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Publication numberUS20100015230 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 12/484,599
Publication dateJan 21, 2010
Filing dateJun 15, 2009
Priority dateMay 15, 2007
Also published asEP2144624A1, US8198237, US20100144631, US20110319328, US20130143807, US20140200182, WO2008143867A1
Publication number12484599, 484599, US 2010/0015230 A1, US 2010/015230 A1, US 20100015230 A1, US 20100015230A1, US 2010015230 A1, US 2010015230A1, US-A1-20100015230, US-A1-2010015230, US2010/0015230A1, US2010/015230A1, US20100015230 A1, US20100015230A1, US2010015230 A1, US2010015230A1
InventorsNiles Ron
Original AssigneeNiles Ron
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Bone Morphogenetic Protein Compositions
US 20100015230 A1
Abstract
The present invention relates to compositions of bone morphogenetic proteins, particularly solid and liquid formulations of such proteins comprising one or more stabilizing excipients. The invention further provides methods of producing the compositions, kits comprising the compositions and methods of using the compositions in the treatment of diseases of skeletal and non-skeletal tissues.
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Claims(65)
1. A preparation of bone morphogenetic protein comprising: an aqueous carrier; and, bone morphogenetic protein solubilized in said carrier at a concentration of at least about 10 mg/ml.
2. The protein preparation of claim 1, further comprising a stabilizing excipient.
3. The protein preparation of claim 2, wherein the stabilizing excipient is selected from the group consisting of: sugars, polyols, surfactants, and any combination thereof.
4. The protein preparation of claim 3, wherein the stabilizing excipient is selected from the group consisting of glucose, sucrose, raffinose, trehalose, lactose, mannitol, sorbitol, Tween 80, Tween 20 and Pluronic F-68 and combinations thereof.
5. The protein preparation of claim 4, wherein the stabilizing excipient is trehalose.
6. The protein preparation of claim 5 having a pH of from about 2.5 to about 3.5.
7. The protein preparation of claim 5, wherein the aqueous carrier comprises a buffer of the single acidic group type selected from the group consisting of: potassium phosphate, proprionic acid, lactic acid, trifluoroacetic acid and acetic acid; or the two acidic group type selected from the group consisting of: sodium glutamate and sodium succinate.
8. The protein preparation of claim 5, wherein the protein is selected from the group consisting of BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, GDF-5, GDF-6 GDF-7, and sequence variants of any one of the foregoing.
9. The protein preparation of claim 8, wherein the protein is selected from the group consisting of GDF-5, GDF-6 and GDF-7.
10. The protein preparation of claim 8, wherein the protein is selected from the group consisting of BMP-7.
11. A method of treating a skeletal tissue disorder, injury or disease, the method comprising the step of: administering to a subject in need thereof the protein preparation of claim 5, wherein said protein preparation is in a dose effective to treat said skeletal tissue disorder, injury or disease.
12. The method of claim 11, wherein the skeletal tissue is mineralized or non-mineralized skeletal tissue.
13. The method of claim 12, wherein the protein preparation is in an amount effective to treat a skeletal tissue disorder, injury or disease selected from the group consisting of metabolic bone disease, osteoarthritis, osteochondral disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, bone fractures, Paget's disease, periodontitis, and dentinogenesis.
14. The method of claim 12, wherein the protein preparation is in an amount effective to treat a non-mineralized skeletal tissue disorder, injury or disease selected from the group consisting of osteoarthritis, osteochondral disease or defect, chondral disease or defect, rheumatoid arthritis, trauma-induced and inflammation-induced cartilage degeneration, age-related cartilage degeneration, articular cartilage injuries and diseases, full thickness cartilage defects, superficial cartilage defects, sequelae of systemic lupus erythematosis, sequelae of scleroderma, periodontal tissue regeneration, hierniation and rupture of intervertebral discs, degenerative diseases of the intervertebral disc, osteocondrosis, and injuries and diseases of ligament, tendon, synovial capsule, synovial membrane and meniscal tissues.
15. The method of claim 11, wherein the protein preparation is in an amount effective to ameliorate tissue injury selected from the group consisting of: trauma-induced and inflammation-induced cartilage degeneration, articular cartilage injuries, full thickness cartilage defects, superficial cartilage defects, hierniation and rupture of intervertebral discs, degeneration of intervertebral discs due to an injury(s), and injuries of ligament, tendon, synovial capsule, synovial membrane and meniscal tissues.
16. The method of claim 11, wherein the disease is degenerative disc disease.
17. The method of claim 16, wherein the effective dose is administered to the intradiscal space, the nucleus pulposus or the annulus fibrosus.
18. The method of claim 11, wherein the method further comprises the step of admixing said protein preparation with a suitable matrix material prior to administration.
19. The method of claim 11, wherein the protein is selected from the group consisting of: BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, GDF-5, GDF-6 GDF-7, and sequence variants of any one of the foregoing.
20. The method of claim 19, wherein the protein is BMP-7.
21. A kit comprising a lyophilized bone morphogenetic protein preparation and a reconstitution diluent, wherein the protein and the diluent are in separate containers, and wherein the amount of diluent is sufficient only for preparation of solubilized protein at a concentration of at least about 10 mg/ml.
22. The kit of claim 21, further comprising a matrix.
23. The kit of claim 21, further comprising an implantable device suitable for coating with the solubilized protein.
24. The kit of claim 21, wherein the lyophilized bone morphogenetic protein preparation comprises a stabilizing excipient.
25. The kit of claim 24, wherein the stabilizing excipient is trehalose.
26. A composition comprising at least one BMP and an amount of trehalose sufficient to stabilize said BMP.
27. The composition of claim 26, wherein said BMP is rhGDF-5.
28. The composition of claim 26, further comprising at least one excipient selected from the group consisting of glycine, polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, and mixtures thereof.
29. The composition of claim 28, having a pH of about 2.5 to about 3.5.
30. A method of stabilizing a BMP comprising the steps of: a.) providing a composition containing at least one BMP and an amount of trehalose sufficient to stabilize said BMP, and b.) lyophilizing the composition.
31. The method of claim 30, wherein said BMP is rhGDF-5.
32. The method of claim 30, further comprising the step of adding at least one excipient selected from the group consisting of glycine, polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, and mixtures thereof, prior to lyophilizing the composition.
33. The method of claim 32, wherein said excipient has a pH of about 2.5 to about 3.5.
34. The method of claim 32, wherein said BMP is rhGDF-5.
35. A device for implanting in a mammal, said device comprising a biocompatible matrix, at least one BMP, and an amount of trehalose sufficient to stabilize said BMP.
36. The device of claim 35, wherein said BMP is rhGDF-5.
37. The device of claim 35, further comprising at least one excipient selected from the group consisting of glycine, polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, and mixtures thereof.
38. The device of claim 37, wherein said excipient has a pH of about 2.5 to about 3.5.
39. The device of claim 35, wherein said biocompatible matrix is selected from the group consisting of collagen, mineralized collagen, salts of calcium phosphate, ceramics containing calcium, autogenic bone, allogenic bone, xenogenic bone, polylactide (PLA), polyglycolide (PGA), PLA-PGA co-polymers, polycarbonate, polycaprolactone, and mixtures thereof.
40. The device of claim 39, wherein said BMP is rhGDF-5.
41. The device of claim 39, further comprising at least one excipient selected from the group consisting of glycine, polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, and mixtures thereof.
42. The device of claim 41, wherein said excipient has a pH of about 2.5 to about 3.5.
43. A surgical kit comprising a biocompatible matrix and a lyophilized BMP composition, wherein said lyophilized BMP composition comprises at least one BMP and an amount of trehalose sufficient to stabilize said BMP.
44. The surgical kit of claim 43, wherein said at least one BMP is rhGDF-5.
45. The surgical kit of claim 43, wherein said biocompatible matrix is sterile.
46. The surgical kit of claim 43, further comprising a container having sterile water.
47. The surgical kit of claim 43, wherein said lyophilized BMP composition further comprises at least one excipient selected from the group consisting of glycine, polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, and mixtures thereof.
48. The surgical kit of claim 47, wherein said at least one BMP is rhGDF-5.
49. The surgical kit of claim 47, wherein said excipient has a pH of about 2.5 to about 3.5.
50. A method of treating a patient having a defect comprising the steps of: a) providing a biocompatible matrix having at least one BMP and an amount of trehalose sufficient to stabilize said BMP, and b) implanting said biocompatible matrix into said defect.
51. The method of claim 50, wherein said BMP is rhGDF-5.
52. The method of claim 50, wherein said BMP further comprises at least one excipient selected from the group consisting of glycine, polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, and mixtures thereof.
53. The method of claim 51, wherein said excipient has a pH of about 2.5 to about 3.5.
54. The method of claim 50, wherein said biocompatible matrix is selected from the group consisting of collagen, mineralized collagen, salts of calcium phosphate, ceramics containing calcium, autogenic bone, allogenic bone, xenogenic bone, polylactide (PLA), polyglycolide (PGA), PLA-PGA co-polymers, polycarbonate, polycaprolactone, and mixtures thereof.
55. The method of claim 54, wherein said BMP is rhGDF-5.
56. The method of claim 50, further comprising the step of adding bone marrow aspirate to said biocompatible matrix.
57. The method of claim 50, wherein said defect is selected from the group consisting of a bone defect, a cartilage defect, a tendon defect, a ligament defect, and an intervertebral disc defect.
58. A method of treating a patient having a defect comprising the steps of: a) providing a biocompatible matrix, b) providing a BMP having an amount of trehalose sufficient to stabilize said BMP, c) lyophilizing said BMP, d) providing an amount of sterile water sufficient to reconstitute said lyophilized BMP, e) adding said water to said lyophilized BMP to reconstitute said BMP into solution, f) applying said reconstituted BMP solution to said biocompatible matrix, and g) implanting said biocompatible matrix into said patient.
59. The method of claim 57, wherein said BMP is rhGDF-5.
60. The method of claim 57, further comprising the step of adding bone marrow aspirate to said biocompatible matrix.
61. The method of claim 57, further comprising the step of adding at least one excipient selected from the group consisting of glycine, polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, and mixtures thereof, to said BMP prior to lyophilizing said BMP.
62. The method of claim 60, wherein said excipient has a pH of about 2.5 to about 3.5.
63. The method of claim 60, wherein said BMP is rhGDF-5.
64. The method of claim 57, wherein said biocompatible matrix is selected from the group consisting of collagen, mineralized collagen, salts of calcium phosphate, ceramics containing calcium, autogenic bone, allogenic bone, xenogenic bone, polylactide (PLA), polyglycolide (PGA), PLA-PGA co-polymers, polycarbonate, polycaprolactone, and mixtures thereof.
65. The method of claim 57, wherein said defect is selected from the group consisting of a bone defect, a cartilage defect, a tendon defect, a ligament defect, and an intervertebral disc defect.
Description
RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application is a continuation-in-part of International Application No. PCT/US2008/006144, which designated the United States and was filed on May 14, 2008, published in English, which claims the benefit of U.S. Provisional Application No. 60/930,219, filed on May 15, 2007. The entire teachings of the above applications are incorporated herein by reference.

