|Publication number||US20090325538 A1|
|Application number||US 12/124,028|
|Publication date||Dec 31, 2009|
|Filing date||May 20, 2008|
|Priority date||May 20, 2008|
|Also published as||CA2665993A1, EP2124493A1, EP2124493B1, US8478225, US8676153, US20130267192|
|Publication number||12124028, 124028, US 2009/0325538 A1, US 2009/325538 A1, US 20090325538 A1, US 20090325538A1, US 2009325538 A1, US 2009325538A1, US-A1-20090325538, US-A1-2009325538, US2009/0325538A1, US2009/325538A1, US20090325538 A1, US20090325538A1, US2009325538 A1, US2009325538A1|
|Inventors||DeWayne Allan Sennett, Brian Kevin Daly|
|Original Assignee||At&T Mobility Ii Llc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Patent Citations (7), Referenced by (20), Classifications (11), Legal Events (1)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
The technical field generally relates to communications systems and more specifically relates to geo-targeting wireless emergency alerts.
Mobile device users may receive emergency alerts that are transmitted by their wireless network provider to their mobile device. The emergency alerts may be broadcast via a broadcast network. However it is difficult to send a unique message to a particular area. For example, not all of the mobile device users that receive the emergency alert are in the geographic area affected by the emergency event. Further, not all components in the telecommunications infrastructure in a particular geographic region, such as some cell towers, are capable of broadcasting emergency alerts.
The management of telecommunications capabilities is crucial during disasters that degrade the infrastructure, especially where the infrastructure may have been minimal beforehand. It is desirable to efficiently provide emergency alerts & warnings to the greatest number of people necessary without significantly adding load to the critical network resources, and to target the alerts & warnings to people in the geographical area that is affected.
Geo-targeting is a common tool for targeting information to a specified geographical area. Geo-targeting may be used in combination with wireless alert capabilities to provide alerts to a more granulated geographical area. Described herein is a system and method for performing geo-targeting for various alert areas such that emergency messages may be delivered to mobile and static devices of different types in a localized area. In an example embodiment, geo-targeting supports the delivery area for wireless emergency alerts by identifying the cell sites that are in a specified geographic area that have technology capable of delivering wireless emergency alerts. Further, the components of the telecommunications system that support a wireless emergency alert system may be identified and mapped across different geographical levels (e.g., county, state, region). In this way, mobile device users in the affected geographical area may receive the emergency alerts targeted to that geographical area.
A wireless network may augment a telecommunications system by broadcasting emergency messages from the telecommunications system to mobile stations associated with the wireless network. Disclosed herein is a method and system of incorporating geo-targeting into a telecommunications system such that mobile device users that are in an affected geographical area may receive notification of an emergency event. A geo-targeting mapping module may verify whether or not the telecommunications system that services a particular geographic area is capable of broadcasting emergency alerts. For example, the module may identify the Cell Site IDs in the geographic area that have broadcast technology, and what type of broadcast technology is supported in that geographic area.
The geo-target mapping module can provide broadcast capability information for a geographic area of any magnitude, small or large. Delivering alerts via the geo-targeting technique provides the capability of identifying a more granulated alerting area based on the emergency event. For example, if a shooting occurs on a college campus, students within the geographical limits of a college campus may receive the alerts on their mobile device via geo-targeting.
In the discussion that follows, details relating to mobile devices and networks are assumed to be well known. Accordingly, such details are largely omitted herein for the sake of clarity and explanation. In addition, any references herein to an example embodiment involving a cellular telephone is solely for purposes of explanation, and is not intended to limit the invention to any such embodiment. For example, a mobile device as contemplated by various embodiments of the invention may include, but are not limited to: cellular telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), email devices and the like. The mobile device may operate in a cellular, SMR, PCS, cordless, unlicensed AWS, 700 MHz, or other spectrums. Furthermore, embodiments are not limited by the network servicing the device. Accordingly, embodiments may be applicable to any network type including, for example, TDMA, CDMA, WCDMA, GSM, WiFi, WiMAX, OFDM, UMTS, EV-DO, HSDPA/HSUPA and other standards now known or to be developed in the future.
