E (4,4′-ethylidenebisphenol), F (bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)methane), M (4,4′-(1,3-phenylenediisopropylidene)bisphenol), P (4,4′-(1,4-phenylene diisopropylidene)bisphenol), S(4,4′-sulfonyldiphenol), and Z (4,4′-cyclohexylidenebisphenol); hexafluorobisphenol A (4,4′-(hexafluoro isopropylidene) diphenol), resorcinol, hydroxyquinone, catechin, and the like.

The hole blocking layer can be, for example, comprised of from about 20 weight percent to about 80 weight percent, and more specifically, from about 55 weight percent to about 65 weight percent of a suitable component like a metal oxide, such as TiO2; from about 20 weight percent to about 70 weight percent, and more specifically, from about 25 weight percent to about 50 weight percent of a phenolic resin; from about 2 weight percent to about 20 weight percent, and more specifically, from about 5 weight percent to about 15 weight percent of a phenolic compound containing, for example, at least two phenolic groups, such as bisphenol S; and from about 2 weight percent to about 15 weight percent, and more specifically, from about 4 weight percent to about 10 weight percent of a plywood suppression dopant, such as SiO2. The hole blocking layer coating dispersion can, for example, be prepared as follows. The metal oxide/phenolic resin dispersion is first prepared by ball milling or dynomilling until the median particle size of the metal oxide in the dispersion is less than about 10 nanometers, for example from about 5 to about 9 nanometers. To the above dispersion are added a phenolic compound and dopant followed by mixing. The hole blocking layer coating dispersion can be applied by dip coating or web coating, and the layer can be thermally cured after coating. The hole blocking layer resulting is, for example, of a thickness of from about 0.01 to about 30 microns, and more specifically, from about 0.1 to about 8 microns. Examples of phenolic resins include formaldehyde polymers with phenol, p-tert-butylphenol, cresol, such as VARCUM® 29159 and 29101 (available from OxyChem Company), and DURITE® 97 (available from Borden Chemical); formaldehyde polymers with ammonia, cresol and phenol, such as VARCUM® 29112 (available from OxyChem Company); formaldehyde polymers with 4,4′-(1-methylethylidene)bisphenol, such as VARCUM® 29108 and 29116 (available from OxyChem Company); formaldehyde polymers with cresol and phenol, such as VARCUM® 29457 (available from OxyChem Company), DURITE® SD-423A, SD-422A (available from Borden Chemical); or formaldehyde polymers with phenol and p-tert-butylphenol, such as DURITE® ESD 556C (available from Borden Chemical).

Charge transport layer components and molecules include a number of known materials such as those illustrated herein, such as aryl amines, which layer is generally of a thickness of from about 5 to about 75 microns, and more specifically, of a thickness of from about 10 to about 40 microns. Examples of charge transport layer components include

wherein X is alkyl, alkoxy, aryl, a halogen, or mixtures thereof, and especially those substituents selected from the group consisting of Cl, OCH3 and CH3; and molecules of the following formula

wherein X and Y are independently alkyl, alkoxy, aryl, a halogen, or mixtures thereof.

Alkyl and alkoxy contain, for example, from 1 to about 25 carbon atoms, and more specifically, from 1 to about 12 carbon atoms, such as methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, and the corresponding alkoxides. Aryl can contain from 6 to about 36 carbon atoms, such as phenyl, and the like. Halogen includes chloride, bromide, iodide and fluoride. Substituted alkyls, alkoxys, and aryls can also be selected in embodiments.

Examples of specific aryl amines include N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(alkylphenyl)-1,1-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine wherein alkyl is selected from the group consisting of methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, hexyl, and the like; N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(halophenyl)-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine wherein the halo substituent is a chloro substituent; N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-p-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-m-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-o-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(4-isopropylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4′-diamine, N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(3-chlorophenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, tetra-p-tolyl-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine, N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,1-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine, and the like. Other known charge transport layer molecules can be selected, reference for example, U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,921,773 and 4,464,450, the disclosures of which are totally incorporated herein by reference.