FIELD OF THE INVENTION

The invention relates to preparations of bone morphogenetic proteins having enhanced stability and, in certain embodiments, highly concentrated aqueous solutions of such proteins.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

Protein-based therapeutics have proven highly effective for a variety of disorders, injuries and diseases. Apart from the performance challenges associated with protein-based therapeutics, numerous other types of challenges arise during the development of such therapeutics, including protein processing considerations such as ease and cost of manufacturing, stability and shelf-life, as well as modes of administration, dosages and form of effective dosage, to name but a few.

Certain therapeutically significant proteins are particularly difficult to formulate because of their inherent insolubility under physiological conditions, such as but not limited to physiological pH. This insolubility is exacerbated when highly concentrated aqueous solutions are desirable. One class of proteins which is inherently insoluble under physiological conditions is the TGF-beta superfamily of cysteine knot proteins. A similarly behaving subfamily includes the Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), or example, BMP-2, BMP-7 (also known as OP-I), GDF-5 (also known as CDMP-1 and MP-52), GDF-6 (also known as BMP-13 and CDMP-2).

It is an object of the present invention to provide highly concentrated aqueous protein preparations of such proteins, including but not limited to, BMPs. It is a further object to provide methods of treatment of skeletal and non-skeletal disorders, injuries and diseases using such preparations.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is based on the discovery that formulations of bone morphogenetic proteins having enhanced stability can be prepared using a suitable combination of excipients, such as bulking agents, and acidic buffers. In one embodiment, the invention provides buffered aqueous solutions comprising a bone morphogenetic protein at a concentration of at least about 0.1 mg/mL and one or more stabilizing excipients. In another embodiment, the invention provides heretofore undescribed aqueous preparations of proteins which are highly concentrated, i.e., at least about two- to about five-fold, preferably about three-fold, more concentrated than those known in the art, can be readily accomplished using the methods and reagents disclosed herein. Briefly, aqueous protein solutions of at least about 4 mg/mL, can be accomplished using a specified combination of ionic strength, pH and buffering systems; and, this solubility matrix of specific solubilization conditions results in highly efficient manufacture of such protein preparations with a high rate of recovery. Of particular significance, the present invention's highly concentrated protein preparations permit the clinician to administer locally or systemically effective doses of proteins in minimal administration volumes, thereby allowing administration to physiologically-constrained sites such as intrajoint or intra-intervertebral disc sites.

In one aspect, the invention is a stable aqueous preparation of a Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP). In a preferred embodiment, the protein preparation comprises an aqueous carrier and a bone morphogenetic protein solubilized in said carrier at a concentration of at least about 0.1 mg/mL. In preferred embodiments, the protein concentration is at least about 10 mg/mL. Certain preferred embodiments have a protein concentration greater than about 20 mg/mL; greater than about 25 mg/mL; greater than about 30 mg/mL; and, greater than about 40 mg/mL. In certain embodiments, the protein concentration is in the range of about 10 to 60 mg/mL.

In one preferred protein preparation, the aqueous carrier has an ionic strength of at least about 10 mM. In another, the aqueous carrier has an ionic strength of no more than about 100 mM. In yet another, the aqueous carrier has an ionic strength of no more than about 10 mM; no more than about 20 mM; or no more than about 50 mM.

Certain preferred embodiments of the protein preparation of the present invention comprise an aqueous carrier having a pH of at least about 2. Others have a pH of no more than about 5. More preferred embodiments have a pH of about 2.8 to 3.4 or about 3. In certain embodiments, the pH is in the range from about 2 to about 5.

In accordance with the present invention, a preferred protein preparation has a protein concentration of about 20-60 mg/mL; an ionic strength of about 0-50 mM; and a pH of about 2.5-4. A more preferred preparation comprises the protein described herein as BMP-7 in a concentration of more than 20 mg/mL; an ionic strength of about 10 mM; and a pH of about 3.5.

Regarding each of the foregoing embodiments, the protein preparation is solubilized at a temperature of about 25° C. The protein preparations of the present invention are preferably homogeneous solutions, i.e., preferably the solutions contain no protein precipitate.

In yet other embodiments, the protein preparations further comprise a stabilizing excipient, such as, but not limited to, excipients selected from the group consisting of: sugars, polyols, surfactants, and any combination thereof. In certain other embodiments, the protein preparations comprise an aqueous carrier which is a buffer of the single acidic group type, for example, a buffer selected from the group consisting of: potassium phosphate, propionic acid, glycine, lactic acid, trifluoroacetic acid, acetic acid and salts of any of the foregoing; or the two acidic group type selected from the group consisting of: sodium glutamate and sodium succinate. As contemplated herein, the preparations of the present invention can be lyophilized or can be a reconstituted lyophilizate.

The protein preparations comprise at least one member of the BMP subfamily of the TGF-beta superfamily of proteins. Particularly preferred BMPS include one or more of BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, GDF-5, GDF-6, and GDF-7, further including sequence variants of any one of the foregoing. Variants contemplated herein include but are not limited to a protein having at least about 50% amino acid sequence identity with a member of the BMP subfamily within the conserved C-terminal cysteine-rich domain. More particularly preferred BMPs are BMP-2, GDF-5, GDF-6 and GDF-7. Most particularly preferred is BMP-7.

In another aspect, the present invention provides methods of treating disorders, injuries and diseases of skeletal and non-skeletal tissues. For example, one preferred method of treating a skeletal tissue disorder, injury or disease comprises the step of administering to a subject in need thereof any one of the aforementioned protein preparations, wherein said protein preparation is in a dose effective to treat said skeletal tissue disorder, injury or disease. In certain preferred methods, the skeletal tissue is mineralized; in others it is non-mineralized skeletal tissue.

Preferred embodiments can effectively treat a skeletal tissue disorder, injury or disease selected from the group consisting of metabolic bone disease, osteoarthritis, osteochondral disease, rheumatoid arthritis, osteoporosis, bone fractures, Paget's disease, periodontitis, and dentinogenesis. Other preferred embodiments can effectively treat a non-mineralized skeletal tissue disorder, injury or disease selected from the group consisting of osteoarthritis, osteochondral disease or defect, chondral disease or defect, rheumatoid arthritis, trauma-induced and inflammation-induced cartilage degeneration, age-related cartilage degeneration, articular cartilage injuries and diseases, full thickness cartilage defects, superficial cartilage defects, sequelae of systemic lupus erythematosis, sequelae of scleroderma, periodontal tissue regeneration, hierniation and rupture of intervertebral discs, degenerative diseases of the intervertebral disc (for example, degenerative disc disease), osteochondrosis, and injuries and diseases of ligament, tendon, synovial capsule, synovial membrane and meniscal tissues.

Certain other preferred embodiments can effectively treat tissue injury selected from the group consisting of: trauma-induced and inflammation-induced cartilage degeneration, articular cartilage injuries, full thickness cartilage defects, superficial cartilage defects, hierniation and rupture of intervertebral discs, degeneration of intervertebral discs due to an injury(s), and injuries of ligament, tendon, synovial capsule, synovial membrane and meniscal tissues.

In another embodiment, the invention provides a method of treating a non-skeletal tissue, comprising the step of administering to a subject in need thereof one or more of the foregoing protein preparations, wherein said protein preparation is in a dose effective to treat said non-skeletal tissue disorder, injury or disease. Such a method is effective to treat a disorder, injury or disease of a non-skeletal tissue selected from the group consisting of: liver disease, liver resection, hepatectomy, renal disease, chronic renal failure, central nervous system ischemia or trauma, neuropathy, motor neuron injury, dendritic cell deficiencies and abnormalities, Parkinson's disease, ophthalmic disease, ocular scarring, retinal scarring, ulcerative diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, fibrosis, fibrotic disorders, scleroderma, and pulmonary fibrosis.

A most preferred disease for treatment in accordance with the present invention is osteoarthritis. In osteoarthritis and other disorders, injuries or diseases of joint tissues, an effective dose of a protein preparation can be administered to the synovial space such as but not limited to that of a knee, hip or articulating joint. In one preferred embodiment, the protein preparation is administered via direct injection into the synovial space.

Another most preferred disease for treatment in accordance with the present invention is degenerative disc disease, also referred to herein as IVD disease. In the case of this disease, an effective dose can be administered to the intradiscal space, for example, via direct injection into the nucleus pulposus or annulus fibrosus.

