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Publication numberUS20100154454 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 12/614,918
Publication dateJun 24, 2010
Filing dateNov 9, 2009
Priority dateJun 21, 2001
Also published asUS20090044932
Publication number12614918, 614918, US 2010/0154454 A1, US 2010/154454 A1, US 20100154454 A1, US 20100154454A1, US 2010154454 A1, US 2010154454A1, US-A1-20100154454, US-A1-2010154454, US2010/0154454A1, US2010/154454A1, US20100154454 A1, US20100154454A1, US2010154454 A1, US2010154454A1
InventorsRalf W. Blackstone
Original AssigneeBlackstone Ralf W
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Air cooling device
US 20100154454 A1
A vest including inflatable tubes or chambers which receive cool air from a blower box. The vest includes an outer surface and inner surface, the two surfaces joined to defined a multiplicity of tubes. The tubes carry jets which may vent cool air, received form a remote cool air blower box. The jets will ventilate the skin of the wearer both where it is exposed and where the skin is covered by the garment itself.
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1. A system for cooling an individual, the system comprising;
a delivery device to transfer cooling to the individual;
an air conditioning unit having a pressurized blower box and a heat exchanger; and
a flexible tube for connecting the air conditioning unit to the delivery device.
2. The device of claim 1, wherein the delivery device is a vest.
3. The device of claim 1, wherein the delivery device is a helmet.
4. The device of claim 1, wherein the delivery device is a comforter.
5. The device of claim 1, wherein the delivery device is a mummy bag.
6. The device of claim 1, wherein the delivery device is a space suit.
7. A system for cooling at least one individual, the system comprising;
a delivery device to transfer cooling to the individual;
an air conditioning unit having a pressurized blower box and a heat exchanger;
at least one flexible tube for connecting the air conditioning unit to the delivery device; and
a switching mechanism to select the amount of cooling delivered to the at least one individual.
8. The device of claim 7, wherein the switching mechanism is connected between a seat on the air conditioning unit
9. The device of claim 8, wherein the switching mechanism switches between an unrestricted airflow entering the delivery device; a restricted airflow entering the delivery device; or no air flow entering the delivery device.
10. The system of claim 8, wherein the switching mechanism changes the amount of cooling delivered to the at least one individual via a slide over the seat.
11. The system of claim 7, wherein at least two individuals are cooled by the system; each individual having a delivery device connected to the air conditioning unit by a separate flexible tube; and each individual separately controlling cooling delivered via the delivery device using the switching mechanism.
  • [0001]
    This application claims priority from, incorporates by reference, and is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 12/004,732, filed Dec. 21, 2007, which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/900,089 filed Sep. 10, 2007, and a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/890,149 filed Aug. 3, 2007, which is a continuation in part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 11/085,446, filed Mar. 21, 2005, which are continuations-in-part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/640,347, filed Aug. 13, 2003, which is a continuation in part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/453,437, filed Jun. 3, 2003, which is a continuation in part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/375,526, filed Feb. 27, 2003, which is a continuation in part of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 09/886,588 (now U.S. Pat. No. 6,571,574), filed Jun. 21, 2001 and claims priority from provisional patent application 60/212,949 filed Jun. 21, 2000.
  • [0002]
    Air cooling devices, more specifically, an air cooling device comprising an endothermic substrate bearing container with an air circulation means for circulating air from outside the container, about the endothermic substrate and, chilled, exhausted from the container.
  • [0003]
    Humans can function optimally, in comfort, over only a fairly narrow ambient temperature range. Adjustment of the amount and type of clothing will afford some relief from ambient temperature, especially adding clothing for comfort in a cold environment. However, as temperature rises conditioning the ambient air, typically by some form of heat extraction often, is the only solution to maintaining a comfortable, tolerable air temperature. Typically, such heat extraction is performed by air conditioners. Air conditioners operate on the principle of heat absorption as a composition such as freon or other refrigerant changes phase from a liquid to a gas. Water, for example, will absorb about 550 calories of heat per gram when changing from water at 100° C. to water vapor at 100° C. (at one atmosphere of pressure). On the other hand, one gram of water will release 540 calories of heat when changing from water vapor at 100° C. to liquid water at 100° C. Air conditioners, however, are heavy, expensive and complex. Also, they require compressors to provide energy to power the gas to liquid phase change. Furthermore, they are designed to condition air masses defined by buildings or vehicle structures such as a room of a building or an interior compartment of a vehicle, rather than conditioning the air directly adjacent to the body of an occupant, that is, the occupant's “microenvironment”.
  • [0004]
    Air conditioners are undesirable, for example, in cooling a cabin of a small or light aircraft such as a 2, 4 or 6 place airplane. In such light aircraft, there is a fairly small cabin space and anything that adds weight to the aircraft decreases its performance and payload. Thus, many light aircraft do not have air conditioning systems. Moreover, complicating this deficiency is the often limited ability to move air between the outside and the inside of the aircraft via ducts or windows. Thus, it may often get quite warm in the small interior cabin space of a light aircraft, especially when it is parked or tied down for a period of time on an airport apron. The warm air cabin environment of a light aircraft is not conducive to the concentration required for the pilot to operate the aircraft, especially during critical take-off or landing procedures. After the aircraft climbs to altitude, the outside air is usually sufficient to cool, even with small ducts, the interior of the aircraft cabin. However, this does not help when the aircraft has been sitting for a period of time in the hot air on the ground.
  • [0005]
    What is needed and has heretofore been unavailable is a small, light, efficient, simple and inexpensive device for cooling a small cabin area or the occupant's microenvironment.
  • [0006]
    Applicant provides for these and other objects of the invention by providing a light, inexpensive air cooling and distribution system for use in a vehicle or with the microenvironment of an occupant.
  • [0007]
    Applicant provides for these and other objects by providing an air cooling device which is capable of cooling either cabin air or the occupant's microenvironment through the use of a heat absorbing mass.
  • [0008]
    Applicant achieves these and other objects by providing a small, light, air cooling device comprising an insulated container containing an endothermic substrate which will absorb heat upon changing phase and, which further includes a means for distributing ambient air across the endothermic substrate and distributing the cooled air.
  • [0009]
    Applicant provides to these and other objects by providing a small inexpensive lightweight air distribution cooler distribution system for a vehicle that is powered by the vehicle's electrical system.
  • [0010]
    FIG. 1 is a cross section elevational view of Applicant's air cooling device with masses of ice supported on a frame in the container thereof.
  • [0011]
    FIG. 1A is a cross sectional device of Applicant's air cooling device with some of the ice incited and showing the blower motor energized and air being drawn through the device.
  • [0012]
    FIG. 1B is a front elevational view of Applicant's air cooling device.
  • [0013]
    FIG. 2 is a side elevational view of Applicant's air cooling device.
  • [0014]
    FIG. 3 is an exploded perspective view of the frame that is incorporated in the container of Applicant's cooling device.
  • [0015]
    FIG. 4 is a top elevational view of the blower motor inlet of Applicant's air cooling device.
  • [0016]
    FIG. 5 is a perspective elevational view of the drop-in box of Applicant's present invention.
  • [0017]
    FIG. 6 is an alternative preferred embodiment of Applicant's air cooling device.
  • [0018]
    FIG. 6A is a partial view of intake vents of Applicant's air cooling device which utilize door closer means.
  • [0019]
    FIG. 6B is a perspective view of an alternative preferred embodiment of a lid door for use with applicant's novel insulated container.
  • [0020]
    FIG. 7 is an illustration of an environment, here the interior of an aircraft in which Applicant's air cooling device is used which illustration also features some of the additional features of Applicant's air cooling device.
  • [0021]
    FIG. 8 is an alternative preferred embodiment of an outlet nozzle of Applicant's present invention.
  • [0022]
    FIG. 9 is a perspective view of Applicant's air cooling device in use.
  • [0023]
    FIG. 10 is a partial view in perspective, the anti-back flow valve of Applicant's present invention.
  • [0024]
    FIG. 11 is an alternate preferred embodiment of Applicant's present invention.
  • [0025]
    FIGS. 11A, 11B and 11C are alternate preferred embodiments of Applicant's present invention.
  • [0026]
    FIG. 12 is an alternative preferred embodiment of a cooling device for use with micro-environmental cooling of an individual.
  • [0027]
    FIGS. 13A, 13B and 14 are all various adaptations of Applicant's micro cooling nozzles adapted for use with cooling air adjacent an individual.
  • [0028]
    FIG. 15 is an alternate preferred embodiment of Applicant's novel device Wherein the nozzle engages an article of clothing of the user for micro cooling.
  • [0029]
    FIG. 16 is yet another adaptation of Applicant's air cooling device in a micro-environmental cooling adaptation.
  • [0030]
    FIG. 16A illustrates a side elevational cutaway view of an alternate preferred embodiment for Applicant's novel cooling device attached to a support surface.
  • [0031]
    FIG. 17 is a top elevational view of the base of the alternate preferred embodiment of Applicant's present invention as set forth in 16A above.
  • [0032]
    FIG. 18 is a side perspective view of the base of FIG. 17.
  • [0033]
    FIG. 19 is a cut away view inside elevation of a hand operated water pump for use of Applicant's novel cooling device.
  • [0034]
    FIG. 20 is a perspective view of a lid and blower for use with Applicant's insulated housing which lid and blower is adapted to prevent or ice from entering the blower.
  • [0035]
    FIG. 21A is a perspective view of an inflatable vest for attachment to a coolant source.