In embodiments, the charge transport component can be represented by the following formulas/structures

Examples of the binder materials selected for the charge transport layers include polycarbonates, polyarylates, acrylate polymers, vinyl polymers, cellulose polymers, polyesters, polysiloxanes, polyamides, polyurethanes, poly(cyclo olefins), epoxies, and random, or alternating copolymers thereof; and more specifically, polycarbonates such as poly(4,4′-isopropylidene-diphenylene)carbonate (also referred to as bisphenol-A-polycarbonate), poly(4,4′-cyclohexylidine diphenylene)carbonate (also referred to as bisphenol-Z-polycarbonate), poly(4,4′-isopropylidene-3,3′-dimethyl-diphenyl)carbonate (also referred to as bisphenol-C-polycarbonate), and the like. In embodiments, the charge transport layer binders are comprised of polycarbonate resins with a weight average molecular weight of from about 20,000 to about 100,000, or with a molecular weight Mw of from about 50,000 to about 100,000 preferred. Generally, in embodiments the transport layer contains from about 10 to about 75 percent by weight of the charge transport material, and more specifically, from about 35 percent to about 50 percent of this material.

The charge transport layer or layers, and more specifically, a first charge transport in contact with the photogenerating layer, and thereover a top or second charge transport overcoating layer may comprise charge transporting small molecules dissolved or molecularly dispersed in a film forming electrically inert polymer such as a polycarbonate. In embodiments, “dissolved” refers, for example, to forming a solution in which the small molecule and silanol are dissolved in the polymer to form a homogeneous phase; and “molecularly dispersed in embodiments” refers, for example, to charge transporting molecules dispersed in the polymer, the small molecules being dispersed in the polymer on a molecular scale. Various charge transporting or electrically active small molecules may be selected for the charge transport layer or layers. In embodiments, charge transport refers, for example, to charge transporting molecules as a monomer that allows the free charge generated in the photogenerating layer to be transported across the transport layer.

Examples of hole transporting molecules, especially for the first and second charge transport layers, include, for example, pyrazolines such as 1-phenyl-3-(4′-diethylamino styryl)-5-(4″-diethylamino phenyl)pyrazoline; aryl amines such as N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine, tetra-p-tolyl-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine, N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,1-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-p-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-m-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-o-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(4-isopropylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(3-chlorophenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine; hydrazones such as N-phenyl-N-methyl-3-(9-ethyl)carbazyl hydrazone, and 4-diethyl amino benzaldehyde-1,2-diphenyl hydrazone; and oxadiazoles, such as 2,5-bis(4-N,N′-diethylaminophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazole, stilbenes, and the like. However, in embodiments to minimize or avoid cycle-up in equipment, such as printers, with high throughput, the charge transport layer should be substantially free (less than about two percent) of di or triamino-triphenyl methane. A small molecule charge transporting compound that permits injection of holes into the photogenerating layer with high efficiency, and transports them across the charge transport layer with short transit times, and which layer contains a binder and a silanol includes N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-(1,1′-biphenyl)-4,4′-diamine, tetra-p-tolyl-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine, N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,1-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-p-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-m-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-di-o-tolyl-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(4-isopropylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, N,N′-bis(4-butylphenyl)-N,N′-bis-(2,5-dimethylphenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, and N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(3-chlorophenyl)-[p-terphenyl]-4,4″-diamine, or mixtures thereof. If desired, the charge transport material in the charge transport layer may comprise a polymeric charge transport material, or a combination of a small molecule charge transport material and a polymeric charge transport material.

The thickness of each of the charge transport layers in embodiments is from about 5 to about 75 microns, but thicknesses outside this range may in embodiments also be selected. The charge transport layer should be an insulator to the extent that an electrostatic charge placed on the hole transport layer is not conducted in the absence of illumination at a rate sufficient to prevent formation and retention of an electrostatic latent image thereon. In general, the ratio of the thickness of the charge transport layer to the photogenerating layer can be from about 2:1 to 200:1, and in some instances 400:1. The charge transport layer is substantially nonabsorbing to visible light or radiation in the region of intended use, but is electrically “active” in that it allows the injection of photogenerated holes from the photoconductive layer, or photogenerating layer, and allows these holes to be transported through itself to selectively discharge a surface charge on the surface of the active layer.