Generally, the methods of the present invention involve an administering step wherein the administration can be local or systemic. In a preferred method, an effective dose of protein is about 0.1 mg to 30 mg in about 100 microliters to 3 mL. A more preferred method uses a preparation of protein selected from the group consisting of: BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, GDF-5, GDF-6 GDF-7, and sequence variants of any one of the foregoing. A most preferred method uses a preparation of BMP-7.

In other embodiments, the present methods can be performed pre- or post-surgery. In certain other embodiments, the administering step can be performed more than once.

In other embodiments of the present invention, the above-described methods further comprise a step of admixing said protein preparation with a suitable matrix material prior to administration. In yet other embodiments, the above-described methods further comprise a step of coating an implantable medical device with one or more of the previously described protein preparations.

In yet another aspect, the present invention contemplates a kit comprising a lyophilized bone morphogenetic protein and a reconstitution diluent, wherein the protein and the diluent are in separate containers, and wherein the amounts of diluent and protein are sufficient only for preparation of solubilized protein at a concentration of at least about 10 mg/mL. In certain embodiments, the kit further comprises a matrix. In others, the kit further comprises an implantable device suitable for coating with the protein. In a further aspect, the invention provides a kit for the treatment of a disorder, injury or disease (such as, but not limited to, those disorders, injuries and/or diseases described elsewhere herein) which comprises a lyophilized protein, preferably a bone morphogenetic protein, and a reconstitution diluent. In a preferred embodiment, the protein and the diluent are in separate containers and further the kit comprises a plurality of separate containers each containing an amount of diluent, such that the amounts of diluent in a kit are sufficient to prepare solubilized protein preparations ranging in concentration from at least about 2 mg/mL to about 60 mg/mL for use in the treatment of a disorder, injury or disease. In a further embodiment, the concentration and volume of solubilized protein preparations are customized for treatment of the particular target disorder, injury or disease.

In another aspect, the present invention provides a method for manufacturing a concentrated form of lyophilized recombinant bone morphogenetic protein comprising the steps of: (1) providing a processing solution of recombinant bone morphogenetic protein, the weight per volume of protein in said processing solution being less than the weight per volume specified for lyophilization; (2) adjusting the weight per volume of protein in said processing solution to produce a lyophilization solution, the weight per volume of protein in said lyophilization solution being greater than that of the processing solution; (3) filling a vial suitable for lyophilization with a specified volume of said lyophilization solution; and (4) lyophilizing said lyophilization solution to manufacture a concentrated form of lyophilized recombinant bone morphogenetic protein. In a related embodiment, the method further comprises the step of reconstituting said lyophilized recombinant bone morphogenetic protein in a reconstitution diluent wherein the volume of diluent is the same as the volume in step 3 identified above. In another related embodiment, the method further comprises the step of reconstituting said lyophilized recombinant bone morphogenetic protein in a reconstitution diluent wherein the volume of diluent is less than the volume in step 3 identified above. In certain preferred embodiments of the kit, the concentrated form is achieved post-processing and contains solubilized bone morphogenetic protein in a concentration of at least 10 mg/mL. In a most preferred embodiment, a kit comprises a concentrated form of recombinant bone morphogenetic protein prepared according to the method set forth immediately above.

In yet another aspect, the present invention provides a method for preparing a concentrated form of bone morphogenetic protein comprising the steps of:

(1) providing a processing solution of bone morphogenetic protein, the weight per volume of protein in said processing solution being the same as the weight per volume specified for lyophilization;

(2) filling a vial suitable for lyophilization with a specified volume of said processing solution thereby producing a lyophilization solution;

(3) lyophilizing said lyophilization solution to produce a lyophilized solid; and

(4) packaging the lyophilized solid together with a specified volume of reconstitution diluent, the volume of said diluent being less than the specified fill volume of step 3.

In one preferred embodiment of this method, the method further comprises the step of adjusting the weight per volume of protein in the processing solution to produce an adjusted lyophilization solution, the weight per volume of protein in said adjusted lyophilization solution being greater than that of the processing solution.

In yet another aspect, the present invention provides a method for preparing a concentrated form of protein in lyophilized or other reconstitutible non-liquid form comprising the steps of:

(1) providing a processing solution of protein, the weight per volume of protein in said processing solution being the same as the weight per volume specified for lyophilization or other reconstitutible non-liquid form;

(2) providing a vial suitable for lyophilization (or other form) for containing a specified volume of said processing solution thereby producing a lyophilization (or other form) solution; wherein the weight per volume of protein in each of the processing and lyophilization (or other form) solution is at least 2 mg/mL.

In a preferred embodiment, this method can further comprise the step of providing a lyophilized form of the lyophilization solution or a reconstitutible form of the other non-liquid form. In another preferred embodiment, the method can further comprise the step of providing a specified volume of diluent for rehydrating the lyophilized form or reconstituting the other reconstitutible non-liquid form, the volume of said diluent being sufficient to permit preparation of an aqueous protein preparation having at least 2 mg/mL; or further comprising the step of providing instructions for rehydrating the lyophilized form or reconstituting the other reconstitutible non-liquid form so as to product an aqueous protein preparation having a concentration of at least 0.1 mg/mL, preferably at least 1 mg/mL or 2 mg/mL.

In one embodiment, the invention relates a composition comprising at least one BMP and an amount of trehalose sufficient to stabilize said BMP. The BMP can be, for example, rhGDF-5. The composition can further comprise at least one excipient selected from the group consisting of glycine, polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, and mixtures thereof. The composition can have a pH of about 2.5 to about 3.5.

In one embodiment, the invention relates to a method of stabilizing a BMP comprising the steps of: a.) providing a composition containing at least one BMP and an amount of trehalose sufficient to stabilize said BMP, and b.) lyophilizing the composition. The BMP can be, for example, rhGDF-5. The composition can further comprise at least one excipient selected from the group consisting of glycine, polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, and mixtures thereof. The exipient can have a pH of about 2.5 to about 3.5.

In one embodiment, the invention relates to a device for implanting in a mammal, said device comprising a biocompatible matrix, at least one BMP, and an amount of trehalose sufficient to stabilize said BMP. The BMP can be, for example, rhGDF-5. The composition can further comprise at least one excipient selected from the group consisting of glycine, polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, and mixtures thereof. The exipient can have a pH of about 2.5 to about 3.5. The biocompatible matrix can be selected from the group consisting of collagen, mineralized collagen, salts of calcium phosphate, ceramics containing calcium, autogenic bone, allogenic bone, xenogenic bone, polylactide (PLA), polyglycolide (PGA), PLA-PGA co-polymers, polycarbonate, polycaprolactone, and mixtures thereof.

In one embodiment, the invention relates to a surgical kit comprising a biocompatible matrix and a lyophilized BMP composition, wherein said lyophilized BMP composition comprises at least one BMP and an amount of trehalose sufficient to stabilize said BMP. The BMP can be, for example, rhGDF-5. The composition can further comprise at least one excipient selected from the group consisting of glycine, polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, and mixtures thereof. The exipient can have a pH of about 2.5 to about 3.5. The biocompatible matrix can be sterile. The kit can further include a container of sterile water.

In one embodiment, the invention relates to a method of treating a patient having a defect comprising the steps of: a.) providing a biocompatible matrix having at least one BMP and an amount of trehalose sufficient to stabilize said BMP, and b.) implanting said biocompatible matrix into said defect. The BMP can be, for example, rhGDF-5. The composition can further comprise at least one excipient selected from the group consisting of glycine, polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, and mixtures thereof. The exipient can have a pH of about 2.5 to about 3.5. The biocompatible matrix can be selected from the group consisting of collagen, mineralized collagen, salts of calcium phosphate, ceramics containing calcium, autogenic bone, allogenic bone, xenogenic bone, polylactide (PLA), polyglycolide (PGA), PLA-PGA co-polymers, polycarbonate, polycaprolactone, and mixtures thereof. The method can further comprise the step of adding bone marrow aspirate to said biocompatible matrix. The defect is selected from the group consisting of a bone defect, a cartilage defect, a tendon defect, a ligament defect, and an intervertebral disc defect.

In one embodiment, the invention relates to a method of treating a patient having a defect comprising the steps of: a) providing a biocompatible matrix, b) providing a BMP having an amount of trehalose sufficient to stabilize said BMP, c) lyophilizing said BMP, d) providing an amount of sterile water sufficient to reconstitute said lyophilized BMP, e) adding said water to said lyophilized BMP to reconstitute said BMP into solution, f) applying said reconstituted BMP solution to said biocompatible matrix, and g) implanting said biocompatible matrix into said patient. The method can further comprise the step of adding bone marrow aspirate to said biocompatible matrix. The method can further comprise the step of adding at least one excipient selected from the group consisting of glycine, polysorbate 80, polysorbate 20, and mixtures thereof, to said BMP prior to lyophilizing said BMP. The excipient can have a pH of about 2.5 to about 3.5.

The BMP can be, for example, rhGDF-5. The biocompatible matrix can be selected from the group consisting of collagen, mineralized collagen, salts of calcium phosphate, ceramics containing calcium, autogenic bone, allogenic bone, xenogenic bone, polylactide (PLA), polyglycolide (PGA), PLA-PGA co-polymers, polycarbonate, polycaprolactone, and mixtures thereof. The method can further comprise the step of adding bone marrow aspirate to said biocompatible matrix. The defect is selected from the group consisting of a bone defect, a cartilage defect, a tendon defect, a ligament defect, and an intervertebral disc defect.

The present invention contemplates that a protein preparation prepared in accordance with any one of the methods described herein can be used to treat a disorder, injury or disease such as but not limited to those disorders, injuries and/or diseases described elsewhere herein.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE FIGURES

FIG. 1 is a graph showing the results of protein concentration determination following storage of BMP-7 lyophilized with trehalose and various buffers at 40° C. at various time intervals.

