US 20100160914 A1
Single use or disposable cutting blocks and methods for utilizing same are disclosed. The blocks are preferably constructed of polymer and/or other suitable low cost and light weight materials. The blocks may be adapted for use with low friction cutting instruments, as well as other such cutting instruments. Several differently sized and configured blocks may be utilized to perform a single surgical procedure. In addition, kits housing one or more such blocks, with or without other instruments are possible.
1. A kit for use in performing a surgical procedure, the kit comprising:
at least one cutting block constructed of a polymeric material, the cutting block having at least one guiding surface; and
at least one cutting instrument suitable for use with the cutting block, the cutting instrument including an oscillating portion and a non-oscillating portion,
wherein the oscillating portion is adapted to be guided along the guiding surface of the cutting block with no portion of the cutting instrument interconnected with the cutting block and the oscillating portion is spaced from the guiding surface.
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16. A kit for use in performing a surgical procedure, the kit comprising:
a first cutting block adapted to make a single resection across the distal end of a femur of the patient, the first cutting block constructed of a polymeric material and having a first guiding surface;
a second cutting block adapted to make a anterior and posterior resections of the femur of the patient, the second cutting block constructed of a polymeric material and having a second guiding surface;
a third cutting block adapted to make anterior and posterior chamfer resections of the femur of the patient, the third cutting block constructed of a polymeric material and having a third guiding surface; and
at least one cutting instrument suitable for use with the cutting block, the cutting instrument including an oscillating portion and a non-oscillating portion,
wherein the oscillating portion is adapted to be guided along the first, second and third guiding surfaces with no portion of the cutting instrument interconnected with the first, second, and third cutting blocks and the oscillating portion is spaced from the first, second, and third guiding surfaces.
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This application is a divisional of U.S. application Ser. No. 11/368,562, filed on Mar. 6, 2006, the disclosure of which is incorporated herein by reference.
The present invention relates to the field of orthopedic surgery, and in particular, to disposable resection guides and methods of utilizing same for use during total joint replacement surgery.
Many surgical operations call for the accurate and precise cuts of bone or bone material. Typically, these cuts, or resections, are made using surgical saws or milling devices. These instruments, while excellent at actually performing such cuts, often times require the use of external guides in surgical procedures calling for accurate cuts. For example, a surgeon performing a total knee arthroplasty must make several cuts in the distal end of the femur to properly fit a prosthetic femoral component thereon. The position of such cuts ultimately determines the positioning and stability of the femoral component. Thus, if such resections are incorrectly made, the surgery can result in failure and require further corrective procedures.
For this and other reasons, surgeons often employ the use of surgical cutting guides, known also as cutting blocks. These blocks typically include guiding surfaces which aid in guiding the cutting device during the cutting of the bone material. These guiding surfaces may simply be flat surfaces, or in certain cases, open slots which allow a cutting instrument to be inserted and guided therethrough. One specific type of cutting block is a block utilized during a total knee arthroplasty having four guiding surfaces utilized to create four cuts on an already at least partially resected distal portion of the femur. These guides are typically mounted on a prepared distal femoral surface, and the four cuts are generally referred to as anterior and posterior cuts, and anterior and posterior chamfer cuts. Examples of these femoral cutting blocks are shown in U.S. Pat. No. 5,454,816 to Ashby, U.S. Pat. No. 6,258,095 to Lombardo et al., U.S. Pat. No. 6,558,391 to Axelson, Jr. et al, and U.S. Pat. App. Pub. No. 2005/0228393 to Williams et al., the respective disclosures of which are hereby incorporated by reference herein.
While cutting blocks such as those described above are useful in performing the various cuts on a bone, they have their drawbacks. Most importantly, the manufacturing costs associated with such blocks are often quite high. A standard block is typically constructed of a suitable metallic material machined from a solid block or from several solid pieces of a suitable metallic material assembled together to provide a block with one or more guiding surfaces which allow for the various cuts to be accurately and precisely performed. These materials and the manufacture and manipulation of same are generally costly. Often times, these relatively high manufacturing costs, require the expensive cutting blocks to be utilized in multiple surgeries. This re-use often requires the cleaning and sterilization of such a block prior to each use, which necessarily adds an additional per-use cost.