The thickness of the continuous charge transport overcoat layer selected depends upon the abrasiveness of the charging (bias charging roll), cleaning (blade or web), development (brush), transfer (bias transfer roll), and the like in the system employed, and can be up to about 10 microns. In embodiments, this thickness for each layer is from about 1 to about 5 microns. Various suitable and conventional methods may be used to mix, and thereafter apply the overcoat layer coating mixture to the photoconductor. Typical application techniques include spraying, dip coating, roll coating, wire wound rod coating, and the like. Drying of the deposited coating may be effected by any suitable conventional technique, such as oven drying, infrared radiation drying, air drying, and the like. The dried overcoating layer of this disclosure should transport holes during imaging, and should not have too high a free carrier concentration.

The overcoat can comprise the same components as the charge transport layer wherein the weight ratio between the charge transporting small molecules, and the suitable electrically inactive resin binder is, for example, from about 0/100 to about 60/40, or from about 20/80 to about 40/60.

Examples of components or materials optionally incorporated into the charge transport layers, or at least one charge transport layer to, for example, enable improved lateral charge migration (LCM) resistance include hindered phenolic antioxidants, such as tetrakis methylene(3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxy hydrocinnamate) methane (IRGANOX® 1010, available from Ciba Specialty Chemical), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and other hindered phenolic antioxidants including SUMILIZER™ BHT-R, MDP-S, BBM-S, WX-R, NR, BP-76, BP-101, GA-80, GM and GS (available from Sumitomo Chemical Company, Ltd.), IRGANOX®, 1035, 1076, 1098, 1135, 1141, 1222, 1330, 1425WL, 1520L, 245, 259, 3114, 3790, 5057 and 565 (available from Ciba Specialties Chemicals), and ADEKA STAB™ AO-20, AO-30, AO-40, AO-50, AO-60, AO-70, AO-80 and AO-330 (available from Asahi Denka Company, Ltd.); hindered amine antioxidants such as SANOL™ LS-2626, LS-765, LS-770 and LS-744 (available from SNKYO CO., Ltd.), TINUVIN® 144 and 622LD (available from Ciba Specialties Chemicals), MARK™ LA57, LA67, LA62, LA68 and LA63 (available from Asahi Denka Co., Ltd.), and SUMILIZER™ TPS (available from Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd.); thioether antioxidants such as SUMILIZER™ TP-D (available from Sumitomo Chemical Co., Ltd); phosphite antioxidants such as MARK™ 2112, PEP-8, PEP-24G, PEP-36, 329K and HP-10 (available from Asahi Denka Co., Ltd.); other molecules, such as bis(4-diethylamino-2-methylphenyl)phenylmethane (BDETPM), bis-[2-methyl-4-(N-2-hydroxyethyl-N-ethyl-aminophenyl)]-phenylmethane (DHTPM), and the like. The weight percent of the antioxidant in at least one of the charge transport layers is from about 0 to about 20, from about 1 to about 10, or from about 3 to about 8 weight percent.

Typically, flexible photoreceptor belts are fabricated by depositing the various layers of photoactive coatings onto lengthy webs that are thereafter cut into sheets. The opposite ends of each photoreceptor sheet are overlapped, and ultrasonically welded together to form an imaging belt. In order to increase throughput during the web coating operation, the webs to be coated have a width of twice the width of a final belt. After coating, the web is slit lengthwise, and thereafter transversely cut into predetermined lengths to form photoreceptor sheets of precise dimensions that are eventually welded into belts. The web length in a coating run may be many thousands of feet long, and the coating run may take more than an hour for each layer.

The following Examples are being submitted to illustrate embodiments of the present disclosure.

