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Publication numberUS20100193186 A1
Publication typeApplication
Application numberUS 12/699,575
Publication dateAug 5, 2010
Filing dateFeb 3, 2010
Priority dateFeb 3, 2009
Also published asWO2010091103A1
Publication number12699575, 699575, US 2010/0193186 A1, US 2010/193186 A1, US 20100193186 A1, US 20100193186A1, US 2010193186 A1, US 2010193186A1, US-A1-20100193186, US-A1-2010193186, US2010/0193186A1, US2010/193186A1, US20100193186 A1, US20100193186A1, US2010193186 A1, US2010193186A1
InventorsDavid R. Smith
Original AssigneeSmith David R
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method and apparatus to construct and log a well
US 20100193186 A1
Abstract
The present invention is directed a method of constructing a well and then production logging the unique well construction. More specifically, this invention is directed to a method of logging subterranean reservoirs though a unique well construction apparatus wherein the well fluid is flowed to surface via a separate conduit from the conduit where the logging operation is performed.
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Claims(39)
1. A method of logging of subterranean reservoirs comprising:
(a) constructing a well in the earth comprising a wellbore and a first conduit inserted inside said wellbore, said first conduit forming a fluid path from a location at or above surface through said first conduit to at least one subterranean reservoir;
(b) inserting a second conduit and a third conduit inside said first conduit with a proximal end of said second and third conduit at surface and a distal end of said second and third conduit inside said wellbore at or below a point in the wellbore where fluid enters the wellbore, wherein said distal ends of said first and second conduits are at the same or different depths from surface;
(c) inserting at least one logging tool tube from surface through at least one of the second or third conduits inside said first conduit, said logging tool tube comprising a logging tool, said logging tool tube comprising beryllium; and,
(d) taking at least one measurement with said logging tool and logging said subterranean reservoir with said measurement.
2. The method of claim 1, further comprising the steps of modifying fluid production rate through one of said second and third conduit in view of said at least one measurement.
3. The method of claim 2, wherein said step of modifying fluid production comprises modifying fluid production with a choke.
4. The method of claim 1, further comprising the step of producing fluids through one of said second and third conduit, and wherein said logging tool tube is inserted through the other of said second and third conduits.
5. The method of claim 1, wherein at least one of said second or third conduit comprise a perforation from an internal wall diameter to an outer wall diameter at one or more locations along its length other than at its proximal or distal ends.
6. The method of claim 5, wherein the method further comprises collecting data at said perforation with said logging tool tube.
7. The method of claim 1, wherein said logging tool is a logging tool suite.
8. The method of claim 7, wherein the logging tool further comprises a device selected from the group consisting of a pressure measurement device, a flow measurement device, a temperature measurement device, a well depth correlation device, and any combination thereof.
9. The method of claim 7, wherein said logging tool suite comprises an inflatable elastomeric device.
10. The method of claim 9, further comprising the steps of inflating and deflating said elastomeric device with fluid pressure transmitted down the logging tube.
11. The method of claim 7, further comprising the step of transmitting data from said logging tool suite to a surface data recorder.
12. The method of claim 1, wherein said logging tool tube comprises an electrical wire.
13. The method of claim 1, wherein said logging tool comprises a logging transmission line.
14. The method of claim 13, wherein said logging transmission line comprises an optical fiber.
15. The method of claim 1, wherein said logging tool tube comprises an optical fiber disposed inside said tube and the method further comprises interrogating by a surface Optical Time Domain Reflectometry system through said optical fiber.
16. The method of claim 1, wherein at least one conduit inserted inside the first conduit comprises a sliding sleeve device.
17. The method of claim 1, wherein at least one of said first conduit and said second conduit comprises beryllium, and the method further comprises conducting electrical current through said beryllium.
18. The method of claim 17, wherein said beryllium is beryllium alloy and further comprises copper.
19. The method of claim 17, wherein said beryllium alloy is at least partially coated with an electrically insulating material.
20. The methods of claim 19, wherein said electrically insulating material comprises polytetrafluoroethylene.
21. The method of claim 1, 17, 18, or 19, wherein said logging tool tube comprises an electrical transmission line from surface.
22. The method of claim 1 wherein said step of inserting at least one logging tool tube comprises inserting said logging tool tube with an injector head.
23. The method of claim 1 wherein said step of inserting at least one logging tool tube comprises pumping said logging tool tube into said well with a fluid.
24. The method of claim 1 wherein said step of inserting at least one logging tool tube further comprises retracting said logging tool tube from said well.
25. The method of claim 1 wherein said step of inserting at least one logging tool tube further comprises the step of retracting said logging tool tube with a surface spooling device.
26. The method of claim 1, wherein said logging tool tube comprises a data transmission line from surface.
27. The method of claim 1 wherein said logging tool tube is filled with a dielectric fluid.
28. The method of claim 27, wherein the dielectric fluid is a fluorocarbon.
29. A method of logging of subterranean reservoirs from a wellbore comprising:
(a) inserting a production conduit in said wellbore;
(b) inserting a second conduit in said wellbore, said second conduit comprising one or more perforations at various locations along its length;
(c) inserting at least one electrically insulated logging tool tube from surface through said second conduit, said logging tool tube positioned in said second conduit to collect data at least one perforation, said logging tool tube comprising a logging tool, said logging tool tube comprising beryllium; and,
(d) collecting well data with said logging tool and logging said subterranean reservoir with said well data.
30. The method of claim 29, wherein said logging tool comprises an Optical Time Domain Reflectometry device at surface and said logging tool tube contains at least one optical fiber.
31. The method of claim 29, wherein at least one of said production conduit and said second conduit comprises beryllium, and the method further comprises conducting electrical current through said beryllium.
32. The method of claim 31, wherein said beryllium is beryllium alloy and further comprises copper.
33. The method of claim 32, wherein said beryllium alloy is at least partially coated with an electrically insulating material.
34. The methods of claim 33, wherein said electrical insulating material comprises polytetrafluoroethylene.
35. The method of claim 31 further comprising the step of transmitting electrical signals through the logging tool tube.
36. The method of claim 31, further comprising the step of transmitting electrical power from surface to devices located down-hole via the logging tool tube.
37. The method of claim 36, wherein the down hole devices selected from the group consisting of electrical motors, electrical solenoids, electrical heaters, and any combination thereof.
38. A wellbore conduit having a substantially tubular geometry and walls formed from wall materials comprising beryllium, said wall having an outer surface at least partially coated and sealed with at least one dielectric material, and an internal volume of said conduit comprising a dielectric fluid with at least one end of said conduit sealed to contain said dielectric fluid.
39. The wellbore of claim 38, wherein said beryllium is a beryllium alloy.
Description
CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATIONS

This application claims priority to U.S. provisional patent application No. 61/149,464, filed Feb. 3, 2009.

TECHNICAL FIELD

The present invention is directed to well construction methods, apparatus and logging methods that enhance the ability to obtain and analysis subterranean data. More specifically, this invention teaches well logging methods to construct an alternative conduit path in a well wherein fluids and devices can be transmitted into the well while logging with a beryllium alloy logging tube and producing the effluents from reservoirs.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION

When a fluid, such as oil and natural gas, is being produced from more than one subterranean reservoir depth through a wellbore, it is desirable to understand what fluids and at what fluid rates each depth is producing. The current well construction methods grout a well casing into the wellbore and then perforating guns are deployed into the casing to shoot holes through the casing walls, cement grout, and into the reservoir. Often times there are a plurality of depths where the casing is perforated often times extending many hundreds or thousands of feet in the well thereby allowing well reservoir fluids to be produced over many feet of the well into the casing and up to the surface of the well. These wells are often referred to as multi-zone wells or commingled production wells.

Likewise, wells are constructed with at least a portion of the well bore being in a horizontal or highly deviated orientation. These deviated wells can have extended horizontal sections many hundreds or thousands of feet long. The current construction method allow for well casing to be run from surface to the beginning or end of the horizontal section. These casings so placed are often grouted into the horizontal section and then perforated at various lengths along the horizontal section or alternatively current methods also leave the horizontal section ungrouted or with the casing run into a portion of the horizontal section. In all cases the horizontal wells allow fluids from the subterranean reservoir to flow into the well such that it can be produced to surface. These wells then may have fluid production coming into the well from many depths and lengths at various rates and various fluids can be coming in a these different depths or lengths in the well.

Moreover, it is of great economic interest to understand what fluids and at what inflow rates each well interval is producing at any given time in the life of the well. For example, a well perforated at multiple depths may originally produce substantially 100% hydrocarbons to surface, but over time, significant amounts of water and/or other materials may begin to be produced from the well. It is therefore of great interest to know from what well depth the oil and water are coming. Hence modern well logging techniques have been developed that allow electrical wire line devices to be lowered into the casing and communicate up to surface the electrical wire line well data from different depths of the well such as flow rate, density, pressure, temperature, etc. thereby allowing method to be used to evaluate the well data to discern the flow rates and fluid types entering the well at the various depths.