Further to the high manufacturing and per-use costs of utilizing such well known cutting blocks, multiple uses of a single block may cause the guiding surfaces or the like of such blocks to become less accurate and precise. More particularly, multiple uses of such devices may allow for the greater chance of misaligning a cutting tool, such as a flat oscillating saw blade, due to wear of the cutting guide surfaces. In addition, even the most widely utilized sterilization procedures may not totally prevent the spread of dangerous bacteria or the like, which may in turn cause life threatening infections or other illnesses. Hence, a cheap, single use cutting block would be advantageous for use in common orthopedic procedures.
Therefore, there exists a need for a single use cutting block that can be inexpensively manufactured, while maintaining the required precise and accurate guiding surfaces needed for making cuts.
A first aspect of the present invention is a method of performing a surgical procedure on a patient. In accordance with a first embodiment of this first aspect, the method may include the steps of providing at least one cutting block constructed of polymeric material, the cutting block having at least one guiding surface, providing a low friction cutting instrument suitable for cutting a bone of the patient, the cutting instrument having an oscillating portion and a non-oscillating portion, positioning the cutting block with respect to the bone of the patient and cutting a portion of the bone of the patient by guiding the low friction cutting instrument along the guiding surface of the cutting block. According to a preferred method, the oscillating portion of the cutting instrument preferably cuts the bone of the patient and the non-oscillating portion of the cutting instrument is preferably guided by the guiding surface of the cutting block.
The surgical procedure of the first aspect may be a total knee arthroplasty. Three cutting blocks may be utilized including a first cutting block adapted to make a single resection across the distal end of a femur of the patient, a second cutting block adapted to make anterior and posterior resections of the femur of the patient and a third cutting block adapted to make anterior and posterior chamfer resections of the femur of the patient. Further, the first cutting block may be J-shaped. The method may also include the step of affixing the cutting block to the bone of the patient. In accordance with certain embodiments of the first aspect, the cutting block or blocks may include non-polymer elements. In addition, the cutting instrument may be a surgical saw including a blade assembly having an oscillating blade head, and may or may not further include a motor, a battery and a trigger. Finally, it is noted that the positioning step may include the use of a navigation tracker.
A second aspect of the present invention is a kit for use in performing a surgical procedure. In accordance with at least one embodiment of the second aspect, the kit may include at least one cutting block constructed of a polymeric material and at least one cutting instrument suitable for use of the cutting block. The cutting instrument in accordance with this embodiment may include an oscillating portion and a non-oscillating portion.
The kit may also include a plurality of bone connecting means selected from the group consisting of pins, screws and nails. In one embodiment, the kit may include three cutting blocks wherein a first cutting block is adapted to make a single resection across the distal end of a femur of the patient, a second cutting block is adapted to make a anterior and posterior resections of the femur of the patient and a third cutting block is adapted to make anterior and posterior chamfer resections of the femur of the patient. Further, the first cutting block may be J-shaped. Still further, the cutting instrument may be a blade assembly for use with a surgical saw, the blade assembly having an oscillating blade head, wherein the blade assembly is adapted for use with a handpiece having a motor, a battery and a trigger. In certain preferred embodiments, the kit may be sterilizably packaged. Additionally, the kit may include one or more navigation trackers. Finally, it is contemplated to utilize two or more kits to perform a single surgery. For example, one kit which is site specific and one kit which is non-site specific. A site specific kit may include, for instance, one or more blocks adapted for making specific cuts on specific bone and, possibly, one or more trial implants directed to the specific bone, while a non-site specific kit may include one or more blade assemblies and one or more universal blocks which may be utilized in making cuts on different bones.
As used herein, when referring to bones or other parts of the body, the term “proximal” means closer to the heart and the term “distal” means more distant from the heart. The term “inferior” means toward the feet and the term “superior” means towards the head. The term “anterior” means towards the front part of the body or the face and the term “posterior” means towards the back of the body. The term “medial” means toward the midline of the body and the term “lateral” means away from the midline of the body.