FIG. 2 is a graph showing the results of protein oxidation determination following storage of BMP-7 lyophilized with trehalose and various buffers at 40° C. at various time intervals.

FIG. 3 is a graph showing the results of protein aggregation determination by SDS-PAGE following storage of BMP-7 lyophilized with trehalose and various buffers at 40° C. at various time intervals.

FIG. 4 is a graph showing the results of protein aggregation determination by size-exclusion chromatography following storage of BMP-7 lyophilized with trehalose and various buffers at 40° C. at various time intervals.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is based on the discovery that heretofore undescribed aqueous preparations of proteins which are highly concentrated, i.e., at least about two- to about five-fold, preferably about three-fold, more concentrated than those known in the art, can be readily accomplished using the methods and materials disclosed herein. Briefly, aqueous protein solutions of at least about 4 mg/mL, can be accomplished using a specified combination of ionic strength, pH and buffering systems; and, this solubility matrix of specific solubilization conditions results in highly efficient manufacture of such protein preparations with a high rate of recovery. Of particular significance, the present invention's highly concentrated protein preparations permit the clinician to administer locally or systemically effective doses of proteins in minimal administration volumes, thereby allowing administration to physiologically-constrained sites such as intrajoint or intra-intervertebral disc sites.

Protein Preparation Considerations

In certain preferred embodiments of the present invention, protein concentrations range from about 0.01 mg/mL to about 60 mg/mL. In certain embodiments, the protein concentration is from about 0.1 mg/mL to about 10 mg/mL, about 0.5 mg/mL to about 5 mg/mL, about 1 mg/mL to about 4 mg/mL or about 1 mg/mL to about 2 mg/mL. The protein concentration can also be greater than 5 mg/mL, such as from about 5 mg/mL to about 10 mg/mL, or about 5 mg/mL to about 8 mg/mL. The protein concentration can also be greater than about 10 mg/mL, for example, from about 10 mg/mL to about 60 mg/mL. In certain other preferred embodiments, the protein concentration is at least about 4 mg/mL but not more than about 100 mg/mL. A particularly preferred range is about 20 to about 40 mg/mL. A more preferred range is about 10 to about 30 mg/mL. A most preferred range is about 5 to about 30 mg/mL. In a currently most preferred embodiment, the concentration is at least about 10 mg/mL. A most preferred concentration is about 15 mg/mL. In an even more currently preferred embodiment, the concentration is about 20 mg/mL. In another, it is greater than about 20 mg/mL. In yet another, it is greater than about 25 mg/mL. In the case of BMP-7, a most preferred concentration range is about 10 to about 40 mg/mL and a most preferred concentration is about 20 mg/mL. Preferably, no protein precipitate is observed in any of the foregoing protein preparations of the present invention when held at room temperature (about 25° C.). And, the foregoing protein preparations are stable in solubilized forms as well as lyophilized forms when prepared and formulated in accordance with the teachings set forth herein.

In certain preferred embodiments of the above-described protein preparations, ionic strength ranges from at least about 10 mM to no more than about 100 mM. In certain other preferred embodiments, ionic strength is at least about 20 mM but not more than about 50 mM. A particularly preferred range is about 25 mM to about 40 mM. A more preferred range is about 10 mM to about 20 mM. A most preferred range is about 0 to about 20 mM. In a currently most preferred embodiment, the ionic strength is about 10 mM. In an even more currently preferred embodiment, the ionic strength is about 5 mM. A most preferred ionic strength is about 0 mM. In the case of BMP-7, a most preferred range is about 0 to about 50 mM and a most preferred ionic strength is about 10 mM. Preferably, no precipitate is observed in any of the foregoing protein preparations when held at room temperature (about 25° C.).

In one preferred protein preparation, the aqueous carrier has an ionic strength of at least about 10 mM. In another, the aqueous carrier has an ionic strength of in the range of 0 to about 100 mM. In yet another, the aqueous carrier has an ionic strength from 0 to about 10 mM; from 0 to about 20 mM; and, from 0 to about 50 mM.

In certain preferred embodiments of the above-described protein preparations, preferred pH ranges are from at least about 2 to no more than about 5. In certain other preferred embodiments, pH is at least about 2 but not more than about 4. A particularly preferred range is about 3 to about 4. A more preferred range is about 2.5 to about 3.5. A most preferred range is about 2.5 to about 4. In a currently most preferred embodiment, the pH is about 2.5. In an even more currently preferred embodiment, the pH is from about 3 to about 3.2. A most preferred pH is about 3.5. In the case of BMP-7, a most preferred pH range is about 2.4 to about 4 and a most preferred pH is about 3.5. No precipitate is observed in any of the foregoing protein preparations when held at temperatures ranging from about 4° C. to about 25° C.

The protein preparations of the present invention can be formulated using acidic buffers. Specifically, single acidic buffers as well as double acidic buffers can be used successfully. The buffer can be of the single acidic group type, such as potassium hydrogen phosphate, propionic acid, lactic acid, trifluoroacetic acid, glycine, or acetic acid or salts of any of the foregoing; or of the two acidic group type, such as glutamic acid or a salt thereof, such as sodium glutamate or succinic acid or a salt thereof, such as sodium succinate. More preferred acids include lactic acid, TFA, potassium phosphate. Lactic acid is most preferred. Other acids known in the art can also be used, including, but not limited to citric acid, ascorbic acid, sodium phosphate and sodium hydrogen phosphate.

Certain embodiments of the protein preparations of the present invention further comprise a stabilizing excipient selected from the group consisting of sugars, polyols and surfactants. Glucose, sucrose, raffinose, trehalose, lactose are among the preferred sugars. Lactose is preferred. Trehalose is most preferred. Mannitol and sorbitol are among the preferred polyols. Mannitol is most preferred. Preferable concentrations of sugars or polyols range from about 0% to 10% (w/v); most preferably the concentration of the sugar or polyol is 2.5% to 10%. In one embodiment, the stabilizing excipient is trehalose present at a concentration of from about 4% to about 10%, preferably about 9% (w/v). Tween 80, Tween 20, and Pluronic F-68 are among the preferred non-ionic surfactants useful as stabilizing excipients. Tween 80 and Tween 20 are most preferred. Concentrations of these surfactants range from about 0.01% to about 0.1%. Generally, the range of non-ionic surfactant concentrations useful herein is about 0.005% to about 10%. Combinations of any one or more of the foregoing stabilizing excipients are contemplated herein.

The invention further provides solid preparations comprising a bone morphogenetic protein. Such preparations can be prepared, for example, by lyophilizing an aqueous solution of the invention. Suitable solid preparations comprise a BMP, a buffer and a stabilizing excipient. In one embodiment, the solid preparation of the invention comprises a BMP, trehalose and a buffer, such as glycine, lactate or acetate. The ratio of trehalose to BMP can be, for example, from about 100:0.01 to about 4:6. Preferably, the ratio of trehalose to BMP is about 90:0.1 to 90:40.

Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs)

As stated above, the preparations of the present invention comprise one or more bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). BMPs belong to the TGF-β superfamily. The TGF-β superfamily proteins are cytokines characterized by six-conserved cysteine residues. The human genome contains about 42 open reading frames encoding TGF-β superfamily proteins. The TGF-β subfamily includes, but is not limited to, TGFs (e.g., TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3), activins (e.g., activin A) and inhibins, macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-I), Mullerian inhibiting substance, anti-Mullerian hormone, and filial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). Structurally, such proteins are homo or heterodimers expressed as large precursor polypeptide chains containing a hydrophobic signal sequence, an N-terminal pro region of several hundred amino acids, and a mature domain comprising a variable N-terminal region and a highly conserved C-terminal region containing approximately 100 amino acids with a characteristic cysteine motif having a conserved six or seven cysteine skeleton. These structurally-related proteins have been identified as being involved in a variety of developmental events. As used herein, “TGF-β subfamily,” “TGF-βs,” “TGF-β ligands” and grammatical equivalents thereof refer to the TGF-β subfamily members, unless specifically indicated otherwise.

The BMP subfamily includes, but is not limited to, BMP-2, BMP-3 (osteogenin), BMP-3b (GDF-10), BMP-4 (BMP-2b), BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7 (OP-I, osteogenic protein-1), BMP-8 (OP-2), BMP-8B (OP-3), BMP-9 (GDF-2), BMP-IO, BMP-I1 (GDF-I1), BMP-12 (GDF-7), BMP-13 (GDF-6, CDMP-2), BMP-15 (GDF-9), BMP-16, GDF-I, GDF-3, GDF-5 (CDMP-I, MP-52), and GDF-8 (myostatin). For purposes of the present invention, preferred superfamily proteins include BMP-2, -4, -5, -6 and -7 and GDF-5, -6, and -7, as well as MP-52. Particularly preferred proteins include BMP-2, BMP-7 and GDF-5, -6, and -7. A most preferred exemplary BMP is BMP-7. Preferred BMPs can have a six- or seven-cysteine conserved region in their C-terminal region. BMPs are also present in other animal species. Furthermore, there is allelic variation in BMP sequences among different members of the human population, and there is species variation among BMPs discovered and characterized to date. As used herein, “BMP subfamily,” “BMPs,” “BMP ligands” and grammatical equivalents thereof refer to the BMP subfamily members, unless specifically indicated otherwise.