The current well production and completion methods often require a second tubular conduit be run into the well casing to enhance the velocity of the fluid flowing from the well, to allow for permanent devices to be deployed into the well, and to run artificial lift equipment like plungers and nipple profiles, and to allow production logging of the well. This inner concentric tubular is often referred to as the production tubing and the well fluids are then normally produced up the production tubing inside the well casing. In multi-zone wells where the casing is perforated at many depths or in horizontal wells where the fluids are produced along many hundreds of feet, it is often desirable to deploy the production tubing in the casing such that the distal end of the production tubing in the well is below some or all of the production intervals that are in communication with the reservoir, that is intervals that are perforated or in an open hole section. This production tubing so deployed then requires the fluid to flow out of the reservoir into the casing, travel down the casing internal diameter until it reaches the distal end of the production tubing and then the fluid can be produced up the production tubing to surface. However, because the production tubing runs past many of the production intervals, current production logging tools that run down the inner diameter of the production tubing cannot measure accurately the flow that coming into the casing internal diameter by production tubing outer diameter and is occurring on the outside of the production tubing. In this way, the logging tools currently deployed down the production tubing internal diameter do not analytically interrogate many of the production intervals at the various depths in the well as the fluid flow is in the annular space between the production tubing outer diameter and the casing inner diameter. Therefore, the well fluid production is flowing in the annulus of the production tubing and the casing internal diameter whereas the production logging tools are inside the production tubing.

Other logging methods have been developed to determine the flow of well fluids inside the well casing and outside the production tubing outer diameter. This includes running temperature monitoring equipment into the production tubing and looking for temperature changes that can be sensed from the inside of the production tubing that maybe caused by the flow of fluids on the outside of the production tubing. Likewise, methods have been developed to permanently dispose temperature monitoring and pressure monitoring equipment on the outer diameter of the production tubing as it is deployed into the well casing, such that the devices can monitor the inflow of fluids on the outside of the production tubing while the entire well production fluids are being produced up the production tubing. What has not been done is inserting and retracting production logging equipment with a beryllium logging tube into the annular space formed by the production tubing outer diameter and the casing inner diameter where the fluid from the reservoir is entering while the fluid is being produced up the production tubing.

What is needed is a method to insert and retract production logging equipment into the annular space at various depths formed by production tubing and well casing of horizontal wells and multi-zone wells thereby obtaining important data related to the fluids and pressures flowing in the annular space between the production tubing outer diameter and the casing inner diameter.

BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION

The present invention is directed to new methods and apparatus to log wells with a beryllium alloy logging tube. The beryllium copper alloys are selected to give the logging tube sufficient mechanical strength, chloride stress cracking resistance, and fatigue resistance to allow them to be deployed into deep wells and not exceed the elastic limits of the logging tube. The method of continuously welding the beryllium alloys from a strip into a long continuous tube of 1000s of feet and spooling it onto reels to be deployed and retrieved into wells with injector heads allows the tube to be used for multiple times for logging wells. The coating of the beryllium copper alloy with dielectric materials, and the filling of the beryllium alloy logging tube with dielectric fluids allows the tube to transmit electrical power and signals into the well and from the well depths back to surface.

In one aspect of the present invention, there is a method of logging of subterranean reservoirs comprising: (a) constructing a well in the earth comprising a wellbore and a first conduit inserted inside the wellbore, the first conduit forming a fluid path from a location at or above surface through the first conduit to at least one subterranean reservoir; (b) inserting a second conduit and a third conduit inside the first conduit with a proximal end of the second and third conduit at surface and a distal end of the second and third conduit inside the wellbore at or below a point in the wellbore where fluid enters the wellbore, wherein the distal ends of the first and second conduits are at the same or different depths from surface; (c) inserting at least one logging tool tube from surface through at least one of the second or third conduits inside the first conduit, the logging tool tube comprising a logging tool, the logging tool tube comprising beryllium; and, (d) taking at least one measurement with the logging tool and logging the subterranean reservoir with the measurement.

In one embodiment, the method further comprises the steps of modifying fluid production rate through one of the second and third conduit in view of the at least one measurement. In some cases, the step of modifying fluid production comprises modifying fluid production with a choke. In other embodiments, the method further comprises the step of producing fluids through one of the second and third conduit, and wherein the logging tool tube is inserted through the other of the second and third conduits. In some variations of the method, at least one of the second or third conduit comprise a perforation from an internal wall diameter to an outer wall diameter at one or more locations along its length other than at its proximal or distal ends. In one embodiment, the method further comprises collecting data at the perforation with the logging tool tube. In some cases, the logging tool is a logging tool suite. In some cases, the logging tool further comprises a device selected from the group consisting of a pressure measurement device, a flow measurement device, a temperature measurement device, a well depth correlation device, and any combination thereof. In some cases, the logging tool suite comprises an inflatable elastomeric device. In one embodiment, the method further comprises the steps of inflating and deflating the elastomeric device with fluid pressure transmitted down the logging tube. In one embodiment, the method further comprises the step of transmitting data from the logging tool suite to a surface data recorder.