Comparative Example 1

There was prepared a photoconductor with a biaxially oriented polyethylene naphthalate substrate (KALEDEX™ 2000) having a thickness of 3.5 mils, and thereover, a 0.02 micron thick titanium layer was coated on the biaxially oriented polyethylene naphthalate substrate (KALEDEX™ 2000). Subsequently, there was applied thereon, with a gravure applicator or an extrusion coater, a hole blocking layer solution containing 50 grams of 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (γ-APS), 41.2 grams of water, 15 grams of acetic acid, 684.8 grams of denatured alcohol, and 200 grams of heptane. This layer was then dried for about 1 minute at 120° C. in a forced air dryer. The resulting hole blocking layer had a dry thickness of 500 Angstroms. An adhesive layer was then deposited by applying a wet coating over the blocking layer, using a gravure applicator or an extrusion coater, and which adhesive contained 0.2 percent by weight based on the total weight of the solution of the copolyester adhesive (ARDEL D100™ available from Toyota Hsutsu Inc.) in a 60:30:10 volume ratio mixture of tetrahydrofuran/monochlorobenzene/methylene chloride. The adhesive layer was then dried for about 1 minute at 120° C. in the forced air dryer of the coater. The resulting adhesive layer had a dry thickness of 200 Angstroms.

A photogenerating layer dispersion was prepared by introducing 0.45 gram of the known polycarbonate IUPILON 200™ (PCZ-200) weight average molecular weight of 20,000, available from Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Corporation, and 44.65 grams of tetrahydrofuran (THF) into a 4 ounce glass bottle. To this solution were added 2.4 grams of hydroxygailium phthalocyanine (HOGaPc, Type V) and 300 grams of ⅛ inch (3.2 millimeters) diameter stainless steel shot. This mixture was then placed on a ball mill for 3 hours. Subsequently, 2.25 grams of PCZ-200 were dissolved in 46.1 grams of tetrahydrofuran, and added to the hydroxygallium phthalocyanine dispersion. This slurry was then placed on a shaker for 10 minutes. The resulting dispersion was, thereafter, applied to the above adhesive interface with a Bird applicator to form a photogenerating layer having a wet thickness of 0.50 mil. The photogenerating layer was dried at 120° C. for 1 minute in a forced air oven to form a dry photogenerating layer having a thickness of 0.8 micron.

(A) The photogenerating layer was then coated with a single charge transport layer prepared by introducing into an amber glass bottle in a weight ratio of 50/50, N,N′-bis(methylphenyl)-1,1-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine (TBD) and poly(4,4′-isopropylidene diphenyl) carbonate, a known bisphenol A polycarbonate having a Mw molecular weight average of about 120,000, commercially available from Farbenfabriken Bayer A. G. as MAKROLON® 5705. The resulting mixture was then dissolved in methylene chloride to form a solution containing 15.6 percent by weight solids. This solution was applied on the photogenerating layer to form the charge transport layer coating that upon drying (120° C. for 1 minute) had a thickness of 29 microns. During this coating process, the humidity was equal to or less than 30 percent, for example 25 percent.

(B) In another embodiment the resulting photogenerating layer was then coated with a dual charge transport layer. The first charge transport layer was prepared by introducing into an amber glass bottle in a weight ratio of 50/50, N,N′-bis(methylphenyl)-1,1-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine (TBD) and poly(4,4′-isopropylidene diphenyl) carbonate, a known bisphenol A polycarbonate having a Mw molecular weight average of about 120,000, commercially available from Farbenfabriken Bayer A. G. as MAKROLON® 5705. The resulting mixture was then dissolved in methylene chloride to form a solution containing 15.6 percent by weight solids. This solution was applied on the photogenerating layer to form the charge transport layer coating that upon drying (120° C. for 1 minute) had a thickness of 14.5 microns. During this coating process, the humidity was equal to or less than 30 percent, for example 25 percent.

The above first pass charge transport layer (CTL) was then overcoated with a second top charge transport layer in a second pass. The charge transport layer solution of the top layer was prepared by introducing into an amber glass bottle in a weight ratio of 0.35:0.65 N,N′-diphenyl-N,N′-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1′-biphenyl-4,4′-diamine, and MAKROLON® 5705, a known polycarbonate resin having a molecular weight average of from about 50,000 to about 100,000, commercially available from Farbenfabriken Bayer A. G. The resulting mixture was then dissolved in methylene chloride to form a solution containing 15 percent by weight solids. This solution was applied, using a 2 mil Bird bar, on the bottom layer of the charge transport layer to form a coating that upon drying (120° C. for 1 minute) had a thickness of 14.5 microns. During this coating process, the humidity was equal to or less than 15 percent. The total two-layer CTL thickness was 29 microns.