Publications describing certain of these preferred proteins, as well as their chemical and physical properties, include: BMP-7 and OP-2 (U.S. Pat. No. 5,011,691; U.S. Pat. No. 5,266,683; Ozkaynak et al., EMBO J., 9, pp. 2085-2093 (1990); OP-3 (WO94/10203 (PCT US93/10520)), BMP-2, BMP-4, (WO88/00205; Wozney et al. Science, 242, pp. 1528-1534 (1988)), BMP-5 and BMP-6, (Celeste et al., PNAS, 87, 9843-9847 (1991)), Vgr-1 (Lyons et al., PNAS, 86, pp. 4554-4558 (1989)); DPP (Padgett et al. Nature, 325, pp. 81-84 (1987)); Vg-I (Weeks, Cell, 51, pp. 861-867 (1987)); BMP-9 (WO95/33830 (PCT/US95/07084); BMP-10 (WO94/26893 (PCT/US94/05290); BMP-I1 (WO94/26892 (PCT/US94/05288); BMP-12 (WO95/16035 (PCT/US94/14030); BMP-13 (WO95/16035 (PCT/US94/14030); GDF-I (WO92/00382 (PCT/US91/04096) and Lee et al. PNAS, 88, pp. 4250-4254 (1991); GDF-8 (WO94/21681 (PCT/US94/03019); GDF-9 (WO94/15966 (PCT/US94/00685); GDF-10 (WO95/10539 (PCT/US94/11440); GDF-I1 (WO96/01845 (PCT/US95/08543); BMP-15 (WO96/36710 (PCT/US96/06540); MP-121 (WO96/01316 (PCT/EP95/02552); GDF-5 (CDMP-I, MP52) (WO94/15949 (PCT/US94/00657) and WO96/14335 (PCT/US94/12814) and WO93/16099 (PCT/EP93/00350)); GDF-6 (CDMP-2, BMP13) (WO95/01801 (PCT/US94/07762) and WO96/14335 and WO95/10635 (PCT/US94/14030)); GDF-7 (CDMP-3, BMP12) (WO95/10802 (PCT/US94/07799) and WO95/10635 (PCT/US94/14030)). The above publications are incorporated herein by reference.

Structurally, BMPs are dimeric cysteine knot proteins. Each BMP monomer comprises multiple intramolecular disulfide bonds. An additional intermolecular disulfide bond mediates dimerization in most BMPs. BMPs may form homodimers. Some BMPs may form heterodimers. BMPs are expressed as pro-proteins comprising a long pro-domain, one or more cleavage sites, and a mature domain. The pro-domain is believed to aid in the correct folding and processing of BMPs. Furthermore, in some but not all BMPs, the pro-domain may noncovalently bind the mature domain and may act as an inhibitor (e.g., Thies et al. (2001) Growth Factors 18:251-259).

BMPs are naturally expressed as pro-proteins comprising a long pro-domain, one or more cleavage sites, and a mature domain. This pro-protein is then processed by the cellular machinery to yield a dimeric mature BMP molecule. The pro-domain is believed to aid in the correct folding and processing of BMPs. Furthermore, in some but not all BMPs, the pro-domain may noncovalently bind the mature domain and may act as a chaperone, as well as an inhibitor (e.g., Thies et. Al. (2001) Growth Factors, 18:251-259).

As further contemplated herein, the term “BMP” refers to a protein belonging to the BMP subfamily of the TGF-β superfamily of proteins defined on the basis of DNA homology and amino acid sequence identity. According to this invention, a protein belongs to the BMP subfamily when it has at least 50% amino acid sequence identity with a known BMP subfamily member within the conserved C-terminal cysteine-rich domain that characterizes the BMP subfamily. Members of the BMP subfamily can have less than 50% DNA or amino acid sequence identity overall. As used herein, the term “BMF” also embraces proteins which are amino acid sequence variants, domain-swapped variants, and/o truncations and active fragments of naturally occurring bone morphogenetic proteins, as well as heterodimeric proteins formed from two different monomeric BMP peptides, such as BMP-2/7; BMP-4/7: BMP-2/6; BMP-2/5; BMP-4/7; BMP-4/5; and BMP-4/6 heterodimers. Suitable BMP variants and heterodimers include those set forth in US 2006/0235204; WO 05/097825; WO 00/020607; WO 00/020591; WO 00/020449; WO 05/113585; WO 95/016034 and WO93/009229.

As contemplated herein, useful BMPs include those containing sequences, which are homologues or variants, that share at least 50%, preferably at least 60%, more preferably at least 70% and most preferably at least 85%, amino acid sequence identity with the C-terminal cysteine domain of BMP-2, BMP4, BMP-5, BMP-6, BMP-7, GDF-5, GDF-6, or GDF-7. As contemplated herein, preferred BMPs include biologically active variants of any such BMPs, including variants containing conservative amino acid substitutions. All that is required by the present invention is that these variants retain biological activity comparable to the native form. As used herein, the term “BMP related protein” or “BMP related proteins” means any one or all of the foregoing proteins. The BMPs of use herein can be proteins isolated from natural sources, such a mammalian bone, or produced and isolated from recombinant cells, such as prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells.

Proteins useful herein also include any known naturally occurring native proteins exhibiting one or more of the above-identified preferable features, including allelic, phylogenetic counterparts and other variants thereof which exhibit one or more of the aforementioned properties. Variants include forms having varying glycosylation patterns, varying N-termini, and active truncated or mutated forms of a native protein. Useful proteins also include those that are biosynthetically produced (e.g., “muteins” or “mutant proteins”). Moreover, the proteins contemplated herein include biologically active variants of any of the above-listed proteins, including variants containing conservative amino acid changes as described elsewhere herein; and osteogenically active proteins having the conserved seven-cysteine skeleton or domain as defined below. For instance, useful osteogenic proteins also include those containing sequences that share at least 70% amino acid sequence homology with the C-terminal seven-cysteine domain of BMP-7. To determine the percent homology of a candidate amino acid sequence to that seven-cysteine domain, the candidate sequence and the sequence of the domain are aligned. The alignment can be made with, e.g., the dynamic programming algorithm described in Needleman et al., J. Mol. Biol. 48:443 (1970), and the Align Program, a commercial software package produced by DNAstar, Inc. The teachings by both sources are incorporated by reference herein. An initial alignment can be refined by comparison to a multi-sequence alignment of a family of related proteins. Once the alignment between the candidate sequence and the seven-cysteine domain is made and refined, a percent homology score is calculated. The aligned amino acid residues of the two sequences are compared sequentially for their similarity to each other. Similarity factors include similar size, shape and electrical charge. One particularly preferred method of determining amino acid similarities is the PAM250 matrix described in Dayhoff et al., Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure 5:345-352 (1978 & Supp.), herein incorporated by reference. A similarity score is first calculated as the sum of the aligned pairwise amino acid similarity scores. Insertions and deletions are ignored for the purposes of percent homology and identity. Accordingly, gap penalties are not used in this calculation. The raw score is then normalized by dividing it by the geometric mean of the scores of the candidate sequence and the seven-cysteine domain. The geometric mean is the square root of the product of these scores. The normalized raw score is the percent homology.

Furthermore, other useful proteins also include those containing sequences that share greater than 60% identity with the seven-cysteine domain of the BMP subfamily. In certain preferred embodiments, useful osteogenic proteins include those having an amino acid sequence sharing at least 70% (e.g., at least 80%) sequence homology or “similarity” with all or part of a naturally occurring reference morphogenic protein. A preferred reference protein is human BMP-7. Other known osteogenic proteins can also be used as a reference sequence. In one embodiment, a candidate amino acid sequence can be aligned with a reference amino acid sequence by using the method of Needleman et al., J. MoI. Biol. 48:443-453 (1970), implemented conveniently by computer programs such as the Align program (DNAstar, Inc.). Internal gaps and amino acid insertions in the candidate sequence are ignored for purposes of calculating the level of homology or identity between the candidate and reference sequences. “Amino acid sequence homology” is understood herein to include both amino acid sequence identity and similarity. Homologous sequences share identical and/or similar amino acid residues, where similar residues are conservative substitutions for, or “allowed point mutations” of, corresponding amino acid residues in an aligned reference sequence. Thus, a candidate polypeptide sequence that shares 70% amino acid homology with a reference sequence is one in which any 70% of the aligned residues are either identical to, or are conservative substitutions of, the corresponding residues in a reference sequence. Certain particularly preferred morphogenic polypeptides share at least 60% (e.g., at least 65%) amino acid sequence identity with the C-terminal seven-cysteine domain of human BMP-7.

As used herein, “conservative substitutions” are residues that are physically or functionally similar to the corresponding reference residues. That is, a conservative substitution and its reference residue have similar size, shape, electric charge, chemical properties including the ability to form covalent or hydrogen bonds, or the like. Preferred conservative substitutions are those fulfilling the criteria defined for an accepted point mutation in Dayhoff et al. (1978), 5 Atlas of Protein Sequence and Structure, Suppl. 3, Ch. 22, pp. 354-352, Natl. Biomed. Res. Found., Washington, D.C. 2007. Examples of conservative substitutions are substitutions within the following groups: (a) valine, glycine; (b) glycine, alanine; (c) valine, isoleucine, leucine; (d) aspartic acid, glutamic acid; (e) asparagine, glutamine; (f) serine, threonine; (g) lysine, arginine, methionine; and (h) phenylalanine, tyrosine. The term “conservative variant” or “conservative variation” also includes the use of a substituting amino acid residue in place of an amino acid residue in a given parent amino acid sequence, where antibodies specific for the parent sequence are also specific for, i.e., “cross-react” or “imuno-react” with, the resulting substituted polypeptide sequence.

Manufacture of Concentrated Protein Preparations: General Considerations

The methods of the present invention increase ease of protein processing during manufacturing, while reducing in-process product losses and yielding a high quality, final desired high concentration protein preparation of the present invention. Such preparations evidence higher recoveries, reduced aggregation and permit improved fill-level accuracy as compared with art-recognized methods routinely employed by scientists and process engineers.

