US 2010624 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug. 6, 1935. F, M c uss 2,010,624
- WIRE FORMED KNITTING IMPLEMENT Filed April 20, 1953 Fig-1- Fizz--15- 'f'LE- & "Fla--31..
FLE Q F1. 5--5- wfigwz ATTORNE Patented Aug. 6, 1935 PATENT OFFICE 2,010,624 WIRE FORMED KNITTING IMPLEMENT Friedrich Max Clauss,
Berkshire Heights, Pa.,
assignor to Textile Machine Works, Wyomissing, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application April 20, 1933, Serial No. 666,958
This invention relates to articles which may be composed of, or formed from, wire, such, for example, as certain implements used in, or in conjunction with various types of knitting machines.
The present invention more particularly concerns the novel production of elements of the general type noted, which may include needles, welt hooks, lace and narrowing points, topping bar'points or the quills of a transfer ring.
During the production of knitted fabrics, such as full fashioned hosiery of a plain, lace, or net type, it becomes necessary at times to transfer selected loops from one or a series of needles to another needle or series thereof in the same machine, as occasioned, for example, during the leg or foot fashioning process, or, in the effecting of a desired design; or to transfer stitches formed on the needles of one machine to the needles of another machine, as effected during the transfer of the leg blank from a topping bar to the footforming machine, as required between the legging and footing operations.
In order to facilitate the shifting of loops in one machine, as above noted, one or more series of transfer points are used, which cooperate with the needles in a manner to effect the desired result.
The transfer points used in combination or conjunction with straight knitting machines employed to produce full fashioned hosiery, are ordinarily manufactured from wire bent and swaged to the desired shape and form.
In the usual procedure, the wire, after being cut to desired length, has the needle-engaging groove formed therein, following which the outer sides of thewalls defining said groove are machined to the desired cross-sectional size and shape, after which the opposite ends of the wire are bent and shaped to produce the desired foot and needle-engaging point respectively, to complete the transfer point.
The method of producing transfer points, according to the prior art, includes using wire of a size corresponding to the diameter of the shank of the finished element. The customary manufacturing procedure entails the wasting of an appreciable amount of material, due to the fact that when the needle-engaging groove is formed the metal displaced thereby is added to and thereby thickens the body of the walls defining the groove, which consequently become more massive than is permissible or desired. This excess material in the walls must be reduced or entirely eliminated in order that the dimensional characteristics of the finished implement will conform to those specified for that particular gauge of transfer point which, according to the practice of the prior art necessitate the use of that particular gauge of wire, consequently the surplus metal is wasted.
In addition to the waste of material ordinarily associated with the usual process of manufacturing transfer points and the like, a certain amount of excess material remains adjacent the back or base wall of the groove, which, although 1 undesirable because of the extra tension it creates in the loops engaged thereby, is, however, not removed because of the complicated machining process which such removal would necessitate. This excess of metal exists in the region where 15 the outer walls of the groove join the curved surface forming the back wall of the transfer point.
Although the existence of the aforementioned undesirable qualities are a matter of common knowledge, no method has heretofore been de- 20 veloped to eliminate them which would not sacrifice certain desirable features necessarily associated therewith.
One object of this invention is to produce novel wire formed implements of the general type above 25 noted.
Another object of the invention is to provide a novel wire formed implement wherein a decrease in the weight thereof has been effected without affecting the requisite degree of balance between the flexibility and rigidity necessarily present therein.
A further object of the invention is to provide a novel wire formed-implement wherein the wastage of material ordinarily associated with the 35 manufacture of wire-derivative elements, has been substantially decreased or entirely eliminated.
The construction of a. wire-derivative element and the process of manufacture thereof, according to the principles of the present invention will be fully disclosed hereinafter, reference being had to the accompanying drawing, of which:
Fig. 1 is a front elevational view of a transfer point blank with the ends pointed in the desired 45 form;
Fig. 2 is a view similar to Fig. 1 showing the blank following the first grooving operation;
Fig. 3 is a progression of Fig. 2 illustrative of the needle-engaging groove in its finished form;
Fig. 4 is a further progression particularly illustrative of the novel construction of the shank of an implement produced in accordance with the principles of the present invention;
Fig, 5 is an enlarged side elevation of a finished s5 transfer point with portions thereof broken away;
Fig. 6 is an enlarged transverse sectional view taken on line 6-6, Fig. 2;
Fig. '7 illustrates a progression of Fig. 6 taken on line 1-4, Fig. 3;
Fig. 8 shows a transverse sectional view of the shank of the transfer point taken on line 8-8, Fig.4; and 4 Fig. 9 is a side elevation of a narrowing point embodying my novel construction.