An example system for distributing emergency alerts in the United States is an Emergency Alert System (EAS) that was implemented by the Federal Communication Commission (FCC), National Weather Service (NWS), and Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA). The United States EAS is designed to provide messages from multiple origination points (e.g., county, state, federal). For example, the president can use the EAS to send a nationwide emergency alert message. The FCC provides information to broadcasters, cable system operators, and state and local emergency managers. The EAS typically provides messages indicative of a variety of types of alerts including, for example, weather conditions, disasters, America's Missing: Broadcast Emergency Response (AMBER) alerts, and/or alerts issued by the Government, for example. EAS messages may be provided to, for example, a mobile device of a user such that the EAS alert message may be broadcast to the user via the mobile device. Any references herein to an example embodiment involving the EAS is solely for purposes of explanation, and is not intended to limit the invention to any such embodiment. Any type of emergency alert system may use the disclosed techniques.
An alert message initiator 108 may generate and provide an EAS alert message at 86 to an emergency alert network 110. The alert message initiator 108 may be, for example, a first responder to a scene (e.g., fire fighter, police officer, emergency medical technician, etc), the local government, an agency (e.g., National Weather Service), an emergency manager of an entity (e.g., designated person in the emergency center of a hospital or campus), an automated system (e.g., a fire alarm, electronic sensors that detect toxic gas), an Emergency Operations Center (EOC), an on-site Incident Commander, public utility, or the like. For example, there may be an origination point at the federal level for national warnings, and a designated emergency manager may have the authorization to request that an emergency alert be broadcast. Counties and local governments may have their own emergency management organization to serve counties and local tribunals, with an emergency manager at the county or local level that has the authorization to initiate a request for transmission of an emergency alert. Campuses may have a point of contact to support emergency management for a university that are authorized to request transmission of emergency alerts. Depending on the level, different levels of authorization may be granted. The emergency manager may be limited to requesting emergency alert transmission to a select area.
The EAS alert message may contain information about the emergency event, such as location, severity, type, etc. The alert message may include general alert types such as general weather alerts, general natural disaster alerts, general government alerts, or the like, and/or specific alert types such as a child abduction (e.g., AMBER), geophysical (e.g., landslide), meteorological (e.g., windstorms, tornadoes, hurricanes, tsunamis, lighting storms, thunderstorms, freezing rain, blizzards, fog), general emergency and public safety, law enforcement, military, homeland and local/private security, rescue and recovery, fire suppression and rescue, medical and public health, pollution and other environmental conditions, public and private transportation, utility, telecommunication, other non-transport infrastructure, CBRNE (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear or Explosive) threat or attack and/or system test, or the like. The alert message may also include alert security levels such as warnings, watches, advisories, or the like that may be associated with each alert type, for example.
EAS alert messages are provided, at 88, via the emergency alert network 110, to the emergency alert server 112. The emergency alert server 112 may be part of an Emergency Operations Center 111. An operator 113, emergency alert server 112, or other entity capable of handling the alert message may handle the alert message at the Emergency Operations Center 111. For example, upon receipt of the alert message, the emergency alert server 112 may validate the credentials of the alert message source. The operator 113, for example, may determine the severity of the emergency and determine whether the corresponding emergency alert, such as an EAS alert, should be broadcast, and if so, to what areas.
The relevant geographic area affected by the emergency event may be determined in a number of ways, such as by the emergency alert initiator 108, the emergency alert network 110, or in the Emergency Operations Center 111, for example. The geographic area could be described in terms of a landmark, a latitude/longitude, a selected location on a device that transmits the alert message, or the like. The affected geographic area may be a specified distance from a specific location provided in the alert message. For example, where there has been a chemical spill, the affected geographical area may be a specified range from a specific location. The alert message initiator 108, such as the first responder, could provide the range in the alert message to the emergency alert network 110 at 86, and base the geographic area on a range around a spill location that it is unsafe for humans. Alternately, the emergency alert network 110 or the Emergency Operations Center 111 may analyze the type of emergency and the location and provide the alert message with a specified affected geographical area.
The alert messages may be provided by the emergency alert server 112 to the broadcast server 114, at 90. The broadcast server 114 can then provide all of the alert messages to the wireless broadcast network 116 at 92. The wireless broadcast network 116 can be any type of communication network including the example networks described below in
In an example embodiment, the geo-target mapping module 118 may be incorporated into the telecommunications server. The geo-target mapping module 118 may be incorporated into the Emergency Operations Center 111, the broadcast server 114, or the wireless broadcast network 116, for example. Alternately, the geo-target mapping module 118 may be maintained separately from these entities. Any of 111, 112, 114, 116 may access the geo-target mapping module 118 to determine which components of the telecommunications system, such as specific cell towers, can be used to broadcast alert messages. For example, the emergency alert server 112 may provide a request to the geo-target mapping module 118 for the cell IDs (cell sites) associated with an identified geographic area. As described in more detail below, the geo-target mapping module 118 may identify the set of cell sites in the affected geographic area that support wireless emergency alerts and which have broadcast technologies.