In some cases, the logging tool tube comprises an electrical wire. In some cases, the logging tool comprises a logging transmission line. Such logging transmission line may comprise an optical fiber. In some cases, the logging tool tube comprises an optical fiber disposed inside the tube and the method further comprises interrogating by a surface Optical Time Domain Reflectometry system through the optical fiber. In some cases, the at least one conduit inserted inside the first conduit comprises a sliding sleeve device. In some embodiments, at least one of the first conduit and the second conduit comprises beryllium, and the method further comprises conducting electrical current through the beryllium. In some embodiments the conduit, the beryllium logging tube, or conduit is at least partially filled with a fluorocarbon dielectric fluid (for example, 3Ms Fluorinert™ family of electronic fluids).

In the embodiments, the beryllium is a beryllium alloy and further comprises copper. In some cases, the beryllium alloy is at least partially coated with an electrically insulating material. A preferred electrically insulating material comprises polytetrafluoroethylene.

In some embodiments, the step of inserting at least one logging tool tube comprises inserting the logging tool tube with an injector head. In some embodiments, the step of inserting at least one logging tool tube comprises pumping the logging tool tube into the well with a fluid. In some cases, the step of inserting at least one logging tool tube further comprises retracting the logging tool tube from the well. In some embodiments, the step of inserting at least one logging tool tube further comprises the step of retracting the logging tool tube with a surface spooling device.

In various embodiments of the method, the logging tool tube comprises an electrical transmission line from surface. In some cases, the logging tool tube comprises a beryllium alloy tube from surface.

In another aspect of the present invention, there is a method of logging of subterranean reservoirs from a wellbore comprising: (a) inserting a production conduit in the wellbore; (b) inserting a second conduit in the wellbore, the second conduit comprising one or more perforations at various locations along its length; (c) inserting at least one electrically insulated logging tool tube from surface through the second conduit, the logging tool tube positioned in the second conduit to collect data at least one perforation, the logging tool tube comprising a logging tool, the logging tool tube comprising beryllium; and, (d) collecting well data with the logging tool and logging the subterranean reservoir with the well data.

In some cases, the logging tool comprises an Optical Time Domain Reflectometry device at surface and the logging tool tube contains at least one optical fiber. In some cases, at least one of the production conduit and the second conduit comprises beryllium, and the method further comprises conducting electrical current through the beryllium. In some embodiments, the beryllium is a beryllium alloy and further comprises copper. In some cases, the beryllium alloy is at least partially coated with an electrically insulating material. In some cases, the electrically insulating material comprises polytetrafluoroethylene. In some cases, multiple coatings of electrically insulating material are coated on the beryllium alloy.

In some embodiments, electrical signals are transmitted via the logging tool tube. In some embodiments, electrical power is transmitted from surface via the logging tool tube to power devices located down-hole. Possible device which can so be powered include electrical motors, electrical solenoids, electrical heaters, and any combination thereof.

In another aspect of the present invention, there is a wellbore conduit having a substantially tubular geometry and walls formed from wall materials comprising beryllium, the wall having an outer surface at least partially coated and sealed with at least one dielectric material, and an internal volume of the conduit comprising a dielectric fluid with at least one end of the conduit sealed to contain said dielectric fluid. In preferred embodiments, the beryllium is a beryllium alloy. By substantially tubular, it is meant that the geometry need not be a standard tube; it could have a tapered diameter or other variations.

In one aspect of the present invention, there is a method for the logging subterranean reservoirs comprising the steps of: (a) constructing a wellbore in the earth having at least one well conduit inserted inside the wellbore, forming a fluid path from a location at or above surface through the conduit in the wellbore to at least one subterranean reservoir where the conduit has fluid communication with at least one subterranean reservoir; (b) inserting at least two additional conduits inside the previously disposed well conduit in the wellbore with one end of each of the two additional conduits located at or near the wells surface and each of the distal ends of the at two conduits inside the wellbore; (c) injecting from surface down at least one of the at least two additional conduits a logging beryllium alloy tube with recording devices connected to the logging beryllium alloy tube, (d) producing well fluids up the other additional conduit which was disposed in the previously disposed conduit in the wellbore while recording data on the recording devices in the other additional conduit and transmitting light and data down and up the beryllium alloy tube while the well is flowing in the other well conduits, (e) having penetrations from the outside wall to the inside wall of the additional conduit wherein the logging beryllium alloy tube is located so that the well pressures of the annulus fluids flowing in the well can be recorded from inside the logging conduit.