  • [0036]
    FIG. 21B is a back elevational view of a vest for use with the coolant source.
  • [0037]
    FIG. 21C is a top elevational view of the vest of FIGS. 21A and B laid out rather than illustrated as one by user.
  • [0038]
    FIG. 22 is an alternate preferred embodiment of a garment for use with a cooling device in side perspective view.
  • [0039]
    FIG. 22A is an alternate preferred embodiment of Applicant's present invention inside perspective view featuring an ice chest conduit motor and temperature regulator for moving cool air to and from a garment such as a vest.
  • [0040]
    FIG. 22B is a side perspective view of the temperature regulator box for use with the alternate preferred embodiment of Applicant's cooling system featured in FIG. 22A.
  • [0041]
    FIG. 23A is a top elevational view of a sleeping bag for use with Applicant's novel cooling system.
  • [0042]
    FIG. 23B is a cooling blanket in top perspective view, for use with Applicant's present invention.
  • [0043]
    FIG. 24 illustrates a configuration that allows air to be drawn into a blower box 400 from a room air conditioner outlet 402 to a flexible duct 404. The blower box 400 includes a blower motor for 406 and one more foot control pedals for 408 to control the flow and pressure to one or more blower box outlets 410 which can be connected by conduits to one or more surgical garments for cooling of the surgeons.
  • [0044]
    FIGS. 25A and 25B illustrate in side elevational and top elevational views a novel cooler vest.
  • [0045]
    FIG. 26 illustrates a side elevational view of Applicant's novel cooler vest in the manner in which it may port air to the body of the user.
  • [0046]
    FIG. 27 illustrates, in side elevational view additional features of Applicant's novel cooler vest and cooling system including a blower box.
  • [0047]
    FIG. 28 illustrates a perspective view of Applicant's cooler vest.
  • [0048]
    FIGS. 29A and 29B illustrate side elevational and perspective views of modifications to Applicant's novel cooler vest for use with a “spacesuit” type surgical gown.
  • [0049]
    FIGS. 30A and 30B illustrate, in elevational view, a number of novel features of Applicant's cooler vest that may regulate the velocity and quantity of air flow throughout the vest.
  • [0050]
    FIG. 31 illustrates, in perspective view, a system of using a number of Applicant's invention as described herein to provide cooled microenvironments to workers in the workplace.
  • [0051]
    FIG. 32A illustrates a system of mobile transportation and use of Applicant's novel cooler vest in perspective view.
  • [0052]
    FIG. 32B illustrates in side elevational view means for ducting cool air from an automobile a/c unit to a remote cooler vest.
  • [0053]
    FIG. 33 illustrates, in perspective view, a method of manufacturing Applicant's novel cooler vest.
  • [0054]
    FIG. 34 illustrates a side elevational view of a means for connecting the hose to a blower box.
  • [0055]
    FIGS. 35A and 35B illustrate, in perspective, couplers or connectors for use with engaging a hose to either a vest or a blower box.
  • [0056]
    FIG. 36A is a side elevational view of a hose connector for connecting a hose to a blower box and a means to regulate the amount of air entering the hose from the blower box.
  • [0057]
    FIG. 36B is a side elevational view of the device of FIG. 36A with further detail and structure provided.
  • [0058]
    FIG. 36C is a perspective view of the use of the hose connector disconnect and regulated air flow mechanisms integral to a blower box.
  • [0059]
    FIG. 37 is a novel cushion for seating thereon, which may be used with a source of cooled pressurized air.
  • [0060]
    FIGS. 38A through 38C are perspective views for a valve that may be used with any of the devices or structure disclosed in this application, for example, the novel cushion set forth in FIG. 37 or the cooler vest.
  • [0061]
    FIG. 38D is an exploded view of a rotary valve for use with Applicant's present invention.
  • [0062]
    FIG. 39 is an alternate preferred embodiment of a system 700, including an insulator box or container 702 for use with any of the structure enclosed wherein such structure requires a source of cool air.
  • [0063]
    FIG. 40 is a side elevational view (exploded) of the system described in FIG. 39 above.
  • [0064]
    FIG. 41 is a perspective view of an embodiment of the system described in FIGS. 39 and 40 above.
  • [0065]
    FIG. 42 is an elevational view of a divider plate 718.
  • [0066]
    FIG. 43 is a perspective view of a normal path for a heat exchanger.
  • [0067]
    FIG. 44 shows lateral air path through a heat exchanger.
  • [0068]
    FIGS. 45-47 are perspective views of serpentine paths generated by airflow dividers in alternate preferred embodiments of Applicant's present invention.
  • [0069]
    A first embodiment of Applicant's novel heat reduction device (10) is found in FIGS. 1, 1A, 1B and 2. With reference to these figures and those that follow, it is seen that Applicant provides a heat reduction system (10) comprising an insulated container, typically a six sided rectangular box (12), the box including a lid (14), typically insulated. The walls of the box (12) including where the removable lid (14) is fitted as part thereof are sealed except as provided with the vents, etc., as set forth below. The box (12) may be manufactured from one or more of the following: plastic, foam or any other suitable insulating material. The box may have any number of shapes including the rectangular shape illustrated. Typical dimensions for a rectangular box are approximately 15″ in width, 17″ in height and.
  • [0070]
    Applicant's novel invention includes providing for placement within the box (12) (typically by removing the lid and placing it therein), an endothermic substrate (15). The endothermic substrate (15) is a mass of a composition which will absorb heat in undergoing a phase change, for example from a solid to a liquid or from a solid to a gas, which phase change and heat absorption typically occurs at temperatures below about F. Illustrated as one such endothermic substrate in FIGS. 1 and 1A is a mass of ice, here illustrated as a multiplicity of ice cubes. Water typically freezes at C. ( F.) and, one gram of ice at C. will absorb 80 calories of heat in a phase change to water at C. The water so formed, will in turn continue to absorb heat at the rate of one calorie per gram until equilibrium with the environment is reached. Thus, Applicant provides an endothermic substrate (15) which may be placed inside the insulated box (12) and will absorb heat undergoing a phase change. Substrates other than ice may be used, for example: “dry ice” (CO.sub.2 which will sublimate, or change from a solid directly to a gas), “blue-ice/gel packs” or other similar substrates.
  • [0071]
    It is noted that box (12) includes walls defining air intake vents or slots (16). In the embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 1, 1A, 1B and 2, it is seen that air intake slots (16) are incorporated into lid (14) of box. However, other walls of the box including the side walls may be used to define air intake slots (see for example FIG. 6). The function of the air intake slots (16) is to provide a means for air outside of the container to enter the container. See FIG. 6A for use of a quarter cylinder door (59) for use in conjunction with lid and slots 16. Here door (59) includes hinges (59A) on which door member (59B) hangs, which optionally may have a weight (59C) to help it maintain vertical or closed position when the blower motor (30) is off.
  • [0072]
    Typically, endothermic substrate (15) is supported within the interior of the insulated container or box (12) through the use of a frame (18). For example, with reference to FIGS. 1, 1A, and 3, it is seen that frame (18) is made up of a number of components. These include duct work/support legs (20) and a number of grid platforms here, upper and lower grid platforms (22) and (24), respectively. It is seen that frame (18) comprises an assembly that can support grid platforms (22) and (24) bearing an endothermic substrate (15) while allowing air to pass through, and, in the embodiment illustrated in these figures, also incorporates duct work engageable with the insulated container (12) to guide air entering the container through the air intake slot (16) (see FIGS. 1 and 1A).
  • [0073]
    Different types of frames may be used to hold the endothermic substrate (15) within the box (12). Typically, a frame will provide the longest possible path for contact between the air and the substrate (15).
  • [0074]
    Turning now to FIG. 3 for further details of the frame, it is seen that duct work/support legs (20) include depending members (20A) for holding and maintaining the grid platforms (22/24) above the bottom surface of the interior of the container. The depending leg members (20A) also have an opening therebetween defining a primary intake vent (20B) through which intake air may circulate (sec FIG. 1). It is seen with reference to FIGS. 1A and 3 that frame (18) also defines a secondary intake vent (20C). This is an opening through which air may move as seen in FIG. 1A when water (from the melted ice) blocks the primary intake vent (20B). The secondary intake vent (20C) is controlled by a secondary intake valve (26) which is mounted on valve mounting stubs (20D) so as to hang vertically under the weight of gravity against the inner walls of duct work/support legs (20). It is seen then that if the air pressure is lowered inside of the frame such as would be the case if the air were evacuated from the interior space of the frame (as seen in FIG. 1A), the secondary intake valve (26) will move inward or away from the walls of the duct work/support legs (20) (assuming no ice is blocking this movement). Finally, it is seen that walls of duct work/support legs (20) also define grid platform support stubs (20E). These will engage a portion of the grid platforms (22/24) to support the grid platforms above the floor of the interior of the box or container (12).
  • [0075]
    A blower (29) is provided for engagement with the box (12) to remove air from the interior of the box as seen in FIGS. 1 and 1A. Blower (29) may consist or a blower motor (30) such as an electrical powered motor, the motor (30) attached to a blower prop or fan (32). The blower (29) may be attached to the box (12) at any point, but illustrated here is the incorporation of the blower to a portion of the lid which contains a lid cutout (31) here shown with a protective screen (31A). The blower fan (32) is positioned in the plane of lid cutout (31) and with motor (30) engaged, it is seen that blower (29) will evacuate air from the interior of the box (12) out a blower duct (34) into one or more cool air distribution ducts (40) (see FIG. 2). Note that blower motor (30) is typically provided with aircraft electrical system interface or connector (38) which in turn is connected to the blower motor (30) to one or more blower motor leads (36). Aircraft electrical system interface (38) may be a commercial off the shelf unit which is designed to engage a cigarette lighter as an electrical energy source port or any auxiliary energy source port of the aircraft electrical system. Blower motor (30) is typically supported in the blower duct (34), centrally located and axially aligned therewith via the use of blower motor mount slots (35) (sec FIG. 4).
