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Publication numberUS2011254 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 13, 1935
Filing dateJul 7, 1933
Priority dateJul 7, 1933
Publication numberUS 2011254 A, US 2011254A, US-A-2011254, US2011254 A, US2011254A
InventorsNightingale Robert G
Original AssigneeRobert J Nightingale
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Aeroplane
US 2011254 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

ug- 13, 1935 R. G. NIGHTINGALE 2,011,254

AEROPLANE Filed July 7, 1933 2 Sheets-Sheet l l BY J 529/, M f @y ATroRNEY;

Patented Aug. 13, 1935 UNITED STATES ...indi ci! mit?? PATENT OFFICE AEROPLANE Robert G. Nightingale,

Baltimore, Md., assignor 13 Claims.

This invention relates as indicated to folding- Wing aeroplanes, but has reference more particularly to mechanism for locking the wings in the extended or flight position.

A primary object of the invention is to provide mechanism of the character described, the use of which will insure against accidental folding of the wings during flight.

To the accomplishment of the foregoing and related ends, said invention, then, consists of the means hereinafter fully described and particularly pointed out in the claims; the annexed drawings and the following description setting forth in detail certain mechanism embodying the invention, such disclosed means constituting, however, but one of various mechanical forms in which the principle of the invention may be used.

In said annexed drawings:-

V Fig. 1 is a plan view of an aeroplane embodying the novel features of the present invention; Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional View of a portion of the aeroplane taken on the plane indicated by the line 2 2 of Fig. 3 and showing the manner in which the wings are locked in the extended or flight position; Fig. 3 is a transverse crosssectional view of one of the wings; Fig. 4 is an enlarged cross-sectional view taken on the plane substantially indicated by the line 4-4 of Fig. 3; Fig. 5 is an enlarged cross-sectional View taken on the plane indicated by the line 5-5 of Fig. 4; Fig. 6 is an enlarged cross-sectional view taken on the plane substantially indicated by the line 6--6 of Fig. 3; Fig. '7 is a detailed cross-sectional View showing the means for latching the wings in folded position; and Figs. 8 to l show a modification of the panel actuating mechanism.

Although the invention is shown as embodied in a biplane, it will be readily apparent that it may, with but slight modication be embodied in a monoplane or other types of aeroplanes.

Referring more particularly to the drawings, the biplane is provided with a wing-supporting structure I which is connected with the body or fuselage 2 of the plane by means of suitable struts or braces (not shown). The bi-plane is further provided with double wings 3 which are pivoted as at 4 to the structure I, so that they may be folded to lie closely adjacent to the rear portion of the fuselage 2, as indicated by the dotted lines of the wings in Fig. l. The wings are provided at their inboard ends with panels which are pivotally connected at their edge to the wings by means of a hinge 6. These panels are stream-lined to correspond with the wings and are normally adapted to occupy the position shown in solid lines in Figs. 1 to 3, in which position they serve to prevent folding of the wings about the hinge pins 4.

The wings are adapted to be locked in their extended or flight position by means of pins 'I and 8. Each of the pins I is mounted for sliding movement in a housing 9 and, when in locking position, passes through mating lugs I0 and I I extending respectively from the housing 9 and supporting structure I. Each of the pins 8 is likewise mounted for sliding movement in a housing I2 and, when in locking position, extends through mating lugs I3 and I4 extending respectively from the housing I2 and supporting structure I. The pins I and 8 have intermediate their ends enlarged rack portions I5, which are adapted to be engaged by pinions I6 and I'I mounted on shafts I8 and I9 respectively. These shafts are threaded at one end so as to provide an adjustable connection with tapped blocks 20 rigidly secured as by riveting within the ends of a hollow torque member 2|. 'I'he shafts are also provided with elongated slots 22, through which bolts 23 are passed after the desired adjustment between the shafts and blocks has been effected, such bolts thereafter preventing relative rotation between the shafts and blocks.

