US 2010971 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
' 13, 1935. w. s. THOMSON 2,010,971,
FRAMING FOR WALLS AND BUILDINGS Filed May 23, 1933 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 I 26 30 30 14 W ET 12 14 F 1 W 14 10 16' @r' 15/ 30 Aug; 13, 1935- w. s. THOMSON FRAMING FOR WALLS AND BUILDINGS Filed May 23, 1955 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 17/, AMIWWWAMWWWWMMMWW MMWW/ I INVENTOR @WQML $72M J ATTORNEY Aug. 13,1935. w. s. THOMSON 2,010,971
FRAMING FOR WALLSAND BUILDINGS Filed May 23, 1935 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR ATTORNEY 8 2 2 m w I /V T ,T H L m M M A a, m :IIT:I:E:%J T T- A VAX 0 8 6 4 6 lV 30;. -to -transverse members. l
Patented Aug. 13, 1935 eT -NTb Fm -i,
I 2,610,9i1 elume'mswms AND BUILDINGS 'V Vil liam S. Thomson, Evans ton, Ill. Applicant May 22, 1933, Serial Nb. 672,387
- My present invention relates to improvements in framing for Walls, buildings and the like.
My framing comprises studs orlunits eachconsisting of two parallel flangesconnected-together by a web having an expanded or otherwise formed l'atticed 'median portion, The studs may be ioi stud, so-called because its transverse section remade of iron, steel;' or: other suitablelmaterial. Preferably the two flanges of the individual studs extend oppositely from the web thereby making what may be conveniently termed a Z-shaped I assemble these Z-studs in different ways relatively to one another, for example with the flanges-of adjacent studs in face to face or-parallel relation or with the-webs of the adjacent studs partially overlapping one another; 1 r
In another aspect ofmy invention; I amable to use stud-units in" my framing which are. channel shaped in crosssection as distinguished from Z-shaped; and when I use said channel studs I combine them with their web portions partially overlapping one another; although in the case ot a thin wallfor example apartition, they may be combined with" their flanges in face toiace or parallel relationl Whichever assembly arrangement is employed,
, Iunitethe studsby bolting, riveting, welding or keying them together; andin additionI bolt,
, the building.
rivet, weld or key them at their ends to .sills or The studs may'run up continuously, except for the door and Window openings, for anumberzof stories of the houseor building; butI. prefer to use a separate set of studs at each storyxi Each stud'at its ends is provided with lugs either integral or non-integral with the body. of the'rstud'.
These lugs preferably extend from the flanges at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the stud andadjacent the webp Thelugsserve to bolt, rivet or weld the first story studs -to. horizonal metal sills mounted on the foundations of They also serve to unitethe studs of an upper story to those of alower storyf The inter-story, sills rest upon thelower story studs I and underlie the upper story. studswith the; lugs of,the. two sets of studs united to or connected through the weboi the sills.
fThe sills of co se support the joists and the flooring, the walls andthe roof of the building.
I prefer channels for the sills; and these-have solid webs that is to-s"a y, theirwebs are nonexpanded or non-latticed. Preferably, the webs of; these sills are-wide enough between flanges'to overlie orunderlie as the case may be, theflanges economical.
of all of the studs individually and collectively; The sills at the corners of'the building preferably come together onmitre joints; I
Furring strips -or members for attaching the walls and wall structuresto the framing are sup- "5 ported between the abutting flanges ofadjacent' studs by the same bolts or rivets that unitethe studs. "In lieu of orin addition-to said furring strips, I provide rows oflioles in the stud flanges .and solid portion'of web for the attachmentof theadjacent studs and sills and strengthening them. a
It Willbe noted that each stud inmy framing is a truss structure complete in itself having-two load carrying members connected by a web hav ing a median open-work or latticed portion able to resist horizontal loads and forces. Also in my system of framing-additional strength and stability are; obtained when the stud units are combined and united andthis is especially so when they are united in the overlapping relation 35. previously referredto; I
The z type stud has special advantages asfollows. For any giventhickness of metal the area of section of the load bearing members, required for strength, can be obtainedwith greater econ- 0 omy in the Z-shape than with other shapes whose periphery is longer, In compression members,
thethickness of metal has an important signifi canoe in that, if it is too thin, buckling may occur. Hence if a certain minimum thickness of metal is to'be maintained, the section with the shortest periphery .to contain a given' area, is the most As stated, the Z-shape, has this advantage. l l
Atcorners, the Z-shape has thefurtheradvam tage in that one of the flanges of a stud is always available for attachment to the'soli d web portion of the adjacent corner stud. 3
In the production of stud-units, it is extremely desirable that their design or form be symmetrical so that they may be used interchangeably in different portions of the framing of the structure or be capable of reversal about either a horizontal or vertical axis of symmetry, without impairing their usefulness as structural members. The drawings show Z-units of both the expanded and welded type illustrating the principles of symmetry and reversibility. Achannel unit is also shown embodying this principle.
