US 2010590 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 6, 1935. w. GRUMBACHER ENGRAVING TOOL Fild Jan. 12, 1953 IN VEN T0 R WM firm W MM TTORNEV Patented Aug. 6, i935 PATENT OFFICE ENGRAVING TOOL Walter Gruinbacher, New York, N. Y.
Application January 12,
This invention relates in general to engraving tools and in particular to engraving tools for use in preparing printing plates made of linoleum or tendency of the tool similar material.
Tools of the character herein set forth are intended primarily for removing from materials such as linoleum, portions of the flat top surface, so that the remaining flat portions willform printing surfaces.
While the invention has been described in connection with its use for cutting linoleum or similar materials, it will be understood that as to certain phases thereof, it is capable of other uses.
Among the defects of tools for this purpose,
such as hitherto constructed, has been found the to dig into the material, that is, to-cut, suddenly and unexpectedly, deeper than the engraver intends, due to the peculiar action of the surfaces edge of the tool and in contact with the material. It is a general object of my invention to overcome such irregular action by the provision of suitable cutting and guiding-surfaces and such other means as will prevent such action and substitute therefor a smooth action under the'control of the user. Among other objects are theprovision of an unusually sharp cutting edge and the attainment of efliciency of operation in other ways, as will be explained, the provision of a simple construction, the provision of a tool which may be used interchangeably with other tools in a single handle and the provision of a construction for.such a tool by which low cost of manufacture may be efi'ected.
I attain these objects by associating with the cutting edge of the tool suitable guiding surfaces which will prevent the digging in action and guide the tool normally in a straight line, and
further, by making the tool out of a single piece of suitable material and designing its contour to effect other objects mentioned.
Tools of this character generally come in sets, the various tools of a set being adapted for different degrees of coarseness or fineness of work. The tool herein illustrated in detail is one of such a set, and is particularly intended for the cutting into the material of relatively narrow grooves of substantially uniform width and depth, and the tool will normally tend to out in a straight line. Other tools of a set have also been suggested in the disclosure, these being adapted for i coarser work and for work of a different character, but such modifications are effected without associated with the cutting 1933, Serial No. 651,321
involving a departure from the broad principles of my invention.
For the attainment of these objects and other objects to be hereinafter pointed out, I have illustrated by way of example, several embodiments 5 of my invention in wherein:
Figure 1 is a view illustrating the use of one form of my tool;
the accompanying drawing,
Figure 2 is a longitudinal section through the 10 tool shown in Figure l, and illustrates its action on a piece of material;
Figure 3 is a top planview of the form of my invention shown in Figure 1;
Figure 4 is a side elevation of the same;
Figure 5 is a sectional view through the shank and the handle of tools constructed according to my invention: a
Figure 6 is a, view on line 6-6 of Figure 41001:- ing in the direction of the arrows; V Figure 7 is a sectional view on line 1-1 of ure 4Iooking in the direction of the arrows;
Figure 8 is a perspective view of the bottom of a tool as shown in Figure 1;
. I 2 Figment of my invention;
Figure 10 is an end view of the same;
Figure 11 is a side elevation of still another form of my invention; and
Figure 12 is an end view thereof.
Before proceeding to describe my invention in detail, I will premise that it consists in general of a piece of material of suitable hardness to be adapted for cutting purposes, and also possessing the property of resiliency for a purpose that will appear, and I have found steel very suitable for this purpose.
This material in thin sheets is readily workable with the aid of suitable heat treatment, and lends itself to the manufacture of such tools as herein described with a relatively low cost of production.
Adjacent the cutting portion of the tool this material is formed into a channel of approximately V or U form in transverse cross section, and cutting and guiding surfaces are formed at the extremity of the channel by grinding away and beveling a portion of the-same at such an angle to the tool as to form a cutting edge, which the base of the channel is located to the rear of the edge at the sides of the channel, so that, as the tool is used, the edge at the base of the channel is the last to engage the material. The result is that the forward portions of the cutting edge I ground away on they guide the tool upward and away from the work when the tool is being pushed forward, instead of downward and into the work, if the cutting edge is inclined rearwardly to a sufficient extent.
Referring now to'the drawing, and particularly to Figures 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8, it will be observed that the tool portion proper comprises of the embodiment shown therein two lateral walls l and I2 which are angularly related so as to form a channel of V shape in transverse cross section. The end portions of these sections are their outer sides to form a beveled surface as indicated at M and IS in Figure 8, and this grinding away results in an inwardly directed V shaped cutting edge having the vertex of the V at is.
By referring to Figure 2, itwill be observed that in use, this form of tool is held at an angle the entry of the tool to the work so that the cutting edge of the tool is directed upwardly and forwardly in relation to the plane in which the tool moves. As a result, the portions 20 and 22 of the cutting edge will cut into the material, raising the chip 52 from the material 50, while the portions of the edge in advance thereof, namely 26 and 26, will serve as guides and will prevent digging in because these edges are in general directed slightly upwardly toward the front portion of the tool, and further,
into the material is opposed by the wedge action of surfaces M and it which are angularly related so as to oppose entry of the tool into the material as may be seen from Figures 6 and 8. The edges 2d and 26 it will be observed are extended into a curve 21 merging with the top edges of the sections in and I2 so as to form an easy approach to the cutting edges 24 and 26.
i It is also to be observed that because of the rearward location of the cutting edges 20 and 22, they are protected from injury by the material extending forwardly therefrom, and it is therefore possible to give a very sharp cutting angle to these edges. An indication of this is given in Figure 2 where the cutting edge at I8 is shown as very sharp. Such sharp cutting edges would be impractical in any construction where the cutting edges are exposed. It will further be observed that because of the inclination of the cutting edges, the latter move at an angle to the material, so that a smooth sliding cut is effected instead of the cutting edge being squarely presented to the material.