The geo-target mapping module 118 may determine the broadcast capability of each cell site in accordance with any appropriate means, such as requesting the broadcast capability of each cell site from an appropriate processor. For example, the base station controller shown in
At 92, the broadcast server 114 can provide the alert messages to the wireless broadcast network 116. The network 116 may include any type of communication network such as the internet, a Local Area Network (LAN), a Wide Area Network (WAN), a cellular telephone, or the like. For example, the network 116 may include the example networks described below in
The broadcast server 114 may instruct the wireless broadcast network to transmit the emergency alerts. The instructions may include the cell sites to broadcast from based on the cell site information obtained from the geo-target mapping module 118. At 94, the wireless broadcast network 116 can broadcast the alert messages to a geographic area using the cell sites identified by the geo-target mapping module 118. The wireless broadcast network 116 may then broadcast the emergency alerts in a range that covers the affected geographic area. In this example, at 94, the cell sites broadcast via a cellular network an emergency alert to mobile devices, such as 122 and 124, that are in the covered geographic area. Any telecommunications component that transforms, transmits, or processes information in connection with a broadcast, or otherwise facilitates the broadcast of information, may broadcast such information. The network provider can offer bandwidth and/or network access to its subscribers to enable communication between subscribers and other users of electronic devices and/or mobile devices such as cellular phones, PDAs, PCs, Voice over Internet Protocol devices, analog telephone devices, or the like.
Each of the emergency alert server 112, the broadcast server 114, the mobile device 124, the broadcast processor 119, and the EAS processor 120 can comprise any appropriate type of processor. Example processors can be implemented in a single processor or multiple processors. Multiple processors can be distributed or centrally located. Multiple processors can communicate wirelessly, via hard wire, or a combination thereof. Examples processors include mobile communications devices, mobile telephones, personal digital assistants (PDAs), lap top computers, handheld processors, or a combination thereof. The EAS processor 120 and the broadcast processor 119 can be implemented as a single processor, separate processors, distributed processors, or a combination thereof. The emergency alert server 112 and the broadcast server 114 can be implemented as a single processor, separate processors, distributed processors, or a combination thereof.
Mobile devices 122 and 124 may be representative of any appropriate type of device that may be utilized to receive an alert message and/or render and output the alert message in a suitable format to the subscriber. For example, in one embodiment, the device 122 may be any type of receiver or transceiver device with broadcast reception capabilities (e.g., cell phone, pager, PDA, PC, modem, router, gateway, specialized broadcast receiving device, first responder Mobile Data Terminal (MDT), FM/AM radio, NOAA weather radio, Land Mobile Radio (LMR), satellite radio receiver, satellite phone and television).
According to other example embodiments, devices 122 or 124 may also be any appropriate mobile device, such as, for example, a portable device, a variety of computing devices including (a) a portable media player, e.g., a portable music player, such as an MP3 player, a walkman, etc., (b) a portable computing device, such as a laptop, a personal digital assistant (“PDA”), a portable phone, such as a cell phone of the like, a smart phone, a Session Initiated Protocol (SIP) phone, a video phone, a portable email device, a thin client, a portable gaming device, etc., (c) consumer electronic devices, such as TVs, DVD players, set top boxes, monitors, displays, etc., (d) a public computing device, such as a kiosk, an in-store musical sampling device, an automated teller machine (ATM), a cash register, etc., (e) a navigation device whether portable or installed in-vehicle and/or (f) a non-conventional computing device, such as a kitchen appliance, a motor vehicle control (e.g., steering wheel), etc., or a combination thereof.
The mobile devices that are within range from the broadcasting cell sites may receive the emergency alert. The mobile devices that receive the alert may only be those of users that subscribe to a particular wireless service. However, the alerts may be formatted such that mobile devices may receive the alert regardless of their service provider. Mobile device users 123 and 125 may then be warned via the emergency alert via their mobile devices, 122 and 124.
The cell sites in each geographic area may be identified in Table 202 at the cell site level by a Cell Site ID. The table entry associated to the Cell Site identity (ID) may include an indication of whether or not the cell site has RF coverage, if the cell site supports wireless emergency alerts, if the cell site has broadcast capabilities for wireless emergency alerts, and any specific broadcasting technologies that the cell site supports.