In one aspect of the present invention, a well is allowed to flow fluid into the wellbore wherein a production tubing is deployed in the wellbore such that its distal end is beyond the producing interval positions in the wellbore and fluid flows into the wellbore along the outer diameter of the production tubing until it reaches the open distal end of the production tubing and the fluid is then conducted to the well surface, while a parallel conduit to the production tubing has a logging transmission line and logging tools disposed inside of the parallel conduit to monitor record and transmit data from the well to the surface. The logging beryllium tube is lowered from surface and retrieved from surface as an intervention logging method.

In another aspect of the present invention, the logging data transmission line is injected into the well logging conduit with an injector head device known to those skilled in the art of coiled tubing. The injector head maybe rigged down once the logging data transmission line is injected or the logging data transmission line may be retrieved from the logging conduit.

A new method for the logging of a flowing a well is taught by this invention. The method includes inserting into a well a production tubing simultaneously with another tubing having penetrations or perforations in the second tubing such that fluid and pressure communication with the fluid flowing in the wellbore is transmitted to the internal diameter of this second tubing string, where the second tubing strings is strapped to the outer diameter of the production tube and lowering the production tubing and the strapped on second tubing string into the well bore simultaneously. The two simultaneously disposed tubing strings are connected to the tubing hanger of a well head that holds is connected to the well casing in the wellbore. The two tubing strings then have separate fluid paths through the well head such that the each tubing string has communication with the well surface and with the fluids flowing in the well. Then the well fluids are allowed to flow up one tubing string while logging tools and logging beryllium tube are injected and lowered into the other tubing.

The foregoing has outlined rather broadly the features and technical advantages of the present invention in order that the detailed description of the invention that follows may be better understood. Additional features and advantages of the invention will be described hereinafter which form the subject of the claims of the invention. It should be appreciated by those skilled in the art that the conception and specific embodiment disclosed may be readily utilized as a basis for modifying or designing other structures for carrying out the same purposes of the present invention. It should also be realized by those skilled in the art that such equivalent constructions do not depart from the spirit and scope of the invention as set forth in the appended claims. The novel features which are believed to be characteristic of the invention, both as to its organization and method of operation, together with further objects and advantages will be better understood from the following description when considered in connection with the accompanying figures. It is to be expressly understood, however, that each of the figures is provided for the purpose of illustration and description only and is not intended as a definition of the limits of the present invention.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS

FIG. 1 illustrates a general embodiment of the present invention of a well having a wellbore with a casing conduit grouted into the wellbore and a production conduit and a annular conduit.

FIG. 2 illustrates preferred embodiment of FIG. 1, incorporating an optical fiber as part of an optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) device.

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION

As used herein, “a” or “an” means one or more. Unless otherwise indicated, the singular contains the plural and the plural contains the singular. For example, as used herein, the term “logging tool” includes both a single logging tool and more than one logging tools arranged in any way, such as a suite of logging tools. Where the disclosure refers to “perforations” or “penetrations”, it should be understood to mean “one or more perforations” and “one or more penetrations”, respectively.

As used herein, “beryllium” means beryllium or a material comprising beryllium, such as a beryllium alloy. As used herein, any component that is said to comprise beryllium may comprise beryllium or beryllium alloy.

As used herein, “surface” refers to locations at or above the surface.

Attention is first directed to FIG. 1 wherein one embodiment of the present invention is shown. Briefly, FIG. 1 illustrates a well flowing fluids where a construction process has been performed to yield a wellbore having a casing conduit grouted into the wellbore and where a production tubing has been disposed into the casing and well is producing fluids from multiple reservoirs to surface from several reservoirs depths and where an annular conduit having holes placed at positions near the reservoir depths has been disposed in the well casing by disposing the annular conduit into the well casing with the production tubing. In the embodiment shown in FIG. 1, there is a well formed by a well completion method where at least one conduit, generally referred to as casing 4 is grouted (grout shown as 22) into a hole in the earth generally referred to as a well bore 3, and at least one additional conduit, production tubing 5, is deployed into the well through the casing 4. The additional conduit 5 is a continuous length of tubing, referred to as production tubing, and is lowered and extracted from the well using a drilling rig (not shown) or a coiled tubing unit and a tubing hanger sealing device 7 is connected at the wellhead 10 separating the well pressure environment from the surface environment. In addition to the production tubing 5 in the casing 4, an additional conduit 8, the annular conduit, is positioned in casing 4, and optionally may be strapped, banded, or otherwise attached to the outer diameter of the production tubing 5. Annular conduit 8 is shown with surface elastomeric packoff 18. The annular conduit has one or more perforations 13 from the outside diameter to the inside diameter located at positions near production reservoirs 9. The production tubing 5 and the annular conduit 8 are preferably lowered to a position below at least the top most production reservoir 9 such that the down-hole ends of the production tubing 5 and the annular conduit 8 are beyond at least some of the production reservoir perforations 17. The upper portions of the annular conduit 8 and the production tubing 7 are hung off sealed and connected to the well tubing hanger 7 and have a fluid conduit path through the well head 10 and tubing hanger 7. The well fluids flow into the well casing 4 from one or more reservoirs in the subterranean region 50 through perforations 17, in casing internal diameter along the outer diameter of the production tubing 5 and the annular conduit 8 to the distal end of the production tubing 5 and then the well fluids flow up the internal diameter of the production tubing 5 to the surface through the tubing hanger 7 and the wellhead 10. Note that, as used herein, the down-hole end of any specific component is defined as the distal end of that component, while the opposite end of the component is the defined as proximal end of that component.