The present invention relates to polymeric or otherwise relatively inexpensive cutting blocks or the like, as well as the use of such apparatus. These blocks may be designed for use in various surgical procedures. For example, as will be disclosed further below, blocks may be designed for use in a total knee arthroplasty. However, it is to be understood that blocks are contemplated for use in many different surgical procedures, such as surgeries relating to the shoulder joint, hip joint, spine, among other body portions. In addition, certain cutting blocks may be discussed herein in relation to use on a single bone or bone surface. However, such blocks may easily be modified, sized and/or configured for use in accordance with other portions of a patient's body.
Referring to the drawings, wherein like reference numerals represent like elements, there is shown in
As shown in
Although many different specific designs for J-block 10 may be realized,
Similar to the varying individual designs of block 10, many different manufacturing processes may be undertaken in order to produce such a block. For example, J-block 10, as shown in
Further, with regard to the manufacture of J-block 10, as mentioned above, it is contemplated to provide apertures 18, opening 20 and/or other portion of body 12 with a metal or other hardened material layer. This may be done during molding or even subsequent thereto. Clearly, such processes may increase the costs of manufacturing the block and may result in a heavier block. While certain particular manufacturing procedures for use in the production of block 10 are described above, it is clear that many different processes may be employed to produce many different block designs. For example, should the aforementioned voids 24 not be desired on the top and bottom surfaces of block 10, the particular manufacturing process may be altered. As mentioned above, in such a case, a mold being utilized may simply not include structures for ultimately producing voids 24 during the molding process. In addition, it is to be understood that those of ordinary skill in the art would readily recognize the many different manufacturing procedures which may be employed to produce a cutting block such as J-block 10.
In accordance with the present invention a second cutting block is depicted by itself in
Like block 10, block 110 may be of many different designs, constructed of many different types of materials, and many different manufacturing processes may be undertaken in order to produce such a block. For example, in accordance with the present invention, although shown in the figures as having a non-solid top surface 116, an embodiment of block 110 may be provided having a solid top surface. In fact, a solid cubic block, similar in functional design to block 110 is specifically contemplated. However, the non-solid top design of block 110 shown in
A third cutting block according to the present invention is depicted in
Chamfer resection block 210, like that of the above discussed blocks, may also include a plurality of cut outs or voids 222 which are created during the manufacture of the block. Once again, these voids 222 may allow for less polymeric or like material to be utilized in manufacturing the block, and thereby reduce the overall cost and weight of block 210. Finally, as shown in
A further embodiment of the above-discussed chamfer resection block is depicted in
The aforementioned different embodiment cutting blocks are all designed so as to be substantially constructed of a low cost material, such as polymers or the like. Given that such materials are often less durable and/or hard than typically utilized metals, it may be necessary to utilize special cutting tools during resections of bone material. For example, blocks 10, 110, 210 and 210′ may not be suitable for use with standard well-known oscillating cutting instruments, where the entire saw blade oscillates at a high speed, as cooperation with such instruments may cause the blocks to chip or otherwise deform along their respective cutting guide surfaces. Thus, it is contemplated to utilize cutting tools, such as saw blades that do not operate in such a fashion. Specifically, in certain embodiments, it is contemplated to utilize cutting tools which employ more static elements being supported by the cutting block surfaces in conjunction with blocks 10, 110, 210 and 210′.
One example of such a cutting instrument is broadly depicted in
Further, a saw head 316 extends forward from front plate 312 above trigger 314. The proximal end of blade assembly 302 is preferably removably fitted to head 316. Internal to head 316 is an oscillating head (not shown) which includes a pair of pins 318. Essentially, when blade assembly 302 is mounted to saw head 316, drive rods (not shown) engage pins 318. When the motor is actuated, the oscillating head and pins 318 oscillate, thereby causing the drive rods to reciprocate. Finally, a blade head 320 forms the most distal end of the blade assembly 302, with the aforementioned drive rods being attached thereto. The reciprocal movement of the drive rods causes blade head 320 to therefore oscillate back and forth in a cutting motion. In all, this means that the only exterior portion of blade assembly 302 which moves resides at its distal tip, i.e.—blade head 320. In addition, it is noted that blade head 320 is preferably situated at a different level than the remainder of assembly 302. Thus, as long as only the non-moving remaining portions of blade assembly 302 contact the respective polymeric guide surfaces of the above-described polymeric cutting blocks, even during initial cutting operations. Clearly, the aforementioned problems with such blocks becoming damaged or deformed may be avoided and provides a situation which is extremely beneficial to the orthopedic industry, as these relatively cheap and previously unusable cutting blocks, may now be utilized without fear of such drawbacks.