As shown in Figs. 3 to 5, the housing I2 has formed therein radially disposed grooves 24 which terminate at their upper and lower ends in shoulders 25 and 26, respectively.

For the purpose of insuring against unauthorized retraction of the pins 'I and 8, a latch plate 2l is provided. This plate has a central opening 28 of a polygonal shape corresponding with that of the portion 29 of the shaft I9, and is provided with radial projections 30 which extend into the grooves 24 and prevent rotation of the shaft when the plate engages the portion 29 thereof. The plate is normally urged into said shaft engaging or latching position by means of a coil spring 3I interposed between the circumferential shoulder 25 and the plate.

In order to retract the pins 'I and 8, preparatory to the folding of the wings, a crank A is applied to the polygonal portion 29 of the shaft I9 and is employed to lift the latch plate to the shaft-releasing position indicated in dotted lines in Fig. 4, in which position the plate surrounds a circumferential groove 3Ia in the shaft, but is out of engagement with the shaft. Thereafter the shaft may be rotated by the crank, rotation of the shaft I9 being also imparted to the shaft I8 through the intermediary of the torque member 2l If desired, a motor may be employed instead of the crank for actuating the shaft I9.

Instead of rotating the shafts I8 and I9 by means of a crank, such rotation may be effected by means of a lever arm 32, which is pivotally connected to the torque member 2|, and which, when not in use, extends parallel with the torque member, as indicated by its dotted line position in Fig. 3. In employing such a lever arm it is of course necessary to provide a tool for lifting the latch plate 21 to the shaft-releasing position previously described. If the pins 1 and 8 stick, or a crank is not available, these pins may be driven to locking position by hammering upon the protruding ends thereof.

It will be noted (see Fig. 6) that the torque member 2| is stream-lined and serves as an interwing or jury strut, and that when it is not in proper stream-line position, it affords a visual assurance that the pins 1 and 8 are not in the Wing-locking position.

It will also be noted that when the pins have been retracted, portions thereof project forwardly from the wings as indicated by their dottedline position in Fig. 3. These features are of extreme importance as they serve to indicate to the pilot that the wings have not been locked in the extending or flight position and insure against his attempting to take off with the plane in such condition. The extent to which the pins project forwardly of the wings also indicates the position of such pins with reference to the mating lugs.

Means are also provided for lowering the panels 5 simultaneously with the retraction of the pins 1 and 8. For this purpose the pins are provided with lateral and downwardly projecting arms 35, the free ends of which are secured to rods 36 which are guided for axial movement in suitable bearing portions of the wing framework. Each of these rods is provided at its rear end with a lateral offset portion 31 terminating in a pin 38 which is contoured similarly to the pins 1 and 8. With the wing locked in its flight position the pin 38 extends through mating lugs 39 and 40 on the wing and panel respectively, thus locking the panel to the wing.

The rod 36 has adjustably aflixed thereto an actuator collar 4| and has slidably mounted thereon at a point spaced from such block, a sleeve 42 provided with a downwardly extending arm 43. Arm 43 has pivotally secured to its lower end a connector bar 44, which in turn is pivotally secured to one arm 45 of a bell crank lever 46, which is pivotally mounted 4on the pin of hinge 6 and has its outer arm rigidly secured to the front edge of the panel 5.

It will be apparent that when the pins 1 and 8 are retracted the rods 36 will simultaneously be moved in the same direction as the pins, thereby retracting the pins 38 from the lugs 40. At the same time, the collar 4| is caused to engage and move the sleeve 42 to the dotted line position shown in Fig. 3. This movement of sleeve 42 results in rotation of the released panel 5 about its hinge pin 6 through an angle of approximately in a clockwise direction, as viewed in Fig. 3. With the panels 5 in the dotted-line position shown in this figure, the wings may be folded to lie closely adjacent the fuselage as indicated in Fig. l. When the wings are returned to the extended or flight position, the panels 5 may be manually swung to their original position, the sleeves 42 sliding on the rods 36 during this movement. Thereafter the pins 1, 8 and 38 may be moved to their locking position. The collar 4| is so positioned on the rod 36 that it does not engage the sleeve 42 until the pin 38 has been fully retracted from the lug 40.