Attention is now drawn to FIG. 2, which illustrates a preferred embodiment of the present invention. FIG. 2 illustrates an embodiment where a logging beryllium alloy tube is being inserted into the annular conduit with a coiled tubing injector head. The figure illustrates an optical fiber 15 being disposed inside an optical fiber logging tube 12, where the fiber is preferably previously disposed inside the fiber logging tube 12 and the fiber 15 is connected at the distal end to an optical pressure gauge and at the proximal end to surface logging tube reel 14. The fiber 15 is connected to a optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) device (shown as 20 in FIG. 2) which launches light down the optical fiber 15 and records backscattered light and calculates the distributed temperature and/or distributed sound along the length of the optical fiber. A coiled tubing injector head 11 injects a logging line manufactured from a beryllium copper alloy and insulated with an insulator like material coating (for example, polytetrafluoroethylene), such as logging tube 12, down the well through the surface valve packoff, 18, and the annular conduit 8 wherein the optical logging tube 12, is spooled from logging tube reel 14 wherein an optical fiber 15 is previously disposed inside the optical logging tube 12 having an optical slip ring 25 on the coiled tubing reel 14, and pressure gauge 16 is located on the down-hole end of the logging tube 12. Well fluid flows into the well casing 4 from the perforated intervals 17 into the bottom of the production tubing 5 and then up the internal diameter of the production tube 5 to surface. The logging tube 12, is also referred to as a “logging tool tube”, as the tube can be used to introduce logging tool suites (i.e., measurement devices, recording devices, transmission devices, and other logging tool components thereof) down-hole. Pressure gauge 16 can record the pressure on the bottom of the logging tube 15 located in the annular conduit 8. It is clear that as the logging tube 12 is lowered to different depths in the annular conduit 8, different pressures will be recorded by the pressure gauge 16, depending on the annular fluids in the casing 4, because the annular conduit 8 has penetrations in it. Likewise, the optical fiber 15 inside the logging tube 12 is coupled to an analytical device or instrument like an OTDR device and recording device 20 which can send signals, such as optical signals, and receive signals (again, such as optical signals) and thereby analyze properties of the remote (in this case, subterranean) environment. In a preferred embodiment that will be discussed in more detail below, the optical fiber 15 inside logging tube 12 can make temperature and sound measurements along the casing 4 using OTDR device 20 at surface. The OTDR system 20 launches light down the optical fiber at various times (for example, every 9 nanoseconds) inside the logging tube 12 and uses algorithms to interpret, in time domain, the backscattered light returning up the optical fiber 15 to obtain well temperatures at all depths of the optical fiber 15. More generally, OTDR and/or other analytical methodologies can be used as logging tools to monitor and calculate other chemical and physical parameters, such as composition, flow, and pressure. Likewise, the pressure recorded by the pressure gauge 16 inside the annular conduit 8 will change depending on the fluid type and depth of the gauge, 16, as it is run in and out of the well. Pressure recorder 21 can record measured pressures. Temperature in casing 4 will change due to geothermal gradients, fluid types, and Joule Thompson Cooling effects of gas expanding into the well casing from the reservoir. The sound in the casing will change due to flow of fluids. The injector head 11 on FIG. 2 can be used to inject the logging line, reciprocate the logging line, and extract the logging line as required in the art of well logging. This allows for the fluid density or a fluid density gradient to be obtained of the fluids in the casing 4. The logging tube 12 may be left hanging in the annular conduit 8 by placing a logging tube hanger 19 on top of the surface elastomeric packoff 18 at surface, and rigging down the injector head by opening up the injector head window (not shown) on injector head 11. It is understood by those of skill in the art of well completions that the annular conduit can be constructed of either coiled tubing or other types of tubing, such as jointed tubing that is threaded and lowered into the well with a rig and that the coiled tubing or jointed tubing can be lowered into the well casing 4 within the herein disclosed inventive method. It is further understood by those familiar with the art of well completions that the annular conduit 8 can be connected to the production tubing 5 with many devices and methods including steel bands, Cannon Clamps, as well as other connecting materials and devices known to those of skill in the art.