In bearing-walls, aside from structural consideraticns, it is-of practical advantage to have the web members located at the center'of the wall structure. This arrangement divides the wall space into two equal parts, one or both of which may be utilized to receive an insulating medium, or one may act as an air space in providing further insulation. The webs of the studs provide a convenient backing for the insulating medium.
Detail of this construction using Z-studs is shown in Fig. 6 and using channel studs in Fig. 12.
'In shipping, the shape of the object is of importance both in the emciency with which it may be handled and in regardto the space-occupied in the carrier. A plurality. of Z-shaped studs may be nested together to -form. a compact package occupying a minimum amount of space. I
In connection with my framing, it shouldbe notedthat-the outer wall covering of the building may be constructed of various materials such as wood, brick,-stone, or stucco or.- of metalsheets; keyed, tied, bolted or Welded as the case may be, to the framing. Likewise the inner wall covering of the structure may be of any material suitable for that purpose. In fact, there is no, limitation as to the type or character of inner and outer wall coverings that may be applied to my framing.
I will now describe a preferred form ofmy invention with some modifications in order to illustrate specific embodiments of the invention,
1' butwithout limiting the invention to said illustrative embodiments, especially as to the details thereof, except as same may be defined in the appended claims.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 shows in perspectives, Z-stud usablewith the invention. v
Fig. 2' is a section thereof on line 22 in Fig. l. Fig. 3 is an end view of this Z-stud unit.
Fig. 4 is a perspective View on a larger scale of fragments of two of said studs abutted'flange to flange and having integral lugs. I
Fig: 5 is a sectional View as if taken on the line 5-& in Fig. 4 but illustrating a modification wherein the lugs are non-integral with the flanges.
Fig. 6 is a combined horizontal sectional-and plan view through the corner of a house or building showing a plurality of the unit studs of the preceding figures combined and built together with other elements.
Fig. 7 is a front elevation on a'smaller scale of one side of said corner namely the lower'side in Fig. 6, the walls being omitted to show the framing.
Fig. 8 is a vertical sectional view on an enlarged scale on the line 8-3 in Fig. 7.
' Fig. 9 isa-horizontal sectional View on the line I 9 in Fig. 8.
Fig. l0 is a horizontal sectional and plan view on the line I2lll in Fig. '7.
ing channel sectioned studs assembled with overlap.
Figs. 13 and 14 show a modification of the stud wherein the openwork webbing consists of a separate, formed strip or rod, Fig. 14 being an elevational fragmentary view of said modified stud, and Fig. 13 being an enlarged transverse sectional view of same.
Referring now to the illustrative embodiments, Figs. 1 to 4 show one preferred form of stud or unit designated generally by the numeral It usable inv my framing. The cross sectional and end 1 views Figs. 2 and 3 show why the term Z-stud conportions it connected by a latticed or openwork portion it. by appropriately slitting and expanding the origi- This latticed portion may be made nal solid web inany well known or preferred manner; or as in the stud E8 of Figs. 13 and 14 also within my invention, which stud is of the nonintegraltype', the latticed portion of the web consists of a separate strip 28 formed as shown and welded or otherwise securely attached at points as shown to a pair of angle members 22.
As shown in Fig. 12, and as will be explained later, channel sectioned studs it may be used in carrying out my invention in one of its modifica-' tions. These-channel studs will also have latticed or openwork webs which may be of the integral type as in Fig. 1 or non-integral as in Fig. 14.
' The following details apply or may apply to whichever type of stud is used. The upper and lower ends of the two flanges of each stud are or may be' tapered as shown at 26 for the purpose which will hereinafter appearand which briefly is so that the studs will fit between the flanges of a channeled sill 28 as shown in'Fig. 8 with the flanges ofthe sill flush with the edges of the studflanges.
Perforated lugs 35] either integral as in Figs. 1 to i or non-integral lugs 38a. as in Fig. 5 are shown on the flanges at the upper and lower ends of the studs. These lugs extend from the flanges at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the given stud and adjacent its web. Series of holes 32 are provided in the stud-flanges and another series of holes 3 3 in the solid portions of the webs for bolting or riveting the studs together by bolts or rivets and for attaching means for anchoring the. walls to the framing.
The horizontal sectional view in Fig. 6 through the corner of a building embodyingmy frame shows a plurality of the Z-studs 'i l! assembled and bolted, welded or riveted together flange to flange by bolts, welds or rivets E5 inthe alined flange holes. The furring strips 36 consist of thin flanged plates which may be. Z-shaped in cross section or channeled or merely L'shaped, and are referred to herein under the designation furring strips which in Fig. 6 are shown clamped between the flanges of the studs with'the flanges of the furring strips located at the inside faces of the walls 38 and Q0. The furring strip flanges have series of holes 42 for attaching and anchoring said walls 38 and 40 by any well known or preferred wall attaching and anchoring means to the framing.