  • [0076]
    Note with reference to FIGS. 1B and 2 that cool air distribution ducts (40) may include cool air duct elbows (42), cool air outlet nozzles (44), and cool air directional adjusters (46). Both the cool air duct elbows (42) and outlet nozzles (44) are also designed to physically adjust both vertically and horizontally to the user needs. Specifically cool air duct elbows (42) enables a user to position outlet nozzles (44) by rotating the air duct elbows (42) on its axis to direct air flow. Outlet nozzles (44) are designed to be raised and lowered on a vertical axis to also direct air now, by using telescoping air distribution ducts (40A/40B) (see FIG. 2). Both embodiments are designed to allow the heat reduction system (10) to remain functional while positioning the outlet nozzle (44). The cool air ducting system may be either spiral wound tubing or made from high density polyethylene plastic (HDPE) or any other suitable material.
  • [0077]
    Turning now to the interior of the box or container (12), it seen that ice or other endothermic substrate (15) may be provided on one or more of the elevated grid platforms (22) and (24). Turning to FIG. 1, for example, ice is provided on both platforms, the upper and the lower, and with ice on the lower platform when the motor (30) is energized and air is directed through the air intake slots (16) and through the primary intake vent (20B), it will go through the openings in the grid platform around the ice and cool as it moves through the ice in both platforms and out the motor duct. Therefore, it is seen that the interior of the box of a preferred embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 1, 1A, 1B, 2 and 3 may be categorized into three sections or zones, a warm air zone (28A) which represents the zone or location in the interior of the warm air coming in from outside of the box (12) before striking any ice. A second zone is a transition zone (28C) where warm air is in the process of being cooled. For example, in FIG. 1, the transition zone is located from the bottom of the lower grid (24) to the top of the ice on the upper grid (22). This air is actively being cooled as opposed to being below (or downstream) or above (or upstream) the ice. The third zone within the chamber is cool air zone (28B) which is above or upstream of the last of the ice or other endothermic substrate (15). Note that as heat is absorbed by the phase change occurring in the melting of the ice, the warmest air will be first striking the ice on the lower grid (24). As the ice melts, water will drip to the bottom of the box (12) and will rise to a point where it may occlude primary intake vent (20B) (see FIG. 1A). With the motor (30) running, this will allow secondary intake valve (26) to open and air to flow through secondary intake vent (20C). This air will then proceed through the ice or other endothermic substrate (15) located on the upper grid platform (24) and be exhausted out of the interior of the box (12) through motor duct (34). The arrangement and number of the grids and air intakes within the interior of the box (12) may be several. The function, however, is to provide for the passage of air from vents or slots (16) into the interior and across or adjacent an endothermic substrate (15) such that there may be a heat exchange between the endothermic substrate absorbing heat (and typically undergoing a phase change) and the air adjacent the endothermic substrate (15) losing heat (cooling off) as it moves through the box and, eventually leaves through duct work or other arrangements.
  • [0078]
    Turning now, for example, to FIG. 5, it is seen that in lieu of frame (18) there may be a drop-in box (48) which will fit within the interior of box (12), which drop-in box (48) includes walls (48A) and at the bottom thereof lower intake vents (50). The drop-in box (48) also includes between walls (48A) substrate support members (52) upon which may be placed an appropriate endothermic substrate (15) for elevation above lower intake vents (50). However, with the lower intake vents (50) in the position illustrated in FIG. 5, this embodiment would typically provide for an endothermic substrate (15) which is self-contained and does not drip to leave a liquid phase at the bottom of the box (12) so as to occlude or block lower intake vents (50). Such substrates may include dry ice or blue ice gel packs. With the blue ice gel pack, when the liquid contained therein undergoes a phase change from solid to liquid, it will not drip to the bottom of the box (12) because it is contained in a pouch or other membrane. Dry ice on the other hand, will sublimate directly from the solid phase to the gaseous phase.
  • [0079]
    FIG. 6 illustrates an alternate preferred embodiment of Applicant's heat reduction system (10A). This embodiment has, in place of or in addition to the air intake slot (16) (sec FIG. 1) located in or as part of lid (14), side air intake slots (16A) (upper) and/or (16B) (lower). If the endothermic substrate (15) to be used is one which does not release the liquid for accumulation in the bottom of the box (12), then the lower air intake slots (16B) may be used and frame (18), of whatever configuration, or drop-in box (48) will hold or maintain the endothermic substrate (15) above or upstream of the lower slots. On the other hand, upper slots (16A) represent a preferred alternative to slots (16) which are found in the lid (14). However, if upper slots (16A) are to be used, then it is typical that a liquid forming endothermic substrate (15) will be used which will accumulate a liquid in the bottom of the box (12). Moreover, if upper slots (16A) are used, then it is likely that there is either flue or duct work inside of the box (12) that will direct air entering upper slots (16A) down to or near the bottom of the box (12) and vents to allow the same air to go up and through the endothermic substrate (15). FIG. 6 also illustrates the use of a drain (54). A drain is an accessory feature that will allow a liquid accumulating on or near the bottom of the lid to be drained. An additional optional feature illustrated in FIG. 6 are handles (56) or tie-down points (56A) which may be provided on one or more sides of the exterior of the box (12) for convenience in handling and carrying the unit or securing the unit in a vehicle.
  • [0080]
    FIG. 6 illustrates the flaps (57) which may be used with the side air intake slots (16A) and/or (16B) as set forth in FIG. 6. Flaps (57) include wall member (57A) for sealing off the slot when the motor (30) is not energized. The wall member (57A) pivots on a pair of hinge ends (57B) mounted on the interior wall of the cabinet just above the top of the side wall mounted intake slots to allow the flaps (57) to hang vertically and close slot when the motor (30) is off. While the air intake slots (16A) and (16B) may be left open, a flap (57) is desirable in order to minimize exposure of the air outside the box (12) to the endothermic substrate (15) when the unit is not in operation. Note that the lid (14) located air intake slots (16) (see FIG. 1) may also have a variation of the flap (57), namely one that may be normally closed via spring loaded, hydraulic or even electric means, in conjunction with the motor (30) such that when the motor (30) is running the flap (57) is at least partially open. See FIG. 6A for use of a quarter cylinder door (59) for use in conjunction with lid and slots 16. Here door (59) includes hinges (59A) on which door member (59B) hangs, which optionally may have a weight (59C) to help it maintain vertical or closed position when the blower motor (30) is off. The gravity mounted flaps, of course, can respond to the change in pressure between the outside of the box (12) and the inside that is created when the motor (30) is energized by opening.
  • [0081]
    FIG. 6B is a perspective view of alternate preferred embodiment of intake slot 116 of lid 14 which alternate preferred embodiment includes a lid door 116A dimension to effectively block off the opening defining a lid slot 116. The lid door 116A is biased into a closed position with the use of a counterweight 116B which may be hung from a hinge point 116C. The hinge point will allow the lid door to articulate and counterweight 116B which is offset below hinge point 116C on a support strut 116D will hold the door in a closed position absent a vacuum drawn in the container.
  • [0082]
    Applicant's unit is powered by a blower motor (30). This motor is attached to a high speed fan or prop (32) which is responsible for sucking outside air through vents, then substrate and blowing out the resulting cool air through the ducting system to cool the user or cabin air mass. Each heat reduction unit typically has at least one motor, but, depending on the size of the unit's substrate mass and the heating requirements, may have multiple motors. These motors may be mounted in the lid (sec FIG. 7), but other mounting locations on and off the box (12) may be used.
  • [0083]
    Applicant's blower motor (30) may be electrical, either AC or DC. Pneumatic motors are also possible. AC motors may be 110 volts, 220 volts or other available AC voltage. DC motors may be 6 volts, 12 volts, 24 volts, 28 volts or any workable voltage, depending upon the power availability in the environment in which it is used. Pressures for a pneumatic or hydraulic motor will also depend on availability by may be available from a duct mounted on the aircraft exterior. The motor is sized to deliver sufficient air flow through the endothermic substrate sufficient to cool the user or intended target. For example, Applicant has tested 3-inch 12 volt or a 24 volt DC motor capable of delivering 140 standard cubic feet per minute and a 4-inch 12 volt or 24 volt DC motor capable of delivering 245 standard cubic feet per minute which it both proved satisfactory.
  • [0084]
    In an alternate preferred embodiment, Applicant provides a multiplicity of individual motors either mounted in the lid, (sec FIG. 7) or at the outlet end of the duct work (see FIGS. 11 and 14). With such an embodiment, each user may have a switch to turn on his or her motor and a rheostat or other fan motor speed control device to control the velocity of the air through the duct. The motor still functions the same, however, sucking air through the intake slots past a substrate and through duct work to be directed at a user or intended target.