In accordance with the present invention, a novel method of production is employed which, while it substantially eliminates the previously enumerated undesirable features ordinarily associated with and attending the manufacture of loop transfer points, and without surrendering any of the requisite flexibility or strength thereof, permits the use of a base wire having a diameter which is approximately ten per cent. smaller than that of the wire ordinarily used for producing a point of the same given gauge, thereby eliminating the waste ordinarily created by the reducing process of the prior art, by modifying the crosssectional form of the shank or stem structure in a manner which will provide an implement having a shank which will be equally as rigid and flexible as the usual cylindrical shank, while using approximately ten per cent. less material.
After the base wire has been straightened and cut to desired lengths, the ends of each length or section H) are shaped to conform with the blank shown in Fig. 1, the one bluntly pointed end ll, hereinafter referred to as the butt end, being so shaped to facilitate the insertion thereof into one of the openings provided in a transfer bar or other holder, whereas the opposite end is formed into a gradually tapered relatively sharp point H, to permit ready engagement thereof with a cooperating needle.
During a subsequent swaging or pressing operation a groove l3a is roughly formed in the lower or body portion N3 of the transfer point blank, to produce the cross-sectional form or outline shown in Figs. 2 and 6. It will here be observed that the depth of the groove l3a of Fig. 6 is appreciably less than that of the finished groove [3 shown in Fig. 7; likewise, the walls Ma, Ma of Fig. 6 are correspondingly heavier than the walls M, H, shown in Fig. 7.
In order to decrease the thickness of the walls I la, Ma of Fig. 6 to the dimensions shown at M, M in Fig. 7 and to increase the depth of the groove 13a, in Fig. 6 to that shown at iii in Fig. '7, a second pressing operation is employed which narrows and deepens the groove, to the size and shape shown in Figs. 3 and '7. During this pressing process, the walls Ma, Ma are thinned out by an upsetting of the metal of the said walls, wherein the metal forced out thereby fiows toward the free edges of the walls of the grooved body l5, to increase the height of the walls Ma, Ma of the groove |3a to the proportions shown in Fig. 7, consequently increasing the depth of the groove Lia to the desired dimensions, said reduction of the thickness of the walls being effected without wasting material.
Because of the smaller size of wire used, as compared to the usual procedure, the curvature of the back of the body portion I is such as to make the outer sides of the walls It, M disposed tangentially thereto and in this way the excess metal ordinarily existing in that area is entirely eliminated, which in turn substantially reduces the stretch or tension in the loops engaged thereby, the degree of tension being directly proportional to the cross-sectional dimensions of the body 55 of the finished transfer point.
Although the wire used in forming a transfer point in accordance with the present invention, is approximately ten per cent. smaller in diameter than the wire' ordinarily used, and ten per cent. smaller than the required cross-sectional dimension of the shank of the finished transfer point, a shank portion possessing strength and flexibility equal to those characteristics of the transfer points of the prior art is provided. The outer cross-sectional dimensions of the shank of a transfer point made according to the present invention is of a size sufficient to permit the same to be interchangeably supported in the usual transfer bar or other point holder in the same sturdy manner as that characterized by the prior art common type of transfer point.
In order toprovide a shank possessing the above noted essential features, the shank portion lBa of the partially completed transfer point shown in Fig. 3 is subjected to a pressing or swaging operation during which the cross-sectional form thereof is transferred from the circular section shown in dots in Figs. 6 and '7 to the cruciform or fluted form shown at l6 shown in Fig. 8.
During the fiuting operation, pressure is applied to circumferentially spaced longitudinally extending portions of the shank [6 until the metal thereof flows, whereby grooves 11 are formed as shown in Figs. 4 and 8, the flow of metal passing into the intermediate pressure free areas which cause these areas to expand or bulge into the raised portions or protuberances I8, whose outer surfaces constitute disconnected arcs of a circumference defining a common diameter, the dimension of which coincides with the diameter of a prior art transfer point of the usual gauge specifications.
The protuberances iii are so spaced about the periphery of the shank l5 as to be in line with the usual points where the shank of a transfer point is contacted by the body of the transfer bar and by the retaining clamp element. The ribs l8, l8 are also disposed in position to impart the requisite desired degree of rigidity to said points, i. e. in line with the needle grooves, since the tendency of the transfer point to fiex as a result of the pressing action created be tween the transfer points and the coacting needles is exerted against the base of the groove in a plane extending longitudinally of and laterally bisecting the groove and the shank through oppositely disposed ribs I8, I8, while the lateral tension of the loops tends to flex the transfer points in a plane at right angles to the aforesaid action which is resisted by the second oppositely disposed pair of ribs I8, l8 lying in a plane at right angles to the plane which bisects the first said oppositely disposed pair of ribs.