Instead of employing the panel actuating mechanism disclosed in Figs. 2 and 3, I may, and in most cases prefer to employ means for automatcally lifting as well as lowering the panel when the locking pins are actuated. Means for effecting such automatic movements of the panel is illustrated in Figs. 8 to 10 inclusive, and includes a sleeve 42 which is slidably mounted on the rod 36 and is connected to the panel in the same manner as sleeve 42, an actuator collar 4I adjustably secured to the rod 3S, a collar 54 adjustably secured to the rod 36, and a coil spring 55 mounted on the rod between sleeve 42 and collar 54. Then panels 5 are shown in normal locked position in Fig, 8. When the pins 38 are retracted from lugs 40 and are moved to the position shown in Fig. 9, the sleeves 42' remain stationary, but the collars 4|' are brought into contact with the sleeves, the collars 54 moving at the same time to the position indicated and permitting the springs 55 to expand. On further movement of the pins 38 to the position shown in Fig. l0, the sleeves 42 are actuated by collars 4|', and the panels lowered to the position shown, the collars 54 moving to the position indicated and the springs being unaffected during this movement. On reversing the movement of the rod 36, the springs 55, pushing against the sleeves 42', will insure movement thereof to lift the panels to the position shown in Fig. 9. Thereafter, the pins 38 are pushed home, as in Fig. 8, the springs being incidentally compressed. The springs must, of course, have such tension that the power required to compress the same is greater than that required to lift the panels.

Means are also provided for latching the wings in the folded position. For this purpose the lower wings, as shown most clearly in Figs. 1 and 7, are provided at points adjacent their tips with members having spearheads 48. When the wings are folded these spearheads engage keeper plates 49 which are slidably mounted on the fuselage structure 2 and are normally urged toward each other by means of a coil spring 50. After the spearhead has passed plates 49 the plates engage the shoulder at the rear of the Spearhead, thereby securely latching the wing in folded position. Each plate 49 is provided with a handle 5| which extends through a slot 52 in the fuselage, these handles being utilized in an obvious manner to. release the keeper plates from engagement with the Spearhead. A bumper plate 53 serves to limit the inward movement of the Spearhead.

It is thus seen that mechanism has been provided for effectively locking the Wings in the extended or flight position, and that means have also been provided for latching the wings in the folded position.

Other modes of applying the principle of my invention may be employed instead of the one explained, change being made as regards the mechanism herein disclosed, provided the means stated by any of the following claims or the equivalent of such stated means be employed,

I therefore particularly point out and distinctly claim as my invention:-

1. In an aeroplane having a wing supporting structure and foldable wings mounted thereon, panels mounted on said wings and foldable with respect thereto, and means for simultaneously locking said wings to said supporting structure and said panels to said wings.

2. In an aeroplane having a wing supporting structure and foldable wings mounted thereon, each of said wings having a panel pivotally mounted thereon and movable to a position wherein it prevents folding movement of the Wings, and means for simultaneously locking said wing to said supporting structure and said panel to said wing when the Wing is in flight position.

3. In an aeroplane having a Wing supporting structure and foldable Wings mounted thereon, each of said wings having a movable panel adapted to be positioned to prevent folding of the Wing, means for locking the wing to its supporting structure when in flight position, means for releasing said locking means and means responsive to movement of said releasing means for moving said panel to permit folding of the Wing.

4. In an aeroplane having a wing supporting structure and foldable Wings mounted thereon, means for locking said Wings to said supporting structure When in the flight position, said means comprising mating lugs on said wing and supporting structure, and pins extending through. said lugs to lock them together, said pins having portions which, when the pins are retracted from the lugs, project from the forward edges of the Wings.