Obviously, the above description of saw 300 is a description of only one suitable device. In fact, the surgical saw patents include several embodiments which may be suitable for use with blocks 10, 110, 210 and 210′. In addition, it is to be understood that these blocks are not limited to use with this particular type of cutting instrument. Depending upon the material utilized in constructing the blocks, such may be used with well-know cutting instruments. For example, sufficiently hard polymers may be used in conjunction with normal oscillating saws. Additionally, other cutting instruments may exist that can be useful for use with blocks 10, 110, 210 and 210′. Those of ordinary skill in the art would readily recognize suitable cutting instruments.
One surgical method will now be described which make use of the above-described blocks and cutting instruments. Although this method relates to the use of such blocks during a total knee arthroplasty, it is to be recognized that each block may have utility in other surgical methods. For example, one or more of blocks 10, 110, 210 and/or 210′ may be utilized in a partial knee arthroplasty. In addition, certain of the blocks may be utilized in surgeries involving other portions of the body of a patient. Similarly, those of ordinary skill in the art would recognize that minor modifications in the size and/or shape of the above-described blocks and the below method may allow for operating on different body portions and/or or differently sized patients. Finally, although one particular surgical method is set forth below, it is to be understood that different and/or additional steps may be performed to achieve the same goal. For example, while discussed as being a total knee arthroplasty without attention to incision size or the like, blocks 10, 110, 210 and 210′ may be utilized in minimally invasive procedures or the like.
Initially in the surgical method, a surgeon will make an incision in the knee portion of a patient in order to expose both the distal end of the femur and the proximal end of the tibia. The femur will be designated with reference numeral 1 for the below discussions, and the tibia and tibial preparation steps will not be discussed herein. The latter being readily apparent to those of ordinary skill in the art. With the distal end of femur 1 being exposed, a surgeon first mounts J-block 10 on any one of the sides of the femur (best shown in
With block 10 properly mounted, a surgeon preferably utilizes a surgical saw, like saw 300, in conjunction with either surface 16 or surface 17. Essentially, the surgeon rides blade assembly 302 of saw 300 along either of these surfaces while blade head 320 cuts or resects the distal end of femur 1. It is the goal during this step of the method to provide one single flat surface extending across the distal end of femur 1. This single flat surface is important in the subsequent steps of this method, and is best shown in
Subsequent to removing J-block 10, the surgeon preferably creates a skim cut, which is shown in
With block 110 in position, saw 300 or the like may be utilized to complete cuts on both the anterior and posterior sides of femur 1. Essentially, the surgeon guides saw 300 or another suitable cutting instrument along anterior and posterior guiding surfaces 118 and 120, in order to create the relatively straight anterior and posterior resections best shown in
With surfaces 2, 4 and 5 having been made, the surgeon now preferably positions chamfer resection block 210 or 210′ on surface 2. If the aforementioned pins inserted through apertures 124 of block 110 remain, block 210′ may be connected thereto through the cooperation between the pins and apertures 219′. Alternatively, should only holes remain in surface 2, bone pins 220 of block 210 may be inserted therein. In this regard, it is noted that bone pins 220 of block 210 would preferably have a larger diameter than that of the aforementioned holes created by pins inserted through apertures 124 of block 110. Whatever the case, it is noted that interior bone pin apertures 124 of block 110 are preferably spaced apart the same distance as that of either apertures 219′ of block 210′ or bone pins 220 of block 210. Thus, the use of block 110 not only aids in the making of cuts which create surfaces 4 and 5, but also in further positioning either block 210 or 210′.