Geo-targeting may be accomplished at the cell site level to build the set of cell sites for each broadcast technology. As shown in
The County Table 204 identifies the cell sites which provide RF coverage within a county, and provides a link between the specified county and the county's state. Table entries for any specific county may include both the cell sites located within the county and the cell sites which are located outside of the county, but have RF coverage within at least a part of the county. The relationship between the County Table and the Cell Site Table may be maintained via the Cell Site ID.
Geo-targeting may be accomplished at the county level to build the set of cell sites for each broadcast technology that correspond to the county. The County Table 204 demonstrates a table for access to information about the cell sites in the county that support broadcast technology. The County ID may identify a county within a state. The County ID could be a county name, the county abbreviation, or the numeric country code value defined in the Federal Information Processing Standard 6-4 (FIPS 6-4), for example. The County ID is generally only unique on a state level.
The “Wireless Emergency Alerts Supported” attribute for the County Table 204 may be maintained to improve the efficiency of the return information from the geo-target mapping module 118. For example, if wireless emergency alerts are not supported within a specific county, this attribute could be set to “N” and there would be no reason to extract and evaluate entries from the Cell Site Table. For each broadcast technology that is supported by the particular cell site, the Cell Site ID may be included in a list of cell sites for that technology for that county.
An example scenario that may benefit from geo-targeting an emergency alert at the county level is if a tornado is traveling towards or through a region, and a particular geographic area covered by the county is at risk. The county emergency manager, or other designated emergency alert initiator 108, may want to alert the individuals in the county as soon as possible to provide the opportunity for the individuals to retreat to safety. Because so many people carry mobile devices, broadcasting an emergency alert that may be received by mobile devices may be the most efficient and immediate way to reach the most people in the county. To determine if the county has any broadcasting capabilities, the emergency alert system, such as that shown in
The geo-target mapping module 118 may access the information from the County Table 204 to determine if the county has any broadcasting capabilities. The determination can be made without having to evaluate each cell site individually. If the county does or does not have any capabilities of emergency alert broadcasts, the determination can be made quickly. The factor of time may be crucial when confronted with an emergency. If the county does have broadcast capabilities, for example, the geo-target mapping module 118 may extract the emergency alert broadcasting capabilities from the Cell Site Table 202. The emergency alert broadcasting capabilities for the cell sites relevant to the geographic area covered by the county may be easily accessible, such as through a database maintained by the geo-target mapping module 118. If the geo-target mapping module 118 determines that the county is capable of broadcasting emergency alerts, then the information may be extracted from the Cell Site Table 202. Alternately, the geo-target mapping module 118 may request information from cell sites to update the database. During times of non-emergency, the geo-target mapping module 118 may continuously update a database of various cell sites relevant to various geographic areas, and indicate the emergency alert broadcast capabilities for each cell site.
The Cell Site IDs that are identified in County Table 204 as having emergency alert broadcasting capabilities may be used to extract information for each cell site from the Cell Site Table 202. As shown in
If one cell site in the county supports wireless emergency alerts, the Cell Site ID may be extracted from the Cell Site Table 202. Thus, even if an emergency alert could only be broadcast from one cell site in the county, the information can be easily obtained and returned by the geo-target mapping module 118 by the method depicted in
Geo-targeting may be accomplished at the state level to build the set of cell sites for each broadcast technology that correspond to the state. In
The “Wireless Emergency Alerts Supported” attribute for the County Table 204 may be maintained to improve the efficiency of the return information from the geo-target mapping module 118. For example, if wireless emergency alerts are not supported within a specific county, this attribute could be set to “N” and there would be no reason to extract and evaluate entries from the Cell Site Table. For each broadcast technology that is supported by the particular cell site, the Cell Site ID may be included in a list of cell sites for that technology for that county for each state.
The technique for geo-targeting based on geographic areas in
The technique for geo-targeting based on geographic areas in
Geo-targeting at the location X geographic area may be accomplished at the “Location X” level to build the set of cell sites for each broadcast technology that correspond to Location X. For example, a college campus may be subject to an emergency event, such as a shooting on or around campus. The emergency alert initiator 108, from
Referencing the Location X Table 302, the Location X ID may identify the college campus and its boundaries. Similar to other locations, a Location X ID may be assigned to particular locations and be used as part of the geo-targeting technique. For example, the Location X ID for the college campus may be maintained as a code list prepared by the FCC for college campuses.