  • [0085]
    FIG. 7 illustrates a system of duct work comprising spiral wound tubes (58) which attach to the blower duct (34) and may include splitter T's (60) for splitting the airflow between a number of branches (58A, 58B, 58C or 58D). At the removed end of the spiral wound tubes are typically provided cool air outlet nozzles (44) that may or may not include directional adjuster (46). In the embodiment illustrated in FIG. 7, attached to the tubes (58) at or near the removed and thereof is a flat positioning member (62) that is intended to extend, part way across a seat as illustrated such that an occupant may sit with the positioning member between his body and the seat and therefore maintain a position adjacent the seat with the nozzle directed anywhere (sec FIG. 13B), as for example across the occupant's crotch, abdomen, torso and even face the user so desires.
  • [0086]
    FIG. 8 illustrates variable outlet valve (64) with a selector switch (64A) with a control knob (66) incorporated therewith that may direct air between either one or both of a pair of cool air outlets ports (68A) and (68B). The selector switch may be mounted to the end of the spiral wound tube or tubing (58).
  • [0087]
    FIG. 9 illustrates Applicant's heat reduction system (10) being used in the cabin of a light aircraft. The cool air outlet nozzle (44) is pointed at the seated pilot's head and shoulders to provide relief thereto. The unit is placed in the seat next to the pilot and strapped in with the aircraft's seatbelt system.
  • [0088]
    FIG. 10 illustrates a unit having an anti-backflow valve (69) situated adjacent to blower motor (29). The purpose of the anti-backflow valve (69) is such that when one or more of a multiplicity of motors (see FIG. 7) are not in use while the rest are operating, the anti-backflow valve prevents air from flowing backward through that motor's duct to bypass the substrate and go out to the unit uncooled. Anti-backflow valve (69) has flap (71) that will normally lay across blower motor outlet (73) when the motor (30A) is not running. In this position, air cannot be secluded through out (73) when another motor is running, yet when motor (30A) is turned on flap (71) will allow cool air to the ductwork downstream. Note anti-backflow valve (69) will work even with one motor, if the motor is off, to prevent warm air from entering the box through the motor duct.
  • [0089]
    FIG. 11 illustrates a floor mounted cooler unit (10C) with housing (77) that is similar to the earlier embodiment except that each outlet nozzle has its own blower motor and fart 30B, 30C, 30D, 30E. Each motor typically has its own on/off switch (73A, B, C and D) and rheostat (75A, B, C and D) to control the motor speed. These motors may run off the electrical system of the vehicle or will be provided with their own power such as a battery (not shown). This embodiment typically does not use an endothermic substrate.
  • [0090]
    FIG. 11A shows that housing (77) of the cooling unit (10C) illustrated in FIG. 11 may include a plenum chamber (79) with an HEMA filter (81) filtering the air coming from outside container (77) through the plenum and out into the tubing (83). The unit should be set on the floor where typically the coolest air in the enclosure will be located, and the container may be used without a cooling substrate. The unit may be used for keeping surgeons cool in the operating room of a hospital.
  • [0091]
    FIG. 11B illustrates a variation of Applicant's alternate preferred cooling device (10D) illustrated in FIGS. 11 and 11A. In this unit, the remote individually operated motors, (30B-E) draw air through container (77) which has a pair of plenums (79A) and (79B), both drawing filtered air from the room or cabin with a mixing slide (85) in the wall of the unit for mixing air coming from the two plenums. In one of the plenums is mounted a standard commercial off-the-shelf refrigeration or cooling coil (83) of an air conditioning or cooling unit. While plenum (79A) pulls uncooled air in through the filter, the other (79B), has air passing the cooling coil (83) as it goes to the user. Each motor is connected to the tube which connects to the slides (85) or mixing valves allowing individual settings based on a desired percentage of cooled and noncooled air. This mixing combined with the rheostat control of the air velocity allows a number of individual users to adjust their microenvironment to their own individual comfort level.
  • [0092]
    Applicant also provides herein, with reference to FIG. 12, yet another use of an invention related to cooling devices of the type anticipated herein or of any other type that will provide cool airflow through a cool air duct (72). The embodiment of the invention set forth in FIG. 12 provides for a cool air duct (72) to be attached between an article of clothing (70) of an individual, such as a shirt, wherein the outlet or mouth (74) of the cool air duct is inserted between the body of the individual and the shirt or other article of clothing (70). Applicant refers to this new invention as microenvironment cooling and is intended to provide cool air in that layer of air immediately adjacent the skin of the user. It is that layer of air that requires cooling and, where cooling capacity of a unit providing the cooling is limited, it is important that this air boundary immediately adjacent the skin of the user is cooled. It is important in micro-environmental cooling to cool the air layer directly adjacent the skin as compared to an entire air mass in which an occupant is located. There are a number of places in which microenvironment cooling may be effective. These include the cabin of an aircraft or other vehicle and the operating room in a hospital, where often a surgeon (see FIG. 15) must work under hot lights.
  • [0093]
    In FIGS. 13A, 14 and 15, Applicant illustrates the use of custom designed micro-environmental nozzles (80) for insertion beneath an article of clothing (70). FIG. 14 provides one such custom nozzle (80) which nozzle includes a belt hook (82) for engagement with a belt of the user as well as, optionally, a blower (29A) with blower motor and fan incorporated within the nozzle (80). Note that this nozzle (80) also includes a tongue (84) which tongue may be used to keep the clothing such as the shirt off the skin of the user and provide a ready path for the cool air coming out of the outlet (86) of nozzle (80).
  • [0094]
    FIG. 15, Illustrates applicants heat reduction system 10 including cool air distribution ducts (40) used with a custom nozzle (80) and custom designed shirt (70A) wherein the nozzle and shirt are positively engaged to one another as by elastic (81) or stitching or any other means.
  • [0095]
    FIG. 16 illustrates another aspect of Applicant's invention which may be used by a firefighter. In this aspect of the invention. Applicant provides a metallized protective suit (90) which covers the entirety of the body of the user, such as a firefighter. The firefighter wears an oxygen mask (92) and oxygen bottle (94) beneath the suit (90). There is a dry ice pack (96) within the suit with a blower motor (98) to circulate air around the dry ice (100) which is located within the container (102) of the dry ice pack (96). There are pressure differential releasing valves (104) that may be located at the neck, wrist or ankles to keep pressure in the suit constant and prevent it from overblowing as well as for keeping a constant flow of fire suppressing gas, such as CO.sub.2, emanating around the firefighter.
  • [0096]
    FIGS. 16A through 20 illustrate an alternate preferred embodiment of Applicant's novel portable air cooling device (10). In this alternate preferred embodiment, several ends are achieved. First, Applicant provides a small, light, portable air cooling device. Further, Applicant provides a novel means for maintaining an air flow through ice contained in the air cooling device which air flow maximizes the contact between the ice and the air passing through the device so as to maximize cooling. Applicant's novel portable air cooling device also provides for easy refill of the ice and also a means to avoid spilling of water created by the ice.
  • [0097]
    These advantages and others are achieved in a portable air cooling device (10) as illustrated in FIGS. 16 through 20. This portable air cooling device may be used in vehicles including the cabin of a small aircraft or in the interior of a recreational vehicle or “RV or any other suitable place.” Further, this alternate preferred embodiment also provides all of the advantages of the previous embodiment and as such may also be used in the operating room of a hospital, in conjunction with the cooling gown, vests or blankets that are provided in FIGS. 21A through 23B. Indeed, even when Applicant's novel portable air cooling device is used in the cabin of a vehicle, it may be engaged with a vest, gown or blanket, which would in turn be worn or draped over the user to provide a cooling flow of air thereto.
  • [0098]
    In general, the novel alternate preferred embodiment illustrated in the accompanying figures shows a portable air cooling device comprised of primarily two sections, insulated housing (112) typically having a lid (114) thereon, the housing for sitting atop and engaging, as set forth in more detail below, a base (120). The insulated housing is adapted to receive ice therein and as a means for providing airflow therethrough, such as with a blower (116) having a blower outlet (118). The insulated housing is typically comprised of four sidewalls (112 a through 112 d), bottom walls (112 e), top walls (112 i) which may have a slot (112 j) therein (for receipt of the lid (114)) and lower corners (112 k). It is seen that the insulated housing (112) may be generally rectangular so as to have four sidewalls. Further, it is seen that insulated housing (112) has bottom walls, herefor, configured to define a grate opening (112L). Bottom walls are slanted so ice (I) sitting in the interior of the insulated housing will, at it melts, be centered on a grate (113) fitted to cover the grate opening (112L). Grate (113) will hold back the ice and maintain it in the interior of the insulated housing. Further, because the bottom walls are slanted towards the grate opening, the ice will collect there, under the impetus of gravity and, air flow being directed as it is through the grate opening from below upwards toward the top of the insulated container and out the blower outlet (118), it is seen that the effect, as the ice melts to drip into the base (112) is to direct the air flow across and through the ice. The further effect of centering the grate in the grate opening at the low point on the insulated housing is to cause the ice to collect there. This improves the efficiency of the cooling.
  • [0099]
    The insulated housing is typically physically separable from the base. Base (120) is designed to engage the insulated housing in a manner such that the water from the ice melting on the grate drips into the interior thereof and will collect therein.
  • [0100]
    Base (120) is seen to have a bottom wall (120 a), sidewalls (120 b), pillars (120 c), top wall (120 e), having notches (1200 therein, and the top wall further having air cutouts or ports (120 g). Functionally therefore, the base is designed to receive on a top surface thereof the insulated housing. Furthermore, the insulated housing is dimensioned, and the base is dimensioned to receive the insulated housing such that, when the two are joined, the grate opening is below top wall (120 e) of the insulated housing and water dripping through the grate will be contained within the interior of the base and spilling and sloshing of water is prevented by having a top wall (120 e) above the grate opening (120L) of the housing.