Example I

A photoconductor was prepared by repeating the process of Comparative Example 1 (B) except that there was included in the photogenerating layer 10 weight percent of cyanomethylphosphonic acid diethyl ester (HOGaPc/PCZ-200/cyanomethylphosphonic acid diethyl ester, in a ratio of 47/53/10 in THF 6 weight percent solids), which phosphonate was added to and mixed with the prepared photogenerating layer solution prior to the coating thereof on the adhesive layer. More specifically, the aforementioned phosphonate additive was first dissolved in the photogenerating layer solvent of THF, and then the resulting mixture was added to the above photogenerating components. Thereafter, the mixture resulting was deposited on the adhesive layer.

Example II

A photoconductor was prepared by repeating the process of Comparative Example 1 (B) except that there was included in the photogenerating layer 3 weight percent of N,N-bis-(2-hydroxylethyl)aminomethanephosphonic acid diethyl ester, commercially available as LEVAGARD® 4090N from LANXESS Corp., Pittsburgh, Pa. (HOGaPc/PCZ-200/N,N-bis-(2-hydroxylethyl)aminomethanephosphonic acid diethyl ester, in a ratio of 47/53/3 in THF 6 weight percent solids), which phosphonate was added to and mixed with the prepared photogenerating layer solution prior to the coating thereof on the adhesive layer. More specifically, the aforementioned phosphonate additive was first dissolved in the photogenerating layer solvent of THF, and then the resulting mixture was added to the above photogenerating components. Thereafter, the mixture resulting was deposited on the adhesive layer.

Example III

A number of photoconductors are prepared by repeating the process of Example I except that there is included in the photogenerating layer 5 weight percent of at least one of (methylthiomethyl)phosphonic acid diethyl ester, 2-hydroxyethyl phosphonic acid dimethyl ester, di-n-butyl N,N-diethylcarbamoylmethylphosphonate, dibutyl N,N-diethylcarbamoylphosphonate, diethyl(phthalimidomethyl)phosphonate, diethyl 1-pyrrolidinemethylphosphonate, diethyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzyl phosphonate, diphenyl (2,3-dihydro-2-thioxo-3-benzoxazolyl)phosphonate, monoethyl 3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxybenzylphosphonate, tetraethyl[4,4′-biphenylylenebis(methylene)]bisphosphonate, diethyl 4-methoxyphenylphosphonate, tetraethyl[anthracene-9,10-diylbis(methylene)]bisphosphonate, diethyl benzylphosphonate, bis(2,2,2-trifluoroethyl) (methoxycarbonylmethyl)phosphonate, diethyl phenacylphosphonate, diethyl (3-chlorobenzyl)phosphonate, diethyl cyanophosphonate, and diethyl phenylphosphonate.

Electrical Property Testing

The above prepared photoconductors of Comparative Example 1 (B), Examples I and II were tested in a scanner set to obtain photoinduced discharge cycles, sequenced at one charge-erase cycle followed by one charge-expose-erase cycle, wherein the light intensity was incrementally increased with cycling to produce a series of photoinduced discharge characteristic curves from which the photosensitivity and surface potentials at various exposure intensities were measured. Additional electrical characteristics were obtained by a series of charge-erase cycles with incrementing surface potential to generate several voltage versus charge density curves. The scanner was equipped with a scorotron set to a constant voltage charging at various surface potentials. The photoconductors were tested at surface potentials of 400 volts with the exposure light intensity incrementally increased by means of regulating a series of neutral density filters; and the exposure light source was a 780 nanometer light emitting diode. The xerographic simulation was completed in an environmentally controlled light tight chamber at ambient conditions (40 percent relative humidity and 22° C.).

There was substantially no change in the PIDC curves, and more specifically, these curves were essentially the same for each of the above photoconductors. Incorporation of the phosphonate into the photogenerating layer thus had no detrimental effects on the electrical performance of the photoconductors.

Ghosting Measurement

When a photoconductor is selectively exposed to positive charges in a number of xerographic print engines, it is observed that some of these charges may enter the photoconductor and manifest themselves as a latent image in the next printing cycle. This print defect can cause a change in the lightness of the half tones, and is commonly referred to as a “ghost” that is generated in the previous printing cycle.