' This construction provides spaces between the framing and the walls 38 and ll! useful in various ways. For example, forv insulating air spaces 44, also's-paces to receive insulating material 46,
and spaces to receive and pass plumbing pipes,
electrical conduits, etc.
anchorage on the foundation wall 52. shows how the sills 28 meet at the corner on a Fig. 7 is an elevation of the lower part of Fig.
6 omitting the front wall 38 from Fig. 6 so as to show the framing. This Fig. 7 shows two stories of the structure together with a. door opening 48 and a window opening 50 and is typical of the way the framing is 'asse-mbledand built up for the entire building; In said Fig. 7 the lower ends of the first story studs IEI are secured to a struc-- tural sill 23 which in turn has its support and .mitre joint 28a and how the lugs 30 on the studs serve to secure them to the solid web of the 'sill upon which the studs rest.
Fig. 7 shows the flanged sideof the channeled sill 28. This sill straddles the upper ends of the lower story. studs and support the upper story studs as is well shown inthe enlarged sectionalview, Fig. 8, taken on the line 88 in Fig. 7. It
shows the assembly of the inverted channeled sill 28 and the tapered flange ends I2 of the upper and lower studs; and further shows the lugs 30 of the said studs and the intervening web of the sill secured together by'the bolt 54. It also shows upper and lower furring strips 36. Fig. 9 is another showing of the same parts from another point of View, the same being.a horizontal section on the line 9--9 in Fig. 8. 7
It will be understood from the foregoing that the web of-the sills 2B is Inadewideenough for attachment to all the flanges of the adjacent studs. Figs. 8 and 9 show .how by tapering the flanges of the studs at 26, economy in width of the sills is obtained whereby the sides of the sills are sub-.
stantially flush with the edges of the stud flanges.
Fig. 6' shows how at the corners of the building, the outer walls 38 forming said corners are 45. i formed by omitting the studs and filling in the both properly anchorable to the framing first by the outwardly extending flange of one of the studs and secondly by an L-shaped furring strip 36 clamped between the web of that stud and the flange of the adjacent corner stud.
The door and window openings 48 and 50 are spaces at the top of the doors and at the top and bottom of the windows with structural framework 56, Fig. 7, appropriately secured to the adjacent portions of the studs and sills.
The door and window openings thus formed are fitted on all sides with channels containing nailing strips to which the door and window frames can be. secured. These channels designated at 58, Figs. 6 and 10, are shown secured by bolts to the flanges of the adjacent studs. The nailing strips 62 are shownsecured by bolts 64 to the channels.
Fig. 11 shows how the Z-studs maybe assembled and united in a different way, namely,
with the web of each stud partially overlapping the web of an adjacent stud. The uniting bolts or rivets are shown at 66,'although of course welds r '3 may be, used instead. The lugs 30 of the'studs will be bolted as before to the web of the sills 28. In this assembly the holes 32 in the stud flanges serve for the attachment of the means by which the walls are anchored to the framing,
thereby making furring strips36 unnecessary except that thelatter may be used at the corners of the building as indicated at 36 in Fig. 11. This overlapping assembly of the Z-studs shown in Fig. 11 obviously impartsimproved strength and rigidity to the framing due to the series of spaced flanges connected by each overlap.
Fig. 12 show the overlap assembly of Fig. 11
applied to channel'sectioned studs designated in general by 24, which are also well adapted tothis manner of assembly. These channel studs have or may have the same lugs 30 as the Z-studs, also the same tapered ends for cooperation with the sills 28, also the same'webs with solid side portions I4 and latticed median portions l6 and the same series of holes through the flanges and solid web portions for securingthe studs to one another and for points of attachment in connection with'the anchoring of the walls to the frame.
' It willbe understood that variations may be made in the foregoing without departing from the scope of the invention as expressed in th appended claims. V V
What I claim is: r 1. Framing for walls and buildings whose vertical members comprise stud-units, each consisting of two substantially parallel flanges projecting oppositely relatively to each other from opposite edges of a slitted connecting web expanded in the plane of said web, said units being assembled and ofthe studs projecting some on one side and some on the other side of said zone.
7 2. Framing for walls and buildings whose ver.-,
tical members comprise stud units, each consisting of two substantially parallel flanges projecting oppositely relatively to each other from opposite edges of a, slitted connectng web expanded in the connected together with their webs occupying a median zone of the framing and with the flanges plane of said web, said units being assembled and.
connected together with their webs partially overlapped and occupying a median zone of the framing and with the flanges of the studs projecting some on one side and some on the other side of said zone. 7
1 WILLIAM S. THOMSON.