An exemplary method follows which describes processing (preparation, fill, lyophilization, and finish operations) a preferred protein, BMP-7, at low concentrations (≦20 mg/mL), while yielding a product that can be reconstituted to a desired target higher protein concentration (20 to 40 mg/mL). This methodology of the present invention allows execution of all manufacturing operations at a lower protein concentration—this increases ease of processing as the viscosity of the solution handled is lower and it also reduces in-process losses during manufacturing (since a fixed volume lost contains a lower mass of protein due to the lower concentration used during processing). The lower concentration used during processing also allows for the product to be stored and processed at refrigerated temperatures (2 to 8° C.), without resulting in a dramatic increase in viscosity as would otherwise be observed if high protein concentrations were used during processing.

Usually drug products are processed and filled at the same concentration as the final desired target. For example, if the target protein concentration for administration is 40 mg/mL, the protein preparation (in the presence of appropriate stabilizing excipients) would typically be filled at 40 mg/mL and the freeze-dried product reconstituted with the same volume of diluent as the fill volume prior to lyophilization (freeze-drying).

In the methodology disclosed herein, a different approach is used. For example, if it is desired to have 1 mL of protein solution at 40 mg/mL for administration, the processing (upstream manufacturing) would be conducted at a lower concentration, say 20 mg/mL. The fill would be 2 mL at 20 mg/mL, and the product would be reconstituted with 1 mL reconstitution diluent following freeze-drying. Hence, the manufacturing (processing) operations are conducted at a lower concentration than the final target yielding the following benefits: (a) this increases ease of processing as the viscosity of the solution handled is lower, (b) it also reduces in-process losses during manufacturing (since a fixed volume lost contains a lower mass of protein due to the lower concentration used during processing), (c) the lower concentration used during processing also allows for the in-process intermediates to be stored (and/or processed) at refrigerated temperatures (2 to 8° C.), without resulting in a dramatic increase in viscosity as would otherwise be observed if high protein concentrations were used during processing.

By way of another example as illustrative of the present invention, if a target volume of V mL is desired at a protein concentration of C mg/mL for administration, the protein preparation/fill/finish operations can be conducted at C/N mg/mL with a fill volume of V*N mL, with final reconstitution of the lyophilized product with V mL reconstitution diluent, where N (N>1) is a suitable scaling factor, which can be appropriately chosen based on the viscosity and processability of the protein solution. Preferably, N equals about 2. A preferred range is N equals about 2 to about 4; another more preferred range is N equals about 2 to about 10. This methodology allows execution of all manufacturing operations at a lower protein concentration—this increases ease of processing as the viscosity of the solution handled is lower and it also reduces in-process losses during manufacturing (since a fixed volume lost contains a lower mass of protein due to the lower concentration used during processing). The lower concentration used during processing also allows for the product to be stored and processed at refrigerated temperatures (2 to 8° C.), without resulting in a dramatic increase in viscosity as would otherwise be observed if high protein concentrations were used during processing.

In addition, the above advantages also serve to yield a product with higher quality attributes (for example, if processing is done at a lower protein concentration then critical physicochemical protein attributes such as aggregation tend to be lower than if the protein was processed at a higher concentration) and lower cost of goods (lower COGS due to smaller mass loss of protein and a higher quality product, as discussed above).

The above-described protocols have been successfully implemented to manufacture protein preparations ranging from about 10 to about 60 mg/mL. Using a titration matrix of varying ionic strengths, pHs and protein concentrations (mg/mL), it was discovered that highly concentrated preparations of protein in aqueous carriers are possible without risk of precipitation. Generally, as ionic strength is decreased, pH is contemporaneously decreased thereby maintaining a solubilized protein in an aqueous carrier comprising one or more of the buffer systems described elsewhere herein. That is, using a titration matrix in which ionic strength and pH are simultaneously titrated downward, it is possible to achieve conditions suitable for maintaining solubilized protein at heretofore undescribed high concentrations in an aqueous carrier. As described elsewhere, certain preferred combinations of protein concentration, pH and ionic strength using certain preferred buffering systems result in a highly stable, aqueous preparation of concentrated protein unlike anything previously described in the art. Stabilizing excipients can be used optionally as described earlier.

In yet another manufacturing aspect, the present invention also provides a method for preparing a concentrated form of bone morphogenetic protein comprising the steps of:

(1) providing a processing solution of bone morphogenetic protein, the weight per volume of protein in said processing solution being the same as the weight per volume specified for lyophilization;

(2) filling a vial suitable for lyophilization with a specified volume of said processing solution thereby producing a lyophilization solution;

(3) lyophilizing said lyophilization solution; and

(4) packaging the lyophilized lyophilization solution together with a specified volume of reconstitution diluent, the volume of said diluent being less than the specified fill volume of step 3.

In one preferred embodiment of this method, the method further comprises the step of adjusting the weight per volume of protein in the processing solution to produce an adjusted lyophilization solution, the weight per volume of protein in said adjusted lyophilization solution being greater than that of the processing solution.

In still another manufacturing aspect, the present invention also provides a method for preparing a concentrated form of protein in lyophilized or other reconstitutible non-liquid form comprising the steps of:

(1) providing a processing solution of protein, the weight per volume of protein in said processing solution being the same as the weight per volume specified for lyophilization or other reconstitutible non-liquid form;

(2) providing a vial suitable for lyophilization (or other form) for containing a specified volume of said processing solution thereby producing a lyophilization (or other form) solution; wherein the weight per volume of protein in each of the processing and lyophilization (or other form) solution is at least 2 mg/mL.

In a preferred embodiment, this method can further comprise the step of providing a lyophilized form of the lyophilization solution or a reconstitutible form of the other non-liquid form. In another preferred embodiment, the method can further comprise the step of providing a specified volume of diluent for rehydrating the lyophilized form or reconstituting the other reconstitutible non-liquid form, the volume of said diluent being sufficient to permit preparation of an aqueous protein preparation having at least 2 mg/mL; or further comprising the step of providing instructions for rehydrating the lyophilized form or reconstituting the other reconstitutible non-liquid form so as to product an aqueous protein preparation having at least 2 mg/mL.

In summary, the present invention contemplates that a protein preparation prepared in accordance with any one of the methods taught herein can be used to treat a disorder, injury or disease such as but not limited to those disorders, injuries and/or diseases described elsewhere herein.

Kits

The present invention also provides kits useful for the treatment of skeletal or non-skeletal tissue disorders, injuries or diseases. The kits are particularly useful for treating joints impacted by disease, especially osteoarthritis and osteochondral disease; and for treating intervertebral discs affected by injury or disease. In a preferred embodiment, the kits of the present invention comprise one or more protein preparations, and one or more reconstitution diluents. Optionally, a kit of the present invention can further comprise one or more additional biologically active agents. In a particularly preferred embodiment, the protein is a BMP. In a still more particularly preferred embodiment, the protein is BMP-7. The kits of the present invention can also comprise a matrix for admixture with the protein for local implantation at a site of injury or disease; or an implantable medical device suitable for coating with the protein prior to implantation. In a further aspect, the invention also provides a kit for the treatment of a disorder, injury or disease (such as but not limited to those disorders, injuries and/or diseases described elsewhere herein) which comprises a lyophilized protein, preferably a bone morphogenetic protein, and a reconstitution diluent. In a preferred embodiment, the protein and the diluent are in separate containers and further the kit comprises a plurality of separate containers each containing an amount of diluent, such that the amounts of diluent in a kit are sufficient to prepare solubilized protein preparations ranging in concentration from at least about 2 mg/mL to about 60 mg/mL for use in the treatment of a disorder, injury or disease. In a further embodiment, the concentration and volume of solubilized protein preparations are customized for treatment of the particular target disorder, injury or disease.

Therapeutic Interventions and Methods of Treatment

In the case of skeletal disorders, a number of factors can cause or contribute to cartilage degeneration in mammals, including trauma and inflammatory disease. Damage to cells resulting from the effects of inflammatory response has been implicated as the cause of reduced cartilage function or loss of cartilage function in diseases of the joints (e.g., rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA)). In addition, autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE) and scleroderma can also be characterized by a degradation of connective tissue. In the case of some cartilage degenerative diseases such as osteoarthritis (OA), the mechanisms that turn the normal aging of articular cartilage into the pathological OA process are currently unknown. Each of the foregoing diseases can be effectively treated with the materials and methods of the present invention.

As stated earlier, the BMP preparations of the invention can be used effectively to treat skeletal diseases or injuries. For example, the preparations can be used to treat a bone fracture, such as an open fracture or a closed fracture. For the treatment of a closed fracture, the preparation is preferably injected at the fracture site. For open fractures, critical size defects or persistent nonunions, the preparations can be administered by surgical implantation at the fracture site. In both cases, the preparation can be administered alone, or in combination with a suitable carrier, matrix or scaffold, such as a bone cement, a calcium phosphate material, a gel material or a collagen matrix. Suitable carriers, matrices and scaffolds include those disclosed in U.S. Pat. Nos. 6,919,308; 6,949,251; and 7,041,641.

In a preferred embodiment, the BMP preparations of the invention can be used to treat a disease or injury resulting in cartilage degradation or a cartilage defect. For example, the preparations can be applied to a cartilage defect site, such as a degenerative intervertebral disc, or other fibrocartilaginous tissue, including a tendon, a ligament or a meniscus. Such methods are set out in U.S. Pat. No. 6,958,149. The preparations of the invention can also be used to treat a defect or degeneration of articular cartilage, as set forth in published PCT application WO 05/115438, such as the cartilage lining of a joint, such as a synovial joint, including a knee, an elbow, a hip, or a shoulder. In this embodiment, the preparation is preferably injected into the synovial space of the joint. In another embodiment, the preparations of the invention are used to treat an articular cartilage defect site, such as a chondral defect or an osteochondral defect, in a joint. Such articular cartilage defects can be the result of a disease process, such as osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, or due to injury of the joint. In this embodiment, the preparation can be injected into the joint space or it can be surgically implanted. For example, the preparation can be placed within the defect either alone or in combination with one or more additional active agents, a supporting matrix or scaffold, or marrow stromal cells. The preparation can, optionally, be covered with a suitable covering, for example a muscle flap or a bioresorbable membrane, such as a collagen membrane.