From the above, it will be obvious that a novel structure having a cruciform, fluted, or corrugated cross-section is provided, which embodies a degree of rigidity in its ribwise directions which is equivalent to that heretofore obtainable only when using a shank containing at least ten per cent. more metal than used in forming the novel shank structure 96. An appreciable saving in material is thereby obtained without surrendering any of the desirable features characteristic of and necessarily associated with the usual transfer point.
During a following operation the butt end It is bent to form the foot or crank 20 and the point i2 is bent in the desired manner to effect the finished point shown in Fig. 5, the crank 20 being so formed in order to coact with openings in the holder and thereby definitely locate the separate transfer points in correct alignment with each other, whereas the point I2 is shaped to permit ready engagement with the grooves of the members coacting therewith.
The body l5 and shank iii of the transfer point shown in Fig. 5 are broken out to illustrate that either part may be shortened or lengthened in order to produce an implement of the desired proportions. In accordance with this idea, Fig. 9 is illustrative of another form of point member, being of the type commonly used to efiect narrowing or lace stitches in the production of full fashioned hosiery, in which the present invention may likewise be profitably incorporated. In the point shown in Fig. 9, it will be observed that the stem or shaft I6 is lengthened and the body or loop-engaging element I5 is shortened, as compared with the transfer point heretofore described, likewise the butt 20 and point l2 extend in opposite directions relative to each other instead of in the same direction, as in the case of the transfer point shown in Fig. 5.
It will thus be observed that through the medium of the present invention, a novel structure and method for producing wire-base implements is provided which eifects an appreciable saving in both time and labor over and above the usual manufacturing process without diminishing or surrendering any of the essential features necessarily embodied therein.
1. A wire-base knitting implement comprising a fluted shank having an actual diameter greater than the original diameter of the base wire.
2. A wire-base knitting implement comprising a fluted shank, the ribs of the fluted shank being disposed in pairs diametrally opposite each other and having an actually efiective diameter greater than the original diameter of the base wire.
3. A wire-base implement comprising a fluted shank having an effective diameter greater than the normal diameter of the base wire, and a grooved portion coextensive with the fluted shank and comprising a substantially V-shaped crosssection including divergent side walls connected by an arcuate back wall with its maximum radius substantially equal to the normal maximum radius of the wire and substantially tangent to the outer surfaces of said side walls.
4. A wire-base implement comprising a fluted shank having an effective diameter greater than the normal diameter of the base wire, the ribs of the fluted shank being disposed in diametrally opposite relation, a grooved portion coextensive with the fluted shank and comprising a substantially V-shaped ems-section including divergent side walls connected by an arcuate back wall with its maximum radius substantially equal to the normal maximum radius of the wire and substantially tangent to the outer surfaces of said side walls, the groove of said grooved portion being disposed in substantially longitudinal alignment with one of said ribs.
-5. A wire-base implement comprising a fluted shank having an effective diameter greater than the normal diameter of the base wire, a grooved portion coextensive with the fluted shank having a cross section of substantially V-shape providing divergent side walls connected by an arcuate back wall with its maximum radius substantially equal to the normal maximum radius of the wire and substantially tangent to the outer surfaces of said side walls, said groove being disposed in substantially longitudinal alignment with one of said ribs, and a butt extending at an angle to and composed of, a portion of the fluted shank.
6. A wire-base implement comprising a fluted shank having an effective diameter greater than the normal diameter of the base wire, and a grooved portion coextensive with the fluted shank of substantially V-shape in cross-section including divergent side walls connected by an arcuate back wall with its maximum radius substantially equal to the normal maximum radius of the wire and substantially tangent to the outer surfaces of said side walls, the groove of said grooved portion being disposed in substantially longitudinal alignment with one of the said ribs of said fluted shank, and a butt composed of a portion of the fluted shank andextending at an angle to the axis of the shank in a plane substantially bisecting the longitudinally aligned rib and groove longitudinally thereof.
'1. A wire-base knitting implement comprising a fluted shank and a body portion of substantially channel shape, said shank having an actual diameter greater than the original diameter of the base wire.
8. A wire-base knitting implement comprising a shank having one or more depressions therein, and a substantially V-shaped body portion, said shank having an actual diameter greater than the original diameter of the base wire, and a portion of said shank extending at an angle to the remainder of the shank constituting a butt for said implement.
9. A wire-base knitting implement comprising a shank provided with one or more longitudinal depressions therein, and having an actual effective diameter greater than the original diameter of the base wire.
FRIEDRICH MAX CLAUSS.