An example of a source of the positive charges is the stream of positive ions emitted from the transfer corotron. Since the paper sheets are situated between the transfer corotron and the photoconductor, the photoconductor is shielded from the positive ions from the paper sheets. In the areas between the paper sheets, the photoconductor is fully exposed, thus in this paper free zone the positive charges may enter the photoconductor. As a result, these charges cause a print defect or ghost in a half tone print if one switches to a larger paper format that covers the previous paper print free zone.

In the ghosting test, the photoconductors were electrically cycled to simulate continuous printing. At the end of every tenth cycle, known incremental positive charges were injected into the photoconductors tested. In the follow-on cycles, the electrical response to these injected charges were measured and then translated into a rating scale.

The electrical response to the injected charges in the print engine and in the electrical test fixture evidenced a drop in the surface potential. This drop was calibrated to calorimetric values in the prints, and they in turn were calibrated to the ranking scale of an average rating of at least two observers. On this scale, 1 refers to no observable ghost and values of 7 or above refer to a very strong ghost. The functional dependence between the change in surface potential and the ghosting scale is slightly supra-linear, and may in first approximation be linearly scaled.

There were deposited ¾ inch diameter, 150 Å thick, gold dots, using a sputterer, onto the transport layer of the photoconductors of Comparative Example 1 (B) and Example II. Then, the photoconductors were dark rested (in the absence of light) for two days at 22° C. and 50 percent RH to allow relaxation of the surfaces.

These electroded photoconductor devices (gold dot on charge transport layer surface) were then cycled in a test fixture that injected positive charge through the gold dots with the methodology described above. The change in surface potential was then determined for injected charges of 27 nC/cm2 (nC is nano Coulomb, the unit for charge). Finally, the changes in the surface potentials were translated into ghost rankings by the aforementioned calibration curves. This method was repeated four times for each photoconductor, and then the averages were calculated. Typical standard deviation of the mean tested on numerous devices was about 0.35.

The ghost ratings are reported in Table 1 with the Examples I and II evidencing less ghosting as compared to the photoconductor of Comparative Example 1 (B). Incorporation of the phosphonate into the photogenerating layer reduced ghosting by about 3 to 5 grades.

TABLE 1
Ghost Rating
Comparative Example 1 (B) 8
Example I 5
Example II 3

The claims, as originally presented and as they may be amended, encompass variations, alternatives, modifications, improvements, equivalents, and substantial equivalents of the embodiments and teachings disclosed herein, including those that are presently unforeseen or unappreciated, and that, for example, may arise from applicants/patentees and others. Unless specifically recited in a claim, steps or components of claims should not be implied or imported from the specification or any other claims as to any particular order, number, position, size, shape, angle, color, or material.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US7968262Jun 30, 2008Jun 28, 2011Xerox CorporationBis(enylaryl)arylamine containing photoconductors
US7981580Jun 30, 2008Jul 19, 2011Xerox CorporationTris and bis(enylaryl)arylamine mixtures containing photoconductors
US8007971Jun 30, 2008Aug 30, 2011Xerox CorporationTris(enylaryl)amine containing photoconductors
US8026027Jun 30, 2008Sep 27, 2011Xerox Corporation(Enylaryl)bisarylamine containing photoconductors
US8062816 *May 30, 2008Nov 22, 2011Xerox CorporationPhosphonate hole blocking layer photoconductors
US8676071Jan 18, 2011Mar 18, 2014Xerox CorporationInterdocument photoreceptor signal sensing and feedback control of paper edge ghosting
Classifications
U.S. Classification430/58.8, 430/58.75, 430/58.05, 430/59.1
International ClassificationG03G5/047, G03G15/02
Cooperative ClassificationG03G5/062, G03G5/047, G03G5/142, G03G5/051, G03G5/0696, G03G5/0614
European ClassificationG03G5/047, G03G5/06B5B, G03G5/06B9, G03G5/06H6, G03G5/14B, G03G5/05A4
Legal Events
DateCodeEventDescription
Jun 30, 2008ASAssignment
Owner name: XEROX CORPORATION, CONNECTICUT
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:WU, JIN , ,;SILVESTRI, MARKUS R, ,;COWDERY-CORVAN, J. ROBINSON , ,;AND OTHERS;REEL/FRAME:021175/0450
Effective date: 20080623