As will be appreciated by those skilled in the art, the concentration of the compounds described in a therapeutic composition will vary depending upon a number of factors, including without limitation the dosage of the drug to be administered and the route of administration. The preferred dosage of drug to be administered also is likely to depend on variables including, but not limited to, the type and extent of a disease, tissue loss or defect, the overall health status of the particular patient, the relative biological efficacy of the compound selected, the preparation of the compound, the presence and types of excipients in the preparation, and the route of administration. The present invention may be provided to an individual where typical doses range from about 10 ng/kg to about 1 g/kg of body weight per day; with a preferred dose range being from about 0.1 mg/kg to 100 mg/kg of body weight, and with a more particularly preferred dosage range of 10-000 μg/dose. In a particularly preferred embodiment, a dose of 10-1000 μg of a BMP-7 is administered to an individual afflicted with osteoarthritis.

Cartilage repair and regeneration is one of the major obstacles in current orthopedics. The importance is enormous because cartilage injury and degenerative disorders such as osteoarthritis, intervertebral disc degeneration and meniscal tears are a major cause of disability among the adult population in the United States.

Cartilage is connective tissue composed of chondrocytes embedded in an extracellular matrix of collagen fibers, proteoglycans, and other non-collagenous proteins. There are two forms of cartilage-articular and non-articular. Articular cartilage is a thin layer of connective tissue, which covers the ends of bones in joints. Non-articular cartilage includes fibrocartilage and elastic cartilage and includes intervertebral discs, meniscus, trachea, larynx, nose, ear and ribs.

The function of cartilage is to cushion load bearing, resist wear, and allow for almost frictionless movement of joints. Defects in cartilage tissue, often caused by trauma, abnormal wear or disease, can lead to pain and stiffness, and if left untreated, may progress and ultimately require replacement of the entire joint. For example, articular cartilage defects often lead to early degradation of the articular surface and may eventually result in osteochondral defects, osteoarthritis or both.

Osteoarthritis is considered a process of attempted, but gradually failing, repair of damaged cartilage extracellular matrix, as the balance between synthesis and breakdown of matrix components is disturbed and shifted toward catabolism.

The ability of cartilage tissue to regenerate on its own is severely limited due to its avascular nature. Repair of osteochondral defects, which involves both the cartilage tissue and the underlying bone, occurs to a limited extent promoted by the presence of both stem cells and growth and differentiation factors brought into the defect by the blood and/or marrow. In animal studies, these defects undergo some repair with formation of a new layer of bone and cartilage, but the macromolecular organization and the biochemical characteristics of the cartilage matrix are imperfect. Type I collagen, rather than Type II collagen, and proteoglycans that are not cartilage specific, such as dermatan sulfate containing proteoglycans, make up the repair tissue and result in fibrillations and degenerative changes over time. And, repair of cartilage defects that do not penetrate into the subchondral bone does not occur, even to a limited extent.

Moreover, surgical treatment of cartilage defects is complex and has been demonstrated to have only limited success. For example, articular cartilage defects are treated with an arthroscopic approach where loose bodies are debrided and transition areas are smoothed. However, this method alone frequently does not provide long lasting relief of the symptoms. Knee replacements often require resecting significant amounts of bone and often require multiple surgeries.

The meniscus is a small horseshoe shaped tissue located between the bone ends inside the knee joint, which acts as a shock absorber. There are two menisci in each knee on either side of the knee. They are usually strong in young people and with age become more brittle and tear more easily. Tears are extremely common with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. Meniscal fibrocartilage, like articular hyaline cartilage, has a limited capacity to heal, particularly in the middle and inner avascular regions. The current treatment for small tears is to leave them alone if they do not cause much trouble. Surgical options for treating meniscal tears depend on a number of factors including the nature and extent of the injury and most importantly, its location. Tears in the vascularized region, which is integrated with the highly vascularized synovium have been successfully repaired by suturing. Partial or total meniscectomy is the normal surgical treatment for symptomatic tears within the avascular two thirds of the meniscus. Tears in the latter meniscus regions are the most common types seen clinically. Irrespective of whether open, arthroscopic, total or partial meniscectomy are employed, osteoarthritis is a frequent sequela in these patients within a few years post surgery. Therefore, the common form of repair is to only partially remove the torn bits and to repair the cartilage by stapling it. Unfortunately, the healing process following this procedure is slow. Moreover, if the repair is not successful, then the entire torn meniscus must subsequently be removed.

The major cause of persistent and often debilitating back pain is intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration also known as degenerative disc disease (DDD). As discs degenerate, they cause the adjoining vertebrae to become compressed, often resulting in severe pain.

The IVD as a syndesmosis provides articulation between adjoining vertebral bodies and acts as a weight bearing cushion which dissipates axially applied spinal loads. These biomechanical functions are made possible by the unique structure of the IVD which is composed of an outer collagen-rich annulus fibrosus surrounding a central hydrated proteoglycan rich gelatinous nucleus pulposus. Superior and inferior cartilaginous endplates, thin layers of hyaline-like cartilage covers the interfaces of the vertebral bodies within the disc.

Lumbar disc degeneration represents a substantial social and economic burden to the community which is manifest principally as low back pain (LBP). It is estimated that as much as 80% of the population experience at least one significant episode of LBP during life, and approximately 2.5% of the working population will take some sick leave during the year as a result of LBP. The direct costs of LBP in modern Western countries has been estimated at $9 billion, most of which is spent on consulting general practitioners, physical therapists and other conservative practitioners (Williams D A et al., (1998) Health care and indemnity costs across the natural history of disability in occupational low back pain, Spine, 23:2329-36). Total indirect expenditure, including surgical management may be ten times higher (Maetzel and Li, (2002) The economic burden of low back pain: a review of studies published between 1996 and 2001, Best Prac Res Clin Rheumatol, 16:23-30; Walker et al., (2003) The economic burden, Proceedings of the Spine Society of Australia Annual Scientific Meeting, Canberra, Australia).

Disc degeneration is a natural phenomenon that occurs, in most instances, from the time of skeletal maturity (Vernon-Roberts (1992) Age-related and degenerative pathology of intervertebral discs and apophyseal joints, In: The lumbar spine and back pain. Fourth edition, Jayson M I V, Ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, Chapter 2, 17-41). It is consistent with advancing age but in many cases is also associated with pain, particularly in the lumbar spine, and restricted mobility. Symptoms of LBP often resolve spontaneously over time as patients modify their lifestyles to accommodate restricted mobility. In many cases however, it remains a significant factor that requires surgical intervention. The traditional “gold standard” surgical treatment for chronic LBP has been spinal fusion to immobilize the one or more painful level. Fusion is expensive because it requires prolonged hospitalization and specialist surgical expertise, and although most of these patients will experience short-term pain relief there is evidence now that fusion does not provide the best outcome. Long-term studies suggest that spinal fusion actually promotes degeneration at levels adjacent to the fusion site (Lee (1988) Accelerated degeneration of the segment adjacent to a lumbar fusion, Spine 13:375-7.). In the same way that artificial prostheses were developed 50 years ago to restore function to arthritic and fractured hips and knees, prostheses are now being developed with the aim of restoring full mechanical function to discs that have become painful and arthritic due to chronic degeneration (Szpaalski et al (2002) V Spine arthroplasty: a historical review, Eur Spine J., 11: S65-S84). It is however too early to know if any of the myriad models undergoing trials will provide long-term benefit.

Additionally, as described below, the protein preparations, preferably the BMP preparations of the present invention can be used to treat diseases or injuries of non-skeletal tissues. As further contemplated by the present invention, BMPs are capable of inducing the developmental cascade of bone morphogenesis and tissue morphogenesis for a variety of tissues in mammals different from bone or bone cartilage. This morphogenic activity includes the ability to induce proliferation and differentiation of progenitor cells, and the ability to support and maintain the differentiated phenotype through the progression of events that results in the formation of bone, cartilage, non-mineralized skeletal or connective tissues, and other adult tissues.

For example, BMPs can be used for treatment to prevent loss of and/or increase bone mass in metabolic bone diseases. General methods for treatment to prevent loss of and/or increase bone mass in metabolic bone diseases using osteogenic proteins are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,674,844, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference. BMPs of the present invention can be used for periodontal tissue regeneration. General methods for periodontal tissue regeneration using osteogenic proteins are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,733,878, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference. BMPs can be used for liver regeneration. General methods for liver regeneration using osteogenic proteins are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,849,686, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference. BMPs can be used for treatment of chronic renal failure. General methods for treatment of chronic renal failure using osteogenic proteins are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,861,404, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference. BMPs can be used for enhancing functional recovery following central nervous system ischemia or trauma. General methods for enhancing functional recovery following central nervous system ischemia or trauma using osteogenic proteins are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,407,060, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference. BMPs can be used for inducing dendritic growth. General methods for inducing dendritic growth using osteogenic proteins are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,949,505, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference. BMPs can be used for inducing neural cell adhesion. General methods for inducing neural cell adhesion using osteogenic proteins are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,800,603, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference. BMPs can be used for treatment and prevention of Parkinson's disease. General methods for treatment and prevention of Parkinson's disease using osteogenic proteins are disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 6,506,729, the disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference.

As another example, BMPs can also be used to induce dentinogenesis. To date, the unpredictable response of dental pulp tissue to injury is a basic clinical problem in dentistry. As yet another example, BMPs can induce regenerative effects on central nervous system (CNS) repair can be assessed using a rat brain stab model.