Portions Ill and I2 are extended rearwardly to form the body portion of the tool and merge into a shank portion 32 in the form of a conical sleeve split at 33. The sleeve 32 may be made'resilient in order to properly grip a handle inserted therewithin.
It will be noted that as illustrated my improved tool is made of a single piece of material, and so formed and contoured that'it may be made by a simple stamping operation. As previously mentioned, spring steel is a highly desirable material.
A handle 34 of convenient shape may be prov-ided as a holder for the tool when in use, and this handle is formed with a cylindrical recess 36 surrounding a cylindrical portion 38 and is also provided with a ferrule 40, as customary for purposes of strength. On inserting the sleeve 32, the portion 38 will cause it to expand, and, if inserted to a sufficient depth, it will be held in place between the inner and outer walls of the recess 36 due to its expansion therewithin resulting in contact of the end of the sleeve with the outer walls of the recess 36, and the contact of the end of portion 38 with the inner wall of the sleeve.
Two other forms of my invention are shown in Figures 9 and 10 and in Figures 11 and 12, respectively, the former showing a gouge form of tool of U-shaped section, having a body 42 and a bevel M, and the latter a gouge of V cross section, having a body 46 and beveled surfaces 48 meeting at 49.
For the purpose of making clear the applicationof my invention to the tools shown in Figs. 9 and 10, I have indicated at a in Fig. 9 a plane passed transversely through the tool at the lowermost point of its cutting edge, and a similar plane has been indicated at b in Fig. 11. The -aforesaid lowermost point is also normally the lowermost point of the tool when it is in use on a horizontal surface, and it is at once apparent that it is also the rearmost point of the cutting edge of the tool when it is in action. It further appears that all points of the cutting edge, except said lowermost point, are positioned in advance of the plane a in Fig. 9, or of the plane I) in Fig. 11.
While I have herein disclosed several illustrative embodiments of my invention, it will be understood that the same may be embodied in many other forms, as will be obvious to those skilled in the art, and that I do not limit myself in respect thereto other than as defined in the language of the claims.
Having thus described my invention and illustrated its use, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is:
. 1. In an article of manufacture for the purpose set forth, angularly disposed sections, forming together a channel substantially of V crosssection having its walls downwardly converging in relation to the work when the tool is in use, the outer surfaces of the forward end portions of said sections being beveled so as to form sharp edges thereon disposed so as to form a rearwardly directed V-shaped opening at the forward end of said channel, and the vertex of said V being positioned at the lowermost portion of said the portions of the edges adjacent the vertex of said V-shaped opening will cut into and raise a portion of said material, while the portions of the edges farther in advance of said vertex, will act as guiding surfaces to guide the tool forward and prevent its digging into the materialby the action of said beveled surfaces, which develop an upward pressure component tending to make them travel away from the material, and whereby the combined action of said surfaces will facilitate the smooth and uninterrupted formation of shavings ofsubstantially uniform depth.
2. A material excising engraving tool for linoleum printing plates or the like, having two angularly disposed sections, upwardly diverging in relation to the work, and forming together an upwardly opening channel of V cross-section and of varying width, said sections tending to converge at their forward free end portions and the sections being also angularly related and for?v wardly and upwardly diverging so as to oppose 75 entry into the material being worked on, said V being positioned substantially in the cutting plane but directed slightly upwardly toward its open end and so that the vertex of said V' is positioned at the lowermost point of said tool, whereby when said tool is brought into contact at the proper angle with a piece of fiat material to be engraved, and pushed forward, the portions of the edges adjacent the vertex of said V-shaped opening will cut into and raise a portion of said material, while the portions of the edges farther in advance of said cutting edges, will act as guiding surfaces to guide the tool forward and normally in a straight line, and by the action of said beveled surfaces prevent its digging into the material, and the combined action of said edges and surfaces will facilitate the smooth and uninterrupted formation of shavings of substantially uniform depth.
3. An excising tool for excising filament-like chips from material having a substantially flat surface, the body of said tool being of channeled conformation with upwardly diverging walls and presenting to such surface, when operating thereon, a wedge-like conformation with the narrow end of said wedge lowermost and contacting with the surface of the material, the forward end of said toolbeing beveled off externally so as to form a cutting edge tapering from the forward open portion of said channel rearwardly and downwardly to the closed bottom portion thereof, said bottom portion being-also the lowermost portion of said tool, whereby the advance portions of said cutting edge serve to guide the tool as well as to cut, and whereby all of the contacting surfaces and edges of the tool will resist entry of said tool into the material thereby preventing digging in of the tool, and whereby the chips will be guided upwardly by the upwardly diverging inner walls of the said body portion.
4. An excising tool for engraving linoleum or the like, having a body portion of channeled conformation, convex in relation to the work to be operated upon, and having a pair of cutting and guiding edges formed at the forward portion thereof, said cutting and guiding edges running downwardly and rearwardly in relation to the direction of motion of the tool when in use, and
converging to a point at the lowermost point of said channel and all portions of said edges except said lowermost point being positioned in advance of a plane passing through said lowermost point and cutting said tool transversely.