A Cell Site Table 202, also shown in
Table entries for the Cell Site ID in Location X Table may include the cell sites located within the identified boundaries and the cell sites which are located outside of the identified boundaries, but have RF coverage within at least a part of the affected geographic area. The “Wireless Emergency Alerts Supported” attribute for the Location X Table 204 may be maintained to improve the efficiency of the return information from the geo-target mapping module 118. For example, if wireless emergency alerts are not supported within a specific county, this attribute could be set to “N” and there would be no reason to extract and evaluate entries from the Cell Site Table. For each broadcast technology that is supported by the particular cell site, the Cell Site ID may be included in a list of cell sites for that technology for that county for each state.
Thus, if there is a request for an emergency alert to be provided to a geographic area affected by an emergency event, the cell sites that can support the broadcast of the emergency alerts may be mapped, maintained, and accessed in the manner disclosed herein. Geo-targeting for any size geographic areas such that emergency messages may be delivered to mobile and static devices of different types in a localized area provide for an emergency alert system that pinpoints an affected geographic area and provides alerts that may be received by mobile devices in the geographic area. The geo-target mapping module 118 identifies the cell sites for which broadcasting from the cell sites may cover, all or in part, a geographic area that is affected by the emergency event.
The following description sets forth some exemplary telephony radio networks and non-limiting operating environments for providing a notification of an EAS alert message using a personal area network. The below-described operating environments should be considered non-exhaustive, however, and thus the below-described network architectures merely show how the services of the notification system for alerting users of portable devices of emergencies may be incorporated into existing network structures and architectures. It can be appreciated, however, that the notification system for alerting users of portable devices of emergencies can be incorporated into existing and/or future alternative architectures for communication networks as well.
The global system for mobile communication (GSM) is one of the most widely utilized wireless access systems in today's fast growing communication environment. The GSM provides circuit-switched data services to subscribers, such as mobile telephone or computer users. The General Packet Radio Service (GPRS), which is an extension to GSM technology, introduces packet switching to GSM networks. The GPRS uses a packet-based wireless communication technology to transfer high and low speed data and signaling in an efficient manner. The GPRS attempts to optimize the use of network and radio resources, thus enabling the cost effective and efficient use of GSM network resources for packet mode applications.
As can be appreciated, the exemplary GSM/GPRS environment and services described herein also can be extended to 3G services, such as Universal Mobile Telephone System (UMTS), Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD) and Time Division Duplexing (TDD), High Speed Packet Data Access (HSPDA), cdma2000 1x Evolution Data Optimized (EVDO), Code Division Multiple Access-2000 (cdma2000 3x), Time Division Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access (TD-SCDMA), Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA), Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE), International Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT-2000), Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT), etc., as well as to other network services that become available in time. In this regard, the techniques of the geo-target mapping module 118 can be applied independently of the method of data transport, and do not depend on any particular network architecture, or underlying protocols.
Generally, there can be four different cell sizes in a GSM network, referred to as macro, micro, pico, and umbrella cells. The coverage area of each cell is different in different environments. Macro cells can be regarded as cells in which the base station antenna is installed in a mast or a building above average roof top level. Micro cells are cells whose antenna height is under average roof top level. Micro-cells are typically used in urban areas. Pico cells are small cells having a diameter of a few dozen meters. Pico cells are used mainly indoors. On the other hand, umbrella cells are used to cover shadowed regions of smaller cells and fill in gaps in coverage between those cells.
A mobile switching center can be connected to a large number of base station controllers. At MSC 571, for instance, depending on the type of traffic, the traffic may be separated in that voice may be sent to Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) 582 through Gateway MSC (GMSC) 573, and/or data may be sent to SGSN 576, which then sends the data traffic to GGSN 578 for further forwarding.
When MSC 571 receives call traffic, for example, from BSC 566, it sends a query to a database hosted by SCP 572. The SCP 572 processes the request and issues a response to MSC 571 so that it may continue call processing as appropriate.
The HLR 574 is a centralized database for users to register to the GPRS network. HLR 574 stores static information about the subscribers such as the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI), subscribed services, and a key for authenticating the subscriber. HLR 574 also stores dynamic subscriber information such as the current location of the mobile subscriber. Associated with HLR 574 is AuC 575. AuC 575 is a database that contains the algorithms for authenticating subscribers and includes the associated keys for encryption to safeguard the user input for authentication.