Bioactive Co-Agents

The present invention also contemplates “bioactive co-agents” that can be co-administered with the protein preparations of the present invention include, but are not limited to, anabolic agents, anti-asthmatic agents, anti-infective agents including, for example, antiproteincterial and antimicrobial agents, anti-inflammatory agents, antimetabolite agents, anti-neoplastic agents, anti-bone resorption agents, anti-obesity agents, anti-pyretic and analgesic agents, anti-spasmodic agents, anti-thrombotic agents, antihistamines, biologicals, bronchodilators, cytotoxic agents, diagnostic agents, erythropoietic agents, immunomodulating agents, mineral supplements, peripheral vasodilators, stimulants, tissue growth agents, vitamins, or antigenic materials.

More particularly, the bioactive co-agents preferred for co-administration include, but are not limited to, growth factors, hormones, anti-angiogenesis factors, dextromethorphan, peptides, polypeptides, proteins, amino acids, hormones, interferons, cytokines, and vaccines. Other representative bioactive co-agents that can be co-administered include, but are not limited to, peptide drugs, protein drugs, antigens, anti-infective agents such as antibiotics, antimicrobial agents, antiviral, antiproteincterial, antiparasitic, antifungal substances and combination thereof, antiallergenics, steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, analgesics, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents, and nutritional agents.

The bioactive co-agent may also be a substance, or metabolic precursor thereof, which is capable of promoting growth and survival of cells and tissues, or augmenting the activity of functioning cells, as for example, blood cells, neurons, muscle, bone marrow, bone cells and tissues, and the like. For example, bioactive co-agents that may be co-administered include without limitation a nerve growth promoting substance, as for example, a ganglioside, phosphatidylserine, a nerve growth factor, brain-derived neurotrophic factor. The bioactive co-agent may also be a growth factor for soft or fibrous connective tissue as, for example, a fibroblast growth factor, an epidermal growth factor, an endothelial cell growth factor, a platelet derived growth factor, an insulin-like growth factor, a periodontal ligament cell growth factor, to name but a few.

Examples Example 1 A Study of the Stability of BMP-7 at 40° C. in Various Buffers with 5% Trehalose

In this study, trehalose and various buffers were tested for their effects on protecting 1 mg/mL BMP-7 solution during lyophilization and storage at 40° C. The buffers tested were 5 mM glycine, 5 mM citrate, 10 mM lactate, 5 mM phosphate, 0.05% TFA and 100 mM acetic acid.

The buffers were prepared as follows:

5 mM Glycine, pH 3 Buffered Solution

Two liters of 5 mM glycine solution were prepared by weighing 0.7507 g of glycine (MW=75.07) into a 2000 mL beaker. The glycine was dissolved in Milli-Q® water with stirring, the pH was measured and adjusted to pH 3 with 5 N HCl, and the final volume adjusted to 2000 mL.

5 mM Citrate, pH 3 Buffered Solution

Two liters of 5 mM citrate solution were prepared by weighing 2.1014 g of citric acid monohydrate (MW=210.14) into a 2000 mL beaker. The citric acid was dissolved in Milli-Q® water with stirring, the pH was measured and adjusted to pH 3 with 5 N NaOH, and the final volume adjusted to 2000 mL.

10 mM Lactate, pH 3 Buffered Solution

Two liters of 10 mM lactate solution were prepared by weighing 1.8 g of lactic acid (MW=90.08) into a 2000 mL beaker. The lactic acid was diluted in Milli-Q® water with stirring, the pH was measured and adjusted to pH 3 with 5 N NaOH, and the final volume adjusted to 2000 mL.

5 mM Phosphate, pH 3 Buffered Solution

Two liters of 5 mM Phosphate solution were prepared by weighing 9.8 g of phosphoric acid (MW=98.0) into a 2000 mL beaker. The phosphoric acid was diluted in Milli-Q® water with stirring, the pH was measured and adjusted to pH 3 with 5 N NaOH, and the final volume adjusted to 2000 mL.

0.05% TFA Solution

Two liters of 0.05% trifluoracetic acid (TFA) were prepared diluting 1 mL of TFA in 2000 mL of Milli-Q® water and measuring the pH.

100 mM Acetic Acid Buffered Solution

Two liters of 100 mM acetic acid were prepared diluting 11.5 mL of acetic acid in 2000 mL of Milli-Q® water and measuring the pH.

Dialysis of BMP-7 Against Buffered Solutions

BMP-7 (1.7 mg/mL) was dialyzed against each of the above buffer solutions at 5° C. After dialysis was complete, the BMP-7 concentration of each solution was measured by UV spectroscopy and adjusted to approximately 1 mg/mL with the appropriate buffer.

Preparation of 5% Trehalose Formulations

To prepare the trehalose formulations, 5 mL of each dialyzed and diluted BMP-7 sample was dispensed into a 10 mL vial. To each vial was added 0.25 g trehalose, and the trehalose was allowed to fully dissolve. 1 mL of each trehalose/BMP-7 formulation was dispensed into each of five 3 mL Type I glass vials. Each vial was partially stoppered and then lyophilized. After lyophilization, the vials were fully stoppered and then oversealed.

Analytical Methods Protein Concentration by UV Spectroscopy

Protein concentration was determined by UV-Vis spectroscopy using an absorption coefficient of 1.54 Absorbance Units.mg−1.mL−1.

Percent Oxidation by Reduced Reverse Phase HPLC

Reduced reverse phase HPLC (rpHPLC) was run to determine the amount of oxidized species in each BMP-7 sample. Approximately 80 μg of each sample was dried in a centrifugal evaporator (Centrivap, under vacuum) and then reconstituted with 364 μL of 8 M urea and 36 μL of β-mercaptoethanol, thoroughly vortexed, and then incubated at 37° C. for 1 hour prior to injection. 100 μL of each sample was then injected in duplicate onto a reduced reverse phase column (YMC cat #AA30S05-2546WT) with a mobile phase comprising 70%×0.1% trifluroacetic acid in water and 30%×0.075% trifluroacetic acid in acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/minute. Eluted protein species were monitored at 215 nm and quantitated.

Percent Aggregate by Gel Electrophoresis

The aggregate content of each BMP-7 sample was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Aliquots (5 μg/lane) of each test sample, along with molecular weight and reference standards were loaded on 12% Bis-Tris gels (Invitrogen, Inc.) and separated at constant voltage (200 V) for approximately 90 minutes. Gels were stained with Coomassie Blue before de-staining with water overnight. Gels were imaged on a Bio-Rad GS model 710 digital gel scanner and relative amounts of each protein species were quantified using Quantity One software (Bio-Rad, USA).

Percent Aggregate by Size-Exclusion Chromatography

Size exclusion high pressure liquid chromatography (SEC-HPLC) was run to determine the percent aggregate in BMP-7 samples. Approximately 20 μg of each sample was injected in duplicate onto a size exclusion chromatography column (TosoHaas cat #08541) with a mobile phase of a 6 M urea buffer (6 M urea, 65 mM Tris and 0.3 M sodium chloride, pH 7.5) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/minute. Eluted protein species were monitored at 280 nm, and the amount of aggregate quantified.

Stability Study

All BMP-7/trehalose formulations were placed at 40° C. The stability of the BMP-7 in these formulations was assessed by the assays listed above. Assays were run at 0 days, 9 days, 2 months and 3.5 months.

Results Protein Concentration by UV Spectroscopy

The protein concentration of the BMP-7/trehalose formulations was measured by UV spectroscopy. Results are shown in FIG. 1. The concentration for all formulations remained constant throughout the stability study.

Percent Oxidation by Reduced Reverse Phase HPLC

The change in oxidation of the BMP-7 molecule in the BMP-7/trehalose formulations was assessed by rpHPLC. Results are shown in FIG. 2. All BMP-7/trehalose formulations remained stable to changes in oxidation throughout the stability study.

Percent Aggregate by Gel Electrophoresis

The percent aggregate of the BMP-7 in the BMP-7/trehalose formulations was assessed by SDS-PAGE. Results are shown in FIG. 3. While most formulations showed only a small increase in aggregation, formulations containing acetate and TFA showed the most increase during the course of the study.

Percent Aggregate by Size-Exclusion Chromatography

The percent aggregate of BMP-7 in the BMP-7/trehalose formulations was also assessed by SEC-HPLC. Results are shown in FIG. 4. Results show that there was no increase in aggregation for most formulations, but formulations containing acetate and TFA showed a significant increase in aggregation during the course of the study.

These results show that for most formulations, trehalose is able to maintain the stability of BMP-7, even under accelerated temperature conditions of 40° C. Formulations containing TFA and acetate were found to be less stable that formulations containing lactate, glycine, citrate and phosphate. Results show that trehalose is a strong stabilizer of BMP-7 when combined with a variety of buffers.

Equivalents

The invention may be embodied in other specific forms without departing from the spirit or essential characteristics thereof. The present embodiments are therefore to be considered illustrative and not restrictive, the scope of the invention being indicated by the appended claims rather than by the foregoing description, and all changes which come within the meaning and range of equivalency of the claims are therefore intended to be embraced therein.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US20130122066 *Jul 29, 2011May 16, 2013Biopham Gesellschaft Zur Biotechnologischen Entwicklung Von Pharmaka MbhDrug delivery devices and growth factor formulations for accelerated wound healing
Classifications
U.S. Classification424/486, 424/484, 514/1.1
International ClassificationA61K9/14, A61K38/17, A61P19/00
Cooperative ClassificationA61K38/1875, A61K38/1866, A61K38/185, A61K38/1858, A61K38/18
European ClassificationA61K38/19, A61K38/18F, A61K38/18H, A61K38/19A, A61K38/18G
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