  • [0101]
    The base is also adapted to receive the insulated housing thereon in a stable and efficient manner, and to hold in position the insulated housing to the base so that the grate opening is properly centered in the top wall in the manner set forth in the illustrations and in these specifications. One means of achieving such a positioning is provided in the use of pillars (120 c) and notches (120 f). This stable engagement is achieved by dimensioning the opening in the top wall on the base and the insulated housing such that lower corners (112 k) of the housing fit into bosses in pillars (120 c) as set forth in FIG. 16 and, so engaged, the edges between the four walls of the bottom wall scat in the four notches (120 i).
  • [0102]
    Applicant's novel portable air cooling device (10) provides a separate container for ice, shown in FIG. 16A as insulated housing (112) and a separate container for ice melt, base (120). Moreover, the containers are centered one to the other with the insulated housing above the base to allow fluid flow as the ice melts of the cold water into the base under the impetus of gravity. Further, a convenient tool-less friction fit is provided to engage the housing to the base. Typically, the interior of the base will define a volume that is capable of receiving melt from all of the ice that can be placed in the interior of the housing, without reaching the underside of the top wall of the base. A typical volume for the interior of the housing may be 50 liters or up to 200 liters for larger requirements. Typical units (base and housing) may be 8-12″ wide, 12-16″ long and up to 30″ high.
  • [0103]
    Turning now to the means of air flow, blower (116) is provided with a blower outlet (118) for creating a low pressure within the interior of the housing. This is done by a blower fan in ways known in the art or set forth herein. A blower grate (119) is provided adjacent the blower for preventing ice or other debris from entering the blower. The blower may be part of a lid (114), or be mounted to a lid. The blower may be powered by any convenient power supply. The lid (114) may include tongue (114 a) for engaging the pair of slots (112 j) in the top walls of the insulated housing. This provides an easy slide-on and slide-off lid that is still an effective air seal as the tongues engage the slots snugly.
  • [0104]
    In a first version of Applicant's alternate preferred embodiment, air from the surroundings will be drawn in through the grate (113) up through the ice and out blower outlet (118). It may be directed by means illustrated in other portions of this application, to the trunk and/or face of a user through a cool air conduit or a multiplicity of conduits directed to a multiplicity of users. On the other hand, air at blower outlet (118) may be directed, through an appropriate tube or conduit, to a garment such as a vest or a blanket or the like. Such a garment or blanket or the like may contain a multiplicity of holes to cool a user on which such member is draped. This version of Applicant's novel portable air cooling device (10) would be a “total loss” system in which air is cooled and then applied to a user. However, Applicant also provides a recirculation means for use in a version of Applicant's air cooling device in which air is pumped from a blower into a member, such as an inflatable vest, gown or a blanket, or even a “mummy bag” and some of the cool air is lost through small perforations in the member, designed to provide cool air to the wearer, but which member also contains a return tube for bringing air back to a recirculation pipe (122) (see FIG. 16A). The recirculation pipe would receive air from a remote member which air would be part of a “semi-closed” system and which return air would be directed through a recirculation pipe, typically with an intake port (122 a) near the top of the sidewalls of the housing. The recirculation pipe (122) may include a down tube (122 b) in the interior of the housing which down tube ends in outlet port (122 c), which outlet port (122 c) is typically located in one of the bottom wall sections (112 e). In this “semi-closed” system, some of the air originally leaving blower outlet (118) will be expelled from a pressurized member through holes to cool a wearer, while other air will flow back into recirculation pipe (122) to be cooled as it flows through ice located in the interior of the housing and is expelled into the space between the bottom walls of the housing and the top wall of the base—that is, is expelled into the interior of the base to join ambient air which is being drawn into the grate opening under the impetus of the low pressure generated by blower fan (118) on the interior of the housing.
  • [0105]
    Applicant also provides a drain (124) adjacent the bottom of the sidewalls of the base to drain water collected therein. Drain may be connected, as illustrated in FIG. 19, to a handheld squeeze pump (124) to provide an outlet for drinking water or the like. Elastic cord tiedowns (213) will hold the air cooling device (10) to a support surface to stabilize the device.
  • [0106]
    FIG. 20 illustrates a protective grate (126) containing a disk (128) designed to “float” with in the grate such that when the air cooling device is in an upright position, the disk will lay at the bottom of the grate, but if the device is tipped over, disk (128) will slide up and cover motor intake grate (119). This would allow aerobatics if the cooler were uses in an aircraft interior.
  • [0107]
    FIGS. 21A, 21B and 21C all illustrate a vest (140), the vest having a port (140A) attached thereto for receipt of cool air from Applicant's novel portable air chilling device (10). The vest is intended for use where needed, for example, underneath a surgeon's scrub gown. Perforations or holes (140B) are provided in the underside of the vest to provide cool air to the body of the wearer. The underside holes cool the thorax, the neck and shoulders. Portions of the vest wrap over the shoulder (142) and fold across the armpit (144) to cool the underside of the upper arm. FIG. 21A provides a front view of the vest and FIG. 21B illustrates a back view of the vest. FIG. 21C shows the novel vest in an unfolded position and shows fusion scams (140C) that break up the interior of the vest into a multiplicity of channels so as to distribute cool air received through port (140A) from the blower to a number of points on the body.
  • [0108]
    Thus, FIG. 21C illustrates a typical pattern for the portion of the vest adjacent the body. The vest may be made of plastic coated paper or any other suitable material. The paper may be fused to a light plastic member along the exterior perimeter thereof to form a disposable vest having a plastic sheet on one side and a paper sheet on the other. Illustrated is a vest with a “total loss” system. However, a second port or return port (not shown) may be provided if a “semi-closed” system is desired.
  • [0109]
    FIG. 22 illustrates a gown (201) to be worn by an individual, which gown (201) is attached to a cool air source including a container (216), via hose (218). The container (216) may be similar to any of the cooling devices disclosed above or may be any other suitable source of cool air. Gown (201) may, in a preferred embodiment, be rectangular and comprised of outer member (201A) and inner member (201B), the two members similarly dimensioned and joined at an outer perimeter (201C), as well as at an inner perimeter (201D), the inner perimeter defining a head hole (203). Any scaling means, such as glue, heat or the like, may be used to seal the inner and outer members. The inner and outer members may be joined so as to define in members (202A and 202B) and longitudinal members (204A through 204F); The function of end members, longitudinal members or other sealing between the inner and outer members is to create chambers within the gown to channel cool air received into the gown uniformly throughout the gown so as to provide uniform cooling to the wearer. The gown may include an inflatable segment (208). The underside may contain a multiplicity of small holes of perforations (210) therein. Gown (201) may be include one or more ports (206A and 206B). Both ports may be provided to bring cool air from a cool air source into the gown or one may be used for a return port as in a “semi-closed” system. The gown is typically worn like a surgeon's gown and it may be tied off by ties.
  • [0110]
    FIGS. 22A and 22B illustrate a system (300) including an ice chest (302) or other ice containing insulated container for providing cool air in a semi-closed system to a vest or other article (304). Motors (306) may be provided in the “out” and/or “return” lines as illustrated in FIG. 22A and a temperature regulator (308) may be provided in the “out” (cool air) line to the vest. Temperature regulator box (308) may include a rectangular housing (308A) for receiving air and passing air there through in a wire line (309) controlled butterfly valve (308B) which may be open to allow warmer air to mix with cool air. These are member which may be included in a system for cooling an individual, which system contains a perforated garment, bag or blanket to be used adjacent the wearer. Cool air may be provided by the unique devices enclosed herein or any other suitable device.
  • [0111]
    FIGS. 23A and 23B illustrate inflatable members for receiving cool air including: a sleeping bag (310) here “mummy bag” and a rectangular cooling blanket (312).
  • [0112]
    FIG. 24 illustrates a configuration that allows air to be drawn into a blower box (400) from a room air conditioner outlet (402) to a flexible duct (404). The blower box (400) includes a blower motor for (406) and one or more foot control pedals (408) to control the flow and pressure to one or more blower box outlets (410) which can be connected by conduits to one or more surgical garments for cooling of the surgeons.
  • [0113]
    Applicant's cooling blanket, sleeping, vest and other cool air receiving inflatable garments set forth herein provide cool micro environments to a wearer. They typically include an impermeable outer shell and a perforated or porous inner lining which will allow cool air to filter to the user to maintain thermal barrier against outside heat. A blower will typically produce sufficient cool air flow to keep the garment filled. One may recirculate previously cooled air to the cooling chamber (via ice, dry ice or even an air conditioning coil) to be cooled again and again. Two advantages are achieved by applicants cool air inflated garments. First, air is a good insulator and thus an effective thermal barrier is created between the wearer and his environment. Second, active cooling occurs (in the “total loss” or “semi-closed” systems) by providing a draft of cool air directed to the skin.
  • [0114]
    FIGS. 25A through FIG. 38 illustrate another novel cooling system (and parts thereof) for use in a surgical theatre or operating room or any other area or environment which cooling of the body is required or desirable.
  • [0115]
    Radiant heat gain from the surgical lights is a primary reason why a surgeon sweats profusely beneath his cloth surgical outer gown. As the wattage of surgical lights in an operating room may range between 2000 and 10,000 watts, radiant heat gain may be extensive and severe. Temperatures beneath the surgical gown may reach
  • [0116]
    F, as radiant heat is conducted through the gown to the skin causing sweating and discomfort. To combat this, the surgeon and other gowned personnel will often drop operating room air temperatures down to between 55 and 68 degrees F. Hot surgeons are the primary reason for cold operating rooms. Cold operating rooms lead to problems with surgical patient hypothermia and it's attendant ramifications and patient complications.