In this disclosure, depending on context, the term mobile device user may be a subscriber, and either reference may sometimes refers to the end user and sometimes to the actual portable device, such as the WCD 102, used by an end user of the mobile cellular service. When a mobile subscriber turns on his or her mobile device, the mobile device goes through an attach process by which the mobile device attaches to an SGSN of the GPRS network. In
After attaching itself with the network, mobile subscriber 555 then goes through the authentication process. In the authentication process, SGSN 576 sends the authentication information to HLR 574, which sends information back to SGSN 576 based on the user profile that was part of the user's initial setup. The SGSN 576 then sends a request for authentication and ciphering to mobile subscriber 555. The mobile subscriber 555 uses an algorithm to send the user identification (ID) and password to SGSN 576. The SGSN 576 uses the same algorithm and compares the result. If a match occurs, SGSN 576 authenticates mobile subscriber 555.
Next, the mobile subscriber 555 establishes a user session with the destination network, corporate network 589, by going through a Packet Data Protocol (PDP) activation process. Briefly, in the process, mobile subscriber 555 requests access to the Access Point Name (APN), for example, UPS.com (e.g., which can be corporate network 589 in
Once activated, data packets of the call made by mobile subscriber 555 can then go through radio access network 560, core network 570, and interconnect network 580, in a particular fixed-end system or Internet 584 and firewall 588, to reach corporate network 589.
Thus, network elements can invoke the functionality of the EAS alert reporting in accordance with geo-target mapping, but they are not limited to Gateway GPRS Support Node tables, Fixed End System router tables, firewall systems, VPN tunnels, and any number of other network elements as required by the particular digital network.
The GSM core network 601 also includes a Mobile Switching Center (MSC) 608, a Gateway Mobile Switching Center (GMSC) 610, a Home Location Register (HLR) 612, Visitor Location Register (VLR) 614, an Authentication Center (AuC) 618, and an Equipment Identity Register (EIR) 616. The MSC 608 performs a switching function for the network. The MSC also performs other functions, such as registration, authentication, location updating, handovers, and call routing. The GMSC 610 provides a gateway between the GSM network and other networks, such as an Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) or Public Switched Telephone Networks (PSTNs) 620. Thus, the GMSC 610 provides interworking functionality with external networks.
The HLR 612 is a database that contains administrative information regarding each subscriber registered in a corresponding GSM network. The HLR 612 also contains the current location of each MS. The VLR 614 is a database that contains selected administrative information from the HLR 612. The VLR contains information necessary for call control and provision of subscribed services for each MS currently located in a geographical area controlled by the VLR. The HLR 612 and the VLR 614, together with the MSC 608, provide the call routing and roaming capabilities of GSM. The AuC 616 provides the parameters needed for authentication and encryption functions. Such parameters allow verification of a subscriber's identity. The EIR 618 stores security-sensitive information about the mobile equipment.
A Short Message Service Center (SMSC) 609 allows one-to-one Short Message Service (SMS) messages to be sent to/from the MS 602. A Push Proxy Gateway (PPG) 611 is used to “push” (i.e., send without a synchronous request) content to the MS 602. The PPG 611 acts as a proxy between wired and wireless networks to facilitate pushing of data to the MS 602. A Short Message Peer to Peer (SMPP) protocol router 613 is provided to convert SMS-based SMPP messages to cell broadcast messages. SMPP is a protocol for exchanging SMS messages between SMS peer entities such as short message service centers. The SMPP protocol is often used to allow third parties, e.g., content suppliers such as news organizations, to submit bulk messages.
To gain access to GSM services, such as speech, data, and short message service (SMS), the MS first registers with the network to indicate its current location by performing a location update and IMSI attach procedure. The MS 602 sends a location update including its current location information to the MSC/VLR, via the BTS 604 and the BSC 606. The location information is then sent to the MS's HLR. The HLR is updated with the location information received from the MSC/VLR. The location update also is performed when the MS moves to a new location area. Typically, the location update is periodically performed to update the database as location updating events occur.
The GPRS network 630 is logically implemented on the GSM core network architecture by introducing two packet-switching network nodes, a serving GPRS support node (SGSN) 632, a cell broadcast and a Gateway GPRS support node (GGSN) 634. The SGSN 632 is at the same hierarchical level as the MSC 608 in the GSM network. The SGSN controls the connection between the GPRS network and the MS 602. The SGSN also keeps track of individual MS's locations and security functions and access controls.