Once properly positioned and connected to the distal end of femur 1, block 210 or 210′ is preferably utilized to make necessary chamfer cuts. More particularly, anterior and posterior chamfer guiding surfaces 216 and 218 or 216′ and 218′ are utilized to guide saw 300 or the like in order to make cuts that create surfaces 6 and 7, as are best shown in
Given the many varying types of surgery which may be performed utilizing the blocks described herein, clearly such blocks and their use may also widely vary. For example, those of ordinary skill in the art would readily recognize that such blocks may be sized and configured in order to be useful in perform resections on other bones of the body of a patient. Clearly, certain of the blocks in their form shown herein, may already be suitable for such tasks. For instance, block 10 may be useful in preparing the proximal end of the tibia of a patient during a total knee arthroplasty or the like. Similarly, the above-described blocks may be designed so as to include additional and/or different elements. For example, rather than the various cutting instrument guiding surfaces, one or more of blocks 10, 110, 210 and/or 210′ may be configured so as to include a slot or other aperture suitable for guiding a cutting instrument. In such cases, the closed in guiding surfaces may ensure that a cutting blade or the like does not move away from the guiding surface, thereby lowering the overall accuracy and precision of the cut surface created in the bone material being prepared.
In addition, it is to be understood that blocks 10, 110, 210 and 210′ may also be varied in size in order to aid in the surgery of differently sized patients. For example, several differently sized variations of blocks 10, 110, 210 and 210′ may be provided in single or multiple kits for use during a surgical procedure. In addition to coupling differently sized blocks together, such blocks may also be coupled with cutting blades (such as cutting assembly 302 of saw 300) in a kit. This may provide the surgeon with one single kit useful in completely an entire surgery on many differently sized patients. In addition to such convenience, the single package or kit may also lower the costs associated with sterilizing all of the instruments and/or blocks, as all of the elements may be sterilized in one sterilization procedure. Similarly, each of these components may be contained within a single sterilized package.
Clearly, the aim of the present invention is to provide one or more blocks constructed of a low cost material that can be aligned with or without Navigation instruments to guide a saw blade or the like to make straight resections. Essentially, the main construct of each of the blocks is made from a low cost material, such as polymer materials which can be molded. Low cost metals or other materials can also be used in conjunction with the main construct for higher loaded areas, such as pins or precision components like mating features.
Preferably, the blocks of the present invention are to be utilized to guide a low friction cutting instrument, such as the aforementioned saw 300. In addition, it is noted that the blocks in accordance with the present invention would preferably be packaged in clean and sterile packages, using a method such as Gamma Radiation to sterilize same. In fact, it is contemplated to provide blocks of a construction which would deform in an unusable or noticeable fashion should steam be utilized to sterilize same. This may reduce the chance of reuse by unknowing or careless surgeons or other medical professionals.
The single use or disposable cutting blocks of the present invention have several advantages over reusable instruments. For one, such blocks may provide an increased cutting accuracy. A reusable resection guide typically gets damaged and worn with usage, while a single use block would be accurate for its one time use. In addition, the blocks of the present invention are clean sterile instruments that would be ready and available at each case. Reusable instruments are sometimes not cleaned properly and would have to be reprocessed, which could delay surgery if a second instrument is not readily available. In addition, instruments with holes or cavities are difficult to clean. Thus, their initial sterilized natured make the blocks of the present invention useful in reducing the chance of infection in a patient. Clearly, an unsterile instrument has a higher chance of going undetected in a reusable instrument than in a single use instrument. Not having to sterilize the instruments also reduces hospital processing time. Finally, the cutting blocks of the present invention may aid in improving visibility. Given that such blocks may be constructed of polymer material, it is noted that such material may be clear material. In this case, visibility may be increase for alignment, pinning and even cutting/resection.
Although the invention herein has been described with reference to particular embodiments, it is to be understood that these embodiments are merely illustrative of the principles and applications of the present invention. It is therefore to be understood that numerous modifications may be made to the illustrative embodiments and that other arrangements may be devised without departing from the spirit and scope of the present invention as defined by the appended claims.