  • [0117]
    To help overcome these and other problems, applicant provides a novel cooler vest which is designed to control the local micro environment of the surgeon (or any other wearer) to make this micro environment comfortable despite a harsh macro environment.
  • [0118]
    While Applicant's vest design has a number of components, variations and modifications, it is designed for the surgeon or other medical personnel. However, it may equally benefit any other person who requires control of the micro environment as a result of extreme ambient conditions. One or more of the features discussed below will prove to be beneficial of the user of the cooler vest.
  • [0119]
    The cooler vests helps eliminate moisture build up adjacent the skin. Elimination of moisture from skin in a tightly enclosed environment will help relieve the discomfiture that is the result of wearing current tight fitting waterproof garments. Applicant's novel cooler vest utilizes a rapidly moving and pressurized column of cool air to prevent radiant heat from the surgical lights from getting into the body of the surgeon and thus making him hot and uncomfortable. This column or columns of cooled air is either drawn and filtered from the coolest air in the room (usually adjacent the floor) or heat exchange coils such as an air conditioner, or from Applicant's novel sources of cooled air disclosed herein. When Applicant's cooler vest is used beneath the standard prior art surgical gown, the rapid movement of air washing out the naturally occurring humidity allows the surgeon to be comfortable.
  • [0120]
    As radiant heat gain is also a primary cause of surgeon overheating and discomfort Applicant's novel cooler vest may eliminate this heat from reaching the surgeon by the use of a swift column of cool air moving through the cooler vest which is typically worn beneath the sterile gown. The cool air of Applicant's cooler vest absorbs heat beneath the gown and blows cool air out through vents at the neck and axillae and via perforations on the inner skin of the cooler vest.
  • [0121]
    To assist in the dehumidification beneath the gown and cooling, Applicant's novel cooler vest has multiple holes on the inner surface of the vest and also ports a rapidly moving air stream toward the chest, back, neck, axillae and flanks at about 2 to 3 miles an hour. This moving air is ported within the vest and posteriorly and exhausted through backward (posterior) pointing vents, away from the surgical field to help prevent contamination. Applicant may also provide the inner surface of the surgical vest with a multiplicity of ports so as to direct air from the pressurized column directly against the skin of the wearer at a 2 to 3 mile an hour breeze thus dehumidifying and cooling the skin.
  • [0122]
    Further protection against radiant heat gain may be provided by utilizing an outer surface of the cooler vest that incorporates a metallized film or other appropriate barrier onto such outer surface. With this feature the cooler vest will reflect very significant portions of radiant heat falling on the surgical gown, thus keeping the surgeon cooler. This radiant barrier may be applied to the surface of the outer plastic skin of the vest or integrated into the plastic skin itself. One material that may be used for this outer skin is Dupont Eagle-ShieldŽ a reflective plastic sheet.
  • [0123]
    Airflow from Applicant's novel cooler vest is typically directed posteriorly to prevent potentially contaminated air from being directed toward a patient with open surgical wounds. However airflow from the cooler vest may be modified to direct all neck vents and other vents upward toward the head and neck whether anteriorly or posteriorly, when contamination is not deemed to be a problem.
  • [0124]
    Airflow within the cooler vest is pressurized to at least about 1″ of water pressure (preferably 6 to 15 inches) with flows high enough to pressurize the tubes and to effect a slight breeze within a surgical gown, with all out flow typically directed posteriorly. This has the effect of washing out skin generated humidity and therefore discomfort. While the outer skin is typically impermeable without perforations except for directed jets at exposed skin, the inner surface of the vest typically has ports or jets to “breath” cool air against the skin of the wearer.
  • [0125]
    Thus, the prevention of heat gain from surgical or other light sources and further washout of any radiant heat gain that may be conducted through the outer garment to the skin, along with the washout of skin generated humidity are the principal means by which the cooler vest prevents discomfort to the wearer. Applicant provides a combination, in a micro environment, of radiant heat gain prevention, dehumidification, and thermal washout using pressurized air columns, radiant heat barrier and posterior venting of exhausted air.
  • [0126]
    Applicant provides a novel cooler gown or vest 500 which is comprised of an outer surface 502 and an inner surface 504 for covering all or part of the torso, and typically worn under a surgical Sg. The outer surface and the inner surface define a body formed into a multiplicity of air carrying tubes 506 pressured from any source 501 of high pressure cool air sufficient to maintain tube inflation, including any cool air source disclosed herein. Cooler gown or vest 500 may include a multiplicity of jets 508, which jets are directed to exposed skin typically posteriorly. The tubes 506 are in gaseous communication with an inlet port 510 which is fed cool air from a cool air hose 514. Optionally an outlet port 512 may be provided to exhaust any air remaining in the tubes. Typically, however, all air is exhausted through the jets. A valve 640 may be provided at the vest for controlling the amount of air entering the vest. Also provided, as will be seen with respect to FIGS. 36A-36C below, is a foot operated air pressure and air flow regulator. Either may be used, or both.
  • [0127]
    Cooler gown or vest 500 is typically worn under the typical lightweight cotton surgical gown Sg. The inner fabric of cooler gown or vest 500 may include inner surface jets 516 which direct air directly to the surface of the wearer. The inner surface 504 may be made from a breathable or non breathable fabric and may be with or without the inner surface ports or jets 516. One material used for the inner surface may be a lightweight paper or cotton.
  • [0128]
    Outer surface 502 may be made with or without a radiant barrier such as a metallic or reflective foil. One material for use as an outer surface is lightweight plastic or Dupont Eagle-ShieldŽ) plastic. The outer and inner surfaces are preferably made from fabric between 1 and 50 mil thick, most preferably between 2 and 12 mil thick.
  • [0129]
    FIGS. 26 through 28 illustrate Applicant's novel cooler vest 500 with inner surface ports or jets 516 breathing cool air from pressurized tubes directly to the skin of the wearer—in other words these inner surface jets generally are directed against the skin that is covered by the inner surface of the cooler vest. On the other hand, jets 508 are typically directed to exposed skin that is not covered by the cooler gown 500. FIG. 27 illustrates the effect of the use of a radiant heat barrier such as Dupont Eagle-ShieldŽ plastic 518. Surgical gown Sg is a typical prior art surgical gown and Applicant's novel cooler vest 500 is typically worn beneath it.
  • [0130]
    FIG. 28 illustrates a multiplicity of jets 508 formed in a manner set forth below, which typically direct airflow posteriorly at the neck and towards the midline of the armpit at the axillae. The underside of the cooler vest is formed from fabric or paper that conforms to the contours of the human body and is appropriately perforated to diffuse cool air to the torso from the vest.
  • [0131]
    FIGS. 29A and 29B illustrate the use of Applicant's novel cooler vest beneath a “spacesuit” or encompassing surgical gown 520. Here, a simple modification of the cooler vest with an anterior facing jet vent at the base of the neck provides a flow of cool air which will not only clear face plate 526 but will provide a refreshing airflow to the entire face and scalp. Thus, Applicant provides a novel variation having anteriorly directed jets 522 that do not risk contamination because of the use of the enclosure around the head. Further, air may be exhausted through a posteriorly directed vent 524. This directs all potentially contaminated air away from the surgical field. Anterior facing vent or jet 522 forces a stream of air against face plate 526 clearing it of fog and condensation. Some of the pressurized air in the tubes of the cooler vest circulates through the hood and exits posteriorly through vent 524 and some exits through jets 516 or exits through the back of the surgical gown if an outlet port 512 is utilized. Such “spacesuits” 520 are now frequently used during circumstances where the patient is at a special risk getting or giving an infection from or to surgical personnel. This gown traps perspiration more than regular gown Sg and moisture is not uncommon on the faceplate 526 of the surgical hood. Thus, the use of Applicant's novel cooler vest 500 with some of the modifications set forth in FIGS. 29A and 29B will prove beneficial.
  • [0132]
    FIGS. 30A and 30B illustrate additional features of Applicant's novel cooler vest 500 as well as mechanisms for airflow regulation and direction within and about the cooler vest. These figures illustrate the use of welds 528, blocker welds 530, a manifold 532 and tube intake ports 534. Cool air from a cool air source is directed to the cooler vest 500 through the use of cool air hose 514. This cool air may be deposited into a common area or manifold 532 which feeds the pressurized tubes through a multiplicity of tube intake ports 534. The tubes are defined by seams or welds 528 between the outer surface 502 and inner surface 504 may be and manufactured in a manner set forth below. Variations in the size of the opening of each air tube at tube intake port 534 may be used to regulate the amount of airflow and direction within the vents. One could also include the angulation of a particular tube to the main access of the airflow, as illustrated in FIG. 3013 to control the airflow in that tube. Tubes that are in a direct line with the airflow from air hose 514 tend to get more airflow than tubes that are on an angle or that have narrower tube intake ports. Likewise, FIG. 30B illustrates the use of blocker welds 530 to partially block one or more of the inlet ports of the air tubes. The frequency and length of weld openings 535 in the welds create sections of cross flow between one tube and an adjacent tube to increase or decrease localized air flow areas of the vest as desired. More openings and/or larger openings will typically increase such cross flow.