A Cell Broadcast Center (CBC) 633 communicates cell broadcast messages that are typically delivered to multiple users in a specified area. Cell Broadcast is one-to-many geographically focused service. It enables messages to be communicated to multiple mobile phone customers who are located within a given part of its network coverage area at the time the message is broadcast.
The GGSN 634 provides a gateway between the GPRS network and a public packet network (PDN) or other IP networks 636. That is, the GGSN provides interworking functionality with external networks, and sets up a logical link to the MS through the SGSN. When packet-switched data leaves the GPRS network, it is transferred to an external TCP-IP network 636, such as an X.25 network or the Internet. In order to access GPRS services, the MS first attaches itself to the GPRS network by performing an attach procedure. The MS then activates a packet data protocol (PDP) context, thus activating a packet communication session between the MS, the SGSN, and the GGSN.
In a GSM/GPRS network, GPRS services and GSM services can be used in parallel. The MS can operate in one three classes: class A, class B, and class C. A class A MS can attach to the network for both GPRS services and GSM services simultaneously. A class A MS also supports simultaneous operation of GPRS services and GSM services. For example, class A mobiles can receive GSM voice/data/SMS calls and GPRS data calls at the same time.
A class B MS can attach to the network for both GPRS services and GSM services simultaneously. However, a class B MS does not support simultaneous operation of the GPRS services and GSM services. That is, a class B MS can only use one of the two services at a given time.
A class C MS can attach for only one of the GPRS services and GSM services at a time. Simultaneous attachment and operation of GPRS services and GSM services is not possible with a class C MS.
A GPRS network 630 can be designed to operate in three network operation modes (NOM1, NOM2 and NOM3). A network operation mode of a GPRS network is indicated by a parameter in system information messages transmitted within a cell. The system information messages dictates a MS where to listen for paging messages and how signal towards the network. The network operation mode represents the capabilities of the GPRS network. In a NOM1 network, a MS can receive pages from a circuit switched domain (voice call) when engaged in a data call. The MS can suspend the data call or take both simultaneously, depending on the ability of the MS. In a NOM2 network, a MS may not received pages from a circuit switched domain when engaged in a data call, since the MS is receiving data and is not listening to a paging channel In a NOM3 network, a MS can monitor pages for a circuit switched network while received data and vice versa.
The IP multimedia network 638 was introduced with 3GPP Release 5, and includes an IP multimedia subsystem (IMS) 640 to provide rich multimedia services to end users. A representative set of the network entities within the IMS 640 are a call/session control function (CSCF), a media gateway control function (MGCF) 646, a media gateway (MGW) 648, and a master subscriber database, called a home subscriber server (HSS) 650. The HSS 650 may be common to the GSM network 601, the GPRS network 630 as well as the IP multimedia network 638.
The IP multimedia system 640 is built around the call/session control function, of which there are three types: an interrogating CSCF (I-CSCF) 643, a proxy CSCF (P-CSCF) 642, and a serving CSCF (S-CSCF) 644. The P-CSCF 642 is the MS's first point of contact with the IMS 640. The P-CSCF 642 forwards session initiation protocol (SIP) messages received from the MS to an SIP server in a home network (and vice versa) of the MS. The P-CSCF 642 may also modify an outgoing request according to a set of rules defined by the network operator (for example, address analysis and potential modification).
The I-CSCF 643, forms an entrance to a home network and hides the inner topology of the home network from other networks and provides flexibility for selecting an S-CSCF. The I-CSCF 643 may contact a subscriber location function (SLF) 645 to determine which HSS 650 to use for the particular subscriber, if multiple HSS's 650 are present. The S-CSCF 644 performs the session control services for the MS 602. This includes routing originating sessions to external networks and routing terminating sessions to visited networks. The S-CSCF 644 also decides whether an application server (AS) 652 is required to receive information on an incoming SIP session request to ensure appropriate service handling. This decision is based on information received from the HSS 650 (or other sources, such as an application server 652). The AS 652 also communicates to a location server 656 (e.g., a Gateway Mobile Location Center (GMLC)) that provides a position (e.g., latitude/longitude coordinates) of the MS 602.
The HSS 650 contains a subscriber profile and keeps track of which core network node is currently handling the subscriber. It also supports subscriber authentication and authorization functions (AAA). In networks with more than one HSS 650, a subscriber location function provides information on the HSS 650 that contains the profile of a given subscriber.