In some embodiments, one or more of the production conduit, second conduit, and logging tool tube comprises an electrically conducting material. In one preferred embodiment, the electrically conducting material is a beryllium alloy, preferably a beryllium copper alloy. It is understood by those of skill in the art that a logging tool line can comprise a tube, a wire, a rod, a wave guide, a braided wire, and any combination thereof. The logging tool tube of the preferred embodiment is a continuous tube constructed from beryllium copper alloys and coated with an electrical insulating material making it an electrical logging tube wherein an optical fiber is disposed inside the beryllium copper alloy tube. The electrical insulating material can be selected from the many high temperature dielectric materials made from polytetrafluoroethylene materials like Teflon, made by Dupont, polyimides like Kapton, and combination layers of insulating materials, similar to these Dupont materials known to those familiar with the art of electrical cables and tubes. It is clear to those familiar to the art of well logging that many other electrical and optical devices may be attached to the electrical logging tube. The logging tube of the preferred embodiment is made from alloys containing beryllium and copper and several other elements similar to those manufactured by Brush Welman of Cleveland Ohio, like Alloy 3 and 25. These attached devices include other electrical logging devices including but not limited to gamma ray tools, density neutron tools, resistivity tools, acoustic tools and many other such logging devices know to the art of well logging. These devices are powered by the electrical logging tube and logging data is transmitted up the optical fiber disposed inside the tube.

The preferred embodiment of the invention shown in FIG. 2 then allows for the annular well fluids flowing in the well casing 4 to be logged with the logging tube 12 and a suite of logging tools connected to the logging tube, by disposing them in the annular conduit 8 while the well fluids flow up the production tubing 5 undisturbed. The launching of light down the optical fiber 15 allows for the fiber to be a sensor along it's entire length inside the logging tube 12 disposed in the annular conduit 8 whilst monitoring the fluid pressure in the annular conduit 8 with the pressure gauge 16 located on the logging tube 12. It is understood by those familiar with the art of interpretation production logging that the ability to log flowing wells without disturbing the flowing fluids is a great advantage. This method allows this as the fluid is produced up the production tubing and the logging is done in the casing, 4 via the annular conduit 8 by deploying the optical logging tube 12 with the previously disposed optical fiber 15 inside the logging tube 12. Moreover, those familiar with the art of Distributive Temperature Sensing (DTS), and Distributive Sound Sensing (DSS), using OTDR devices understand that the interpretation of fluid flow using optical fibers inside the production tubing 5 is masked by the by-directional flow of fluid up the production tubing 5 and well fluids flowing down the well casing, 4. Likewise, those familiar with the art of DTS DSS using the OTDR systems (shown as 20 in FIG. 2) will understand that the embodiment in FIG. 2 allows for DTS data to be gathered at surface on the OTDR device 20 along with pressure and density in the well casing via the pressure gauge, 16, recorded on the pressure recorder 21 at surface as the interface to the fluids of the well are not masked by the fluid flow up the production tubing 5.

Although the preferred embodiment uses an OTDR device as a logging tool, it is important to note that any and all analytical methodologies suitable for or amenable to use in a well environment cam be used. This includes all spectroscopic and non-spectroscopic analytical methods, any and all temperature, pressure, sound, and combination flow measurement and interpretation methods, of which are familiar to those of skill in the art. It should be understood that inserting a logging tool into a well conduit comprises inserting some or all of the logging tool in the well conduit. In the case of the OTDR device as a logging tool, the optical fiber could be the portion that is inserted into the well while computer hardware and an optical source (which can be a laser) that launches and then analyzes the resulting analytical backscattered signals will remain above the surface or potentially, even at a remote location away from the drilling and production operations. Gamma ray detection recording devices and collar detection recording devices are additional, non-limiting examples of logging tools that can be used in the present invention. Those of skill in the art of well logging refer to the tools and devices used to log wells as a suite of logging tools. A suite is formed by connecting one or more logging devices together into a train of tools lowered simultaneously into the well. A suite of tool can therefore comprise many combination of devices, instruments, and data transmission systems the well engineer can select to gather the required well data. For example, a typical production logging suite of tools would include a flow meter device known as a spinner, a pressure measurement device often a strain gauge, a gamma ray device that monitors the radio-activity of the subterranean lithologies versus depth for depth correlation, a magnetic monitoring device often referred to as a casing collar locator that correlates the number of casing collars with the depth of the logging suite, an optical fiber inserted with the logging tube, that measures temperature and acoustics along its length to yield well profiles of temperature and sound, and many other combinations of logging tools that can be included in a logging tool suite. As discussed above, the term “logging tool” includes both a single logging tool and more than one logging tools arranged in any way, such as a suite of logging tools. The beryllium copper logging tube 12 so insulated as described allows for an electrical logging suite be powered with electrical power and optical power from surface and said logging suites to be deployed on the beryllium copper logging tube along simultaneously with optical devices connected to the optical fiber 15 wherein both electrical and optical signals may be transmitted simultaneously down the logging tube 12 and optical fiber 15. Thus power and electrical signals can be transferred through the beryllium material comprising the logging tube itself, potentially obviating the need for other modes of transmission.