  • [0133]
    FIG. 30A illustrates that differences in the sizes and spacing of the inner surface jets 516 may be used to regulate airflow and direction within the vest. Smaller and/or fewer holes would decrease airflow and larger or a greater multiplicity of holes will increase airflow. The same may be done for the vents or jets 508 that are designed to wash and cool exposed skin. Smaller jets or a fewer number of these jets will decrease airflow and larger or greater number of these jets will increase airflow. Further, as illustrated in FIGS. 30A and 30B there may be differences in the sizes (diameter) and number of air tubes 506. Moreover, air pressure in cooled air hose 514 may be regulated by or more of Applicant's novel regulation means disclosed and/or by any other conventional means known in the prior art.
  • [0134]
    FIG. 31 illustrates a system for cooling personnel at fixed commercial operations. FIG. 31 illustrates, for example, a multiuse system on an assembly line. Illustrated is the use of a conventional cold air source 536 such as an air conditioner or other heat exchanger or other means of producing cold air or the use of one of Applicant's novel air chilling devices 538 as disclosed herein. Providing cool air pressure and a pump feed line 542 (low side) to a pump 540 such as an air pressuring pump or a regenerative pump which will produce cool high pressure in a downstream high pressure line 544. One or more directable nozzles or personal ports 546 may be used to cool air adjacent working personnel. Further, cool air from high pressure line 544 may be directed, through the use of cool air hose 514 to Applicant's novel cooler vest 500. Thus, Applicant, in FIG. 31 illustrates a multiple use system utilizing and distributing cool air from a conventional cold air source 536 or one of Applicant's novel cool air sources 538 to workers at a fixed commercial operation. FIG. 37 illustrates a cooled cushion, that may also be fed with line 544 in the setting set forth in FIG. 31.
  • [0135]
    Turning now to FIG. 32A Applicant discloses a mobile commercial operation using the cooler vest 500. In this system a motor vehicle 548 which may contain a standard air conditioning system and/or one of the novel cold air sources 538 disclosed herein may be used to cool a worker wearing a cooler vest 500. A motor vehicle air conditioner adaptor and hose apparatus 552 may be used to duct air from the air conditioning system of the motor vehicle to a pump 540 which will then pump the cool air through cool air hose 514 to the cooler vest 500. Pump 540 may be powered by a lead 554 which will engage the electrical system of the automobile through, for example, a DC outlet or the cigarette lighter outlet of the motor vehicle. FIG. 32B illustrates a “T” junction 551 for placement in a line carrying cool air from an auto air conditioner unit to the air conditioner outlets in the auto's interior. Hose apparatus 552 is placed on the leg of the “r and a valve 553 is placed in the upstream arm of the “T” junction. Closing valve 553, such as a butterfly valve, will shunt cool air from the a/c unit to gown or vest 500.\
  • [0136]
    FIG. 33 illustrates a manner for compound manufacturing of Applicant's novel cooler vest 500. This method utilizes three rolling drums 556, 558 and 560. Drum 556 is a vacuum forming drum for the plastic outer skin. Drum 558 is a heated drum for forming and contouring the fabric or paper inner skin that comprises the cooler vest. Drum 560 is a heated receiver roller drum for the fabric or paper inner skin. Arrows show the direction of drum rotation. Drum 556 is fed plastic film 562. It is formed in the surface thereof cavity 564 including projections 566 and 568 which define the shape of the outer skin of the cooler vest.
  • [0137]
    The drums are matched and interlock physically and speedwise. Drum 556 rolls a sheet of plastic film (the plastic may be preheated for vacu-forming) onto a cavity and is vacu-formed to the contours of the plastic outer skin of the cooler vest, complete with preformed channels such that the final product will conform to the human torso without collapsing those channels. Vents 508 (sec FIG. 25A) are formed at this time. A recessed and movable steel cubing rule 565 is embedded at the edge of the forming recess and comes out to cut the formed vest after the tubes are welded together. Recess 569 on projection 568 of drum 558 receives this steel rule from drum 556. Fused paper/plastic 570 results from heat and pressure between drums 556 and 558. Paper 572 is fed between drums 558 and 560 and is formed to define the inner surface of the vest, and any vents or ports therein when projection 568 of drum 558 matches and seats with recess 574 on drum 560. Drums 558 and 560 together form the fabric or paper inner skin of the cooler vest. They interlock to form the inner skin.
  • [0138]
    Drum 556 may carry a flash heater on the edges of the projections around which the chambers or tubes are formed such that as the plastic is rolled into contact with the paper at drum 558 the flash heater is activated and the paper and plastic are welded together. After such welding the recessed cutting steel rule of drum 556 is activated and fires into the recess 569 of drum 558 cutting out the cooler vest so formed and welded. The vest drops away from the spoil of the fused plastic/paper roll. The vests are then vacuumed free of all remaining air after the injection molded pieces are attached and then folded and packaged ready for boxing up and sale. Thus the cooler vest is manufactured to conform to the contours of the human torso without collapsing the air tubes. Vacuum forming roller drums, flash heaters and recess rules are used for continuous manufacturing synchronously in an automated assembly line. Other known means of joining paper and plastic together such as heat fusion, glue, etc., may be used.
  • [0139]
    A number of blower boxes or other sources of pressurized cool air are disclosed in this patent application. Further, prior art sources of pressurized cool air also exist. Applicant provides in connection with FIGS. 34 through 36C an apparatus for easily and positively connecting a cooler air hose with a blower box. For example, turning to FIG. 34 Applicant discloses a wall of a blower box wall 580 which includes a spring loaded flap door 582 biased to spring inward, and will open in response to the insertion of a hose connector 590. Spring loaded door 582 is designed to cover port 583 where the cool air hose is connected and disconnected. In such a configuration, hinge 584 which may include a spring, will bias the flap door 582 towards a closed position. Wall 580 of the blower box includes an outlet shroud 586 with canted inner walls 587. The canted inner walls 587 include pin receiving holes 588 for receiving pins 592. A hose connector 590, which is typically connected to a hose for transporting cool air from the blower box to a source, includes canted outer walls 591. Outer walls 591 are canted at about the same angle as inner walls 587 and are designed to effect a seal between inner walls 587 and outer walls 591 when hose connector 590 is pushed through port 583 and biased locking pins 592 located at the ends of a locking pin spring 594 seat into pin receiving holes 588. Note that the nose of the hose connector 590 will urge door 582 out of the closed position thus effecting a flow of air through the hose connector 590 to a remote source.
  • [0140]
    FIG. 35A illustrates another view of the hose connector 590 for use with a blower box. In this figure hose connector 590 is seen to include an annular ejector ring 598 at the end of the hose connector that attaches to the hose 596. That is, where hose connector 590 joins hose 596 ejector ring is located for use with Applicant's novel hose ejector plate seen in FIG. 36, for disconnecting the hose from the blower box.
  • [0141]
    FIG. 35B illustrates a coupler 600 which has a tapered inner surface 602. The walls of the coupler include pin receiving pocket 604. This will allow coupling between the cooler vest and a hose such as hose 596 or cool air hose 514 to bring cool air to the cooler vest.
  • [0142]
    FIGS. 36A to 36C provide for and illustrate a design and structure that will allow for the cool air hose to be disconnected from the cool air box through the use of a loot pedal. Also disclosed is a foot pedal that will allow the operator to control the amount of cool air provided to the hose an therefore to any downstream device, including a cooler vest. The use of such foot controls allows “hands free” operation of the blower box to allow the operator's hands to be otherwise occupied—for example a surgeon performing surgery.
  • [0143]
    FIGS. 36A through 36C illustrates Applicant's use of a hose disconnect foot operated apparatus 606 and an air regulatory apparatus 610, also foot operated. Disconnect apparatus 606 includes foot pedal 608 which includes hinge 609, which hinge is engaged to blower box, typically at wall 580. Foot operated pedal 608 includes an arm 608A on which a plate 60813 is mounted, the arm and plate dimensioned to fit between ejector ring 598 of hose connector 590 and the outer perimeter of outlet shroud 586 when the hose connector 590 is fully seated in the shroud and spring loaded flap door 582 articulating on a spring 601 is in the open position.
  • [0144]
    FIG. 38D is an exploded view of a rotary valve for use with Applicant's present invention. The blower box may sit on suction cup feet 612 to assist in stabilizing the blower box and positively affixing it to the floor (positioned, for example, under an operating table). In the alternative, the blower box and controls may be attached to the pedestal that supports the operating table. For the regulation of air, Applicant provides air regulatory foot pedal 614 pivoting on hinge 611 engaged to the blower box, for example, on an upper wall thereof through the use of a hinge point. Foot pedal 614 pivoting on hinge 611 engages a slide 616 which slide can move between a pair of walls defining a slide guide 618. Slide actuator arm 620 connects slide 616 to regulatory foot pedal 614 as set forth in FIGS. 36B and 36C. Slide 616 is held in place adjacent to the proximal open end of hose connector 590 when the hose connector is properly seated in the cooler box. Depressing the near end of foot pedal 614 will push the slide down and allow it to selectively cut off some or all of the airflow from the pressurized blower box through hose 596. Pressing the foot pedal on the removed end will allow the slide to raise and allow more cool air to enter hose 596. As illustrated in FIG. 36C there may be several hose disconnect apparatuses 606 as well as several air regulatory apparatuses 610 engaged with the single blower box.