The MGCF 646 provides interworking functionality between SIP session control signaling from the IMS 640 and ISUP/BICC call control signaling from the external GSTN networks (not shown). It also controls the media gateway (MGW) 648 that provides user-plane interworking functionality (e.g., converting between AMR- and PCM-coded voice). The MGW 648 also communicates with other IP multimedia networks 654.
Push to Talk over Cellular (PoC) capable mobile phones register with the wireless network when the phones are in a predefined area (e.g., job site, etc.). When the mobile phones leave the area, they register with the network in their new location as being outside the predefined area. This registration, however, does not indicate the actual physical location of the mobile phones outside the pre-defined area.
While example embodiments of a notification system for alerting users of wireless communication devices of emergencies using a personal area network compatible accessory have been described in connection with various computing devices, the underlying concepts can be applied to any computing device or system capable of providing a notification for alerting users of portable devices of emergencies. The various techniques described herein can be implemented in connection with hardware or software or, where appropriate, with a combination of both. Thus, the methods and apparatus for a notification system for alerting users of portable devices of emergencies, or certain aspects or portions thereof, can take the form of program code (i.e., instructions) embodied in tangible media, such as floppy diskettes, CD-ROMs, hard drives, or any other machine-readable storage medium, wherein, when the program code is loaded into and executed by a machine, such as a computer, the machine becomes an apparatus for providing a notification for alerting users of portable devices of emergencies. In the case of program code execution on programmable computers, the computing device will generally include a processor, a storage medium readable by the processor (including volatile and non-volatile memory and/or storage elements), at least one input device, and at least one output device. The program(s) can be implemented in assembly or machine language, if desired. In any case, the language can be a compiled or interpreted language, and combined with hardware implementations.
The methods and apparatus for a notification system for alerting users of wireless communication devices of emergencies using a personal area network compatible accessory also can be practiced via communications embodied in the form of program code that is transmitted over some transmission medium, such as over electrical wiring or cabling, through fiber optics, or via any other form of transmission, wherein, when the program code is received and loaded into and executed by a machine, such as an EPROM, a gate array, a programmable logic device (PLD), a client computer, or the like, the machine becomes an apparatus for a notification system for alerting users of wireless communication devices of emergencies using a personal area network compatible accessory. When implemented on a general-purpose processor, the program code combines with the processor to provide a unique apparatus that operates to invoke the functionality of a notification system for alerting users of wireless communication devices of emergencies using a personal area network compatible accessory. Additionally, any storage techniques used in connection with a notification system for alerting users of wireless communication devices of emergencies using a personal area network compatible accessory can invariably be a combination of hardware and software.
While a notification system for alerting users of wireless communication devices of emergencies using a personal area network compatible accessory has been described in connection with the various embodiments of the various figures, it is to be understood that other similar embodiments can be used or modifications and additions can be made to the described embodiment for performing the same function of the notification system for alerting users of wireless communication devices of emergencies using a personal area network compatible accessory without deviating therefrom. For example, one skilled in the art will recognize that the notification system for alerting users of wireless communication devices of emergencies using a personal area network compatible accessory as described in the present application may apply to any environment, whether wired or wireless, and may be applied to any number of such devices connected via a communications network and interacting across the network. Therefore, the notification system for alerting users of wireless communication devices of emergencies using a personal area network compatible accessory should not be limited to any single embodiment, but rather should be construed in breadth and scope in accordance with the appended claims.
While geo-target mapping as disclosed herein can be used determine the broadcasting capabilities of a cell site or telecommunications system, it is to be understood that other similar embodiments can be used or modifications and additions can be made to the described embodiment for performing the same functions described herein. For example, one skilled in the art will recognize that a system of geo-target mapping via another relational method can be used determine broadcasting capabilities, and may apply to any environment, whether wired or wireless, and may be applied to any number of devices connected via a communications network and interacting across the network.
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|U.S. Classification||455/404.2, 455/404.1|
|Cooperative Classification||H04W4/22, H04W4/06, H04W4/02, H04W76/007, G08B27/006|
|European Classification||G08B27/00P, H04W76/00E, H04W4/22|
|Nov 17, 2011||AS||Assignment|
Effective date: 20080513
Free format text: ASSIGNMENT OF ASSIGNORS INTEREST;ASSIGNORS:SENNETT, DEWAYNE ALLAN;DALY, BRIAN KEVIN;REEL/FRAME:027244/0080
Owner name: AT&T MOBILITY II LLC, GEORGIA