In the preferred embodiment of FIG. 2, the well is logged by deploying down the annular conduit 8 the pressure gauge 16 attached to the logging tube 12 into the well through the annular conduit 8 while the well fluid is produced from the perforated intervals 17 down the casing, 4 to the bottom end of the production tubing 5 and to surface. By monitoring the distributive temperature and/or sound on OTDR 20 and the pressure on the pressure recorder 21 those familiar with the art of distributive temperature logging can calculate the inflow profile of the fluids coming into the casing 4. In the preferred embodiment the well is logged while the fluid is producing up the production tubing 5 to surface, and then the well is chocked at the surface such that the flow rate is reduced, while the logging tube 12 optical fiber 15 and pressure gauge 16 remain in the annular conduit 8 monitoring the fluid flowing in the casing 4 at these reduced rates. This method of changing the flow rates while the well is being logged in the annular conduit 8 is useful in determining the production of fluids from the production intervals 17 and the calculated damage or formation skin factor of a particular interval.

Data can so be collected in real time at surface via the electrical copper beryllium logging tube 12 or the optical fiber 15 and allow operators to modify conditions when the situation so warrants. For example, based on measured conditions of temperature, pressure, composition of fluids (either that of injection fluids or production fluids), etc., one may modify the fluid production from the production conduit by use of a surface choke. One may optimize the production process for a given set of conditions at various locations (e.g., depths) in the subterranean environment by modifying the fluid production. Thus, the ability to collect such information at various locations in the wellbore represents a powerful tool in which to optimize performance.

In the preferred embodiment of the general method, the step of inserting the logging tool tube is performed with an injector head. Nevertheless, other alternatives may be used. For example, the tube can be placed in a pressure lubricator wherein weight bars and or logging tool suite are hung from the distal end, the top of the logging tube is sealed with an elastomeric device, and the weighted logging tool is lowered into the well by a surface spooling device typically located on a well logging truck. In one alternative, the logging tool tube can be inserted by pumping the logging tool tube and accompanying logging tool suite with a fluid. Further, the logging tool tube can be retracted with an injector head. In another variation, the step of inserting the logging tool tube includes pumping the logging tool tube with a fluid and the method further includes retracting the logging tool tube with a capstan device or spooling device like a logging truck. In some instances, it is possible to use a logging tool tube which comprises a fluid sampling device. In this way fluids from a location of interest can be sampled prior to tested as opposed to testing in-situ. The logging tool tube suite may also comprise a fluid pressure monitoring device, a fluid sampling chamber, and other well devices known to those familiar with the art of well logging.

The wellbore annular conduits discussed above have a substantially tubular geometry. By substantially tubular, it is meant that the geometry need not be a standard tube; it could have a tapered diameter, a variable diameter or other variations that still result in a pipe-like structure or conduit. The walls are preferably formed from wall materials comprising beryllium, said wall having an outer surface at least partially coated and sealed with at least one dielectric material, and an internal volume of said conduit comprising a dielectric fluid with at least one end of said conduit sealed to contain said dielectric fluid. Another aspect of the invention provides a wellbore annular conduit so described.

Although the present invention and its advantages have been described in detail, it should be understood that various changes, substitutions and alterations can be made herein without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as defined by the appended claims. Moreover, the scope of the present application is not intended to be limited to the particular embodiments of the process, machine, manufacture, composition of matter, means, methods and steps described in the specification. As one of ordinary skill in the art will readily appreciate from the disclosure of the present invention, processes, machines, manufacture, compositions of matter, means, methods, or steps, presently existing or later to be developed that perform substantially the same function or achieve substantially the same result as the corresponding embodiments described herein may be utilized according to the present invention. Accordingly, the appended claims are intended to include within their scope such processes, machines, manufacture, compositions of matter, means, methods, or steps.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification166/254.2, 166/50
International ClassificationE21B47/00, E03B3/11
Cooperative ClassificationE21B47/00
European ClassificationE21B47/00