  • [0145]
    FIG. 37 illustrates a novel cool cushion microenvironment for cooling a seated individual. Applicant's novel cool cushion 630 is typically comprised of a peripheral pipe 632 that may act as both a frame and a means for distributing cool air. Peripheral pipe 632 acting as a frame will help support a foam 633 (or other non-inflated support base) and one or more inflatable, perforated air bladders 634, typically one adjacent the buttocks and one adjacent the lower back. A cool air feed hose 635 is provided to feed air to peripheral pipe 632 for distribution throughout cool cushion 630. Peripheral pipe 632 may have one or more extensions 632A provided to carry pressurized cool air from feed hose 635 into one or more of the perforated air bladders 634. Also, attached to peripheral pipe 632 are one or more directional jets 636 for venting cool air onto a seated occupant. In FIG. 37 a lower articulated directional jet 636 is provided for cooling the torso and/or face. Likewise a fixed posterior neck and scalp jet 637 is provided for cooling the neck and scalp area. Adjacent the sidewalls of the cool cushion are illustrated a pair of lateral articulated directional jets for the scalp, face, neck and axillae. A slide valve 638 is provided for regulating air at one or more of the jets. Also, rotary valve 640 may be used for regulating air entering the cool cushion or air entering the jets as disclosed in FIGS. 38A-38D. Rotary valve 640 consists of a pair of semicircular vanes 640A and 640B which are set against each other, placed in a housing 640C with a slot opening and rotated one with respect to the other to provide for a fully open valve (FIG. 38A), hall open valve as illustrated in FIG. 38B and a closed valve as illustrated in FIG. 38C or any variation between these positions.
  • [0146]
    Turning now to FIGS. 39 and 40, a system 700 is provided which will provide cool air for any device requiring cool air, including without limit, the devices as disclosed herein. A column of an endothermic substance ES, such as ice, is “folded” in a unique manner defining, typically, serpentine flow of air through an insulated box or container 702 between an inlet 706 and an outlet 710 thereof, driven by a blower 712 as set forth in the figures. It is seen that the air is forced in a serpentine manner to flow, by a series of dividers 718 and 720, the dividers joined to the inner side walls of box or container 702 through the serpentine manner. This is because dividers 718 and 720 are staggered to define lower gaps 722 and upper gaps 724, the upper gaps typically defined in part by the underside of lid 704 when it is engaged with the top perimeter of container 702. The lower gaps are between the bottom edge of dividers 720 and the floor of the container.
  • [0147]
    Blower 712 may be mounted on top the lid 704 or in of an alternate embodiment, blower may be mounted near the top of the end wall opposite inlet 706 (see FIG. 4D). It is seen that inlet 706 is usually located near the bottom of a wall, such as an end wall, and outlet 710 is usually located on the top or near the top and on the far side from inlet 706. However, the placements of inlet 706 and outlet 710 may be varied.
  • [0148]
    Drain 708 is typically provided to drain off water when an endothermic substance, such as ice, melts. The ice is seen to be packed into the column 705 created by dividers 718 and 720. The column is seen to be defined by the airflow shown by the arrows in FIG. 39. Blower 712 is provided with a blower outlet 716, which outlet may be attached to any air conduit or tube for providing air to any article downstream of blower 712, including, without limit, the vests, gowns, daggers, etc. disclosed herein.
  • [0149]
    Decreases in temperature and humidity by a column of ice or any other endothermic substance is proportional to the mass of that substrate available for interaction with the air column and the surface area of the endothermic substance available for interaction. Applicant, with the “folded” column 705, provides a longer and larger surface area over which the air column flows for greater cooling and greater condensation of humidity out of the air column. Therefore, enlarging the surface of the air column will result in greater cooling and less humidity of the upward air.
  • [0150]
    In prior art ice based coolers, “burn holes” may appear where the path of lowest resistance to air flow occurs. This results in melting of ice along a burn hole without affecting ice in other areas. Indeed, if the burn hole enlarges, even less resistance occurs and therefore is an even greater inefficiency. The ice must then be jostled to collapse the burn hole, filling it, and therefore increasing efficiency of the device.
  • [0151]
    By adding dividers and gap to the space filled with ice, airflow can be redirected into a longer path, folded upon itself, and effectively creating a longer heat absorbent path through the ice by exposing the air column to greater surface area of the ice—including avoiding burn holes. Therefore, the air would be cooler and dryer than could be driven by a burn hole path through the ice.
  • [0152]
    As set forth herein, ice can be any endothermic substrate. These may include all physical change of state, chemical, electromagnetic, electrostatic, and electrochemical reactions.
  • [0153]
    In this process, the endothermic substrate may be used at a greater rate and the overall time of cooling may be shortened, but effectiveness of cooling and drying of the air will be greater. Further, the consumption of the endothermic substrate will be more complete with less waste. In the case of electrostatic and electromagnetic cooling surfaces, more work will be done in the same airflow and therefore possibly energy consumed, but far greater cooling achieved.
  • [0154]
    It is seen that Applicant's dividers may extend across and perpendicular to a pair of spaced apart sidewalls and either join flush with the floor 718 or flush with the top perimeter and lid 704. Removal of lid 704 allows packing of the substrate into the box and the areas between and around the dividers. Moreover it is seen in FIG. 40 that the blower may be engaged with a manifold 714, the manifold for joining a multiplicity of outlets 710. FIG. 40 also shows that a multiplicity of inlets may be provided, rather than a single inlet. Further, the blower can either suck air through box 720 by generating a vacuum or force air into it by generating a positive ambient air pressure within the box as compared to ambient.
  • [0155]
    FIG. 42 illustrates that there may be a subfloor compartment 723 which will be separated from the floor of the container. The floor of the container will have small holes 721 through which water (from melting ice, for example) may drain. The water may then be drained from subfloor compartment 723 through drain 708. Drain 708 may be in communication with a flexible hose, tube or the like for further draining water away from the system.
  • [0156]
    Holes 719 may be provided near the bottom of dividers 718 to provide fluid communication with drain 708 to allow water, which may accumulate from melting ice, to drain out of the box, so as to prevent water buildup and potential hydraulic blockage of the serpentine air column 705 (see FIG. 42).
  • [0157]
    Air-conditioners, heaters, and other devices which change fluid temperatures via a heat exchanger usually make a single pass of the fluid at right angles to the orientation of the plane of the heat-exchanger, as in FIG. 43.
  • [0158]
    This limits the surface area of the heat exchanger to which each unit of airflow may be exposed to the cold (or heat) produced by the heat-exchanger.
  • [0159]
    Re-orienting airflow through a heat exchanger increases the resistance to flow from the heat-exchanger itself. To preserve airflow through the device, greater pressure is needed to drive the air through the heat-exchanger. Doing this, however, leaves each unit of airflow in much greater contact with the cold (or hot) radiant surface for a longer period of time. This results in much more efficient temperature exchange between air (or any other fluid) and the heat-exchanger, resulting in much colder (or hotter) air than is otherwise possible. An example of this is the Lateral Air-Flow Path as seen in FIG. 44.
  • [0160]
    Variations of the lateral path may result in different orientations of airflow snaking around the radiation fins of the heat exchanger in order to get greater exposure to the cold produced there and thereby get more efficient and greater cooling that air. These are the ‘Serpentine’ variations shown. These represent air-flow in the X-, Y-, and Z-axes, all of which may be viable for more efficient cooling of the air.
  • [0161]
    For any of these variations to work (including Lateral Path flow), the heat exchanger must be encased with a specific inlet and outlet so that pressurized air may be driven down that path, and no other. This makes such air-flow stay confined to the serpentine path through the heat-exchanger, and therefore typically effects greater cooling of the air.
  • [0162]
    Note all such cases typically will be fitted with a small drain so as to alleviate the condensation build-up from the heat-exchanger without becoming a notable source of pressure loss within the case. This preserves forward flow through the heat-exchanger.
  • [0163]
    Also notable, there should be a balance between the source of pressurized air and the coolant flow within the heat exchanger. A prototype test has produced temperatures as low as 19° F. and consistently produces temperatures below 32° F., despite the temperature being set for 86° F. This causes a problem with the heat-exchanger periodicly freezing itself shut having condensed humidity from the air into ice which builds up on the radiating fins and eventually seals them shut, preventing air-flow through the fins. The correct balance of airflow and coolant flow should keep temperatures between 32° F. and 40° F. This will effect much more efficient cooling without freezing up the heat exchanger.
  • [0164]
    FIGS. 45-47 illustrate alternate views of serpentine paths created by airflow dividers in alternate preferred embodiments of Applicant's present invention.
  • [0165]
    Although the invention has been described with reference to specific embodiments, this description is not meant to be construed in a limited sense. Various modifications of the disclosed embodiments, as well as alternative embodiments of the inventions will become apparent to persons skilled in the art upon the reference to the description of the invention. It is, therefore, contemplated that the appended claims will cover such modifications that fall within the scope of the invention.
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Referenced by
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US7926202 *Jan 17, 2006Apr 19, 2011Bsh Bosch Und Siemens Hausgeraete GmbhCondenser tumble-dryer
US8194406 *Sep 23, 2009Jun 5, 2012International Business Machines CorporationApparatus and method with forced coolant vapor movement for facilitating two-phase cooling of an electronic device
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U.S. Classification62/259.3, 62/407
International ClassificationF25D17/04, F25D31/00
Cooperative ClassificationB60H1/00264, Y02E60/147, F24F5/0017, F24F2221/38, F24F2221/12, A41D13/0025, B60H1/3235
European ClassificationA41D13/002B, B60H1/00B2, B60H1/32S, F24F5/00C5