5. In an aeroplane having a Wing supporting structure, and a foldable Wing mounted thereon, said Wing having a panel movable into and out of a position corresponding to the stream-line of the wing, means for locking the panel to the Wing when the panel is in said stream-line position, and means for simultaneously releasing said locking means and moving said panel out of said position.

6. In an aeroplane having a Wing supporting structure and foldable wings mounted thereon, panels mounted on said wings and foldable with respect thereto and means actuated independently of movement of the panels for simultaneously locking said Wings to said supporting structure and said panels against movement With respect to said Wings.

7. In an aeroplane having a wing supporting structure and foldable Wings mounted thereon, each of said wings having a panel pivotally mounted thereon and movable when the wing is in extended or flight position, to a position Wherein it prevents folding movement of the wing, and means actuated independently of movement of the panels for simultaneously locking said wings to said supporting structure and said panels, when the latter are in position to prevent folding of the wings, against movement with respect to the wings.

8. In an aeroplane having a wing supporting structure, and a foldable wing mounted thereon, said Wing having a panel movable into and out of a position corresponding to the streamline of the wing, means for locking said panel against movement with respect to the Wing when the panel is in said streamline position, and positively operating means for simultaneously releasing said locking means and moving said panel out of said position.

9. In an aeroplane having a Wing supporting structure, and a foldable wing mounted thereon, said wing having a panel movable into and out of a position corresponding to the streamline of the Wing, means for locking said Wing to said supporting structure and means responsive to movement of said locking means for moving said panel to its streamline position.

10. In an aeroplane having a Wing supporting structure and a foldable Wing mounted thereon, means for locking the wing when in extended or flight position, said means comp-rising mating lugs on the Wing and supporting structure and a pin extending through said lugs to lock them together, said pin having a portion which, when the pin is retracted from the lugs, projects from the leading edge of the Wing.

11. In an aeroplane having a Wing supporting structure and foldable double Wings mounted thereon, horizontally disposed pins for locking each half of the double Wing to its supporting structure, means for actuating said pins, and a strut interconnecting said actuating means and disposed substantially at right angles to the pins, said strut being rotatable to thereby actuate both locking pins.

l2. In an aeroplane having a Wing supporting structure and foldable double wings mounted thereon, means for locking each half of the double Wings in ight position, said locking means comprising mating lugs on the wings and supporting structure and pins for locking said lugs together, and means for simultaneously actuating the pins for each half Wing, said actuating means comprising racks associated with said pins, pinions in operative engagement with said racks, and a rotatable interwing strut interconnecting said pinions.

13. In an aeroplane having a Wing supporting structure and a foldable Wing mounted thereon, said wing having a panel movable into and out of a position corresponding to the streamline of the Wing, means for locking said Wing to said supporting structure and means responsive to movement of said locking means for successively moving said panel to its streamline position and locking said panel, when in said position, against movement with respect to said Wing.

ROBERT G. NIGH'IINGALE.

sa i-"tli Fillon

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2453514 *Feb 10, 1942Nov 9, 1948Jerome IvanFlying fuselage
US2483402 *Dec 12, 1944Oct 4, 1949Stevens Cotten LewisAntiaircraft target
US2721046 *Mar 26, 1949Oct 18, 1955North American Aviation IncVariable dihedral mechanism for aircraft wings
US2767939 *Dec 26, 1952Oct 23, 1956Aerocar IncFlying automotive vehicle assembly
US2794608 *Apr 19, 1949Jun 4, 1957Lockheed Aircraft CorpAirplane with variable swept wings
US3016762 *Nov 9, 1959Jan 16, 1962Floyd Bobby WAdjustable regulator for dampers
US3124011 *Mar 31, 1961Mar 10, 1964 Steering wheel locking jack
US4061195 *Jan 30, 1976Dec 6, 1977Austin Industries, Inc.Lock and lift mechanism for a foldable implement
US6082665 *Jul 27, 1998Jul 4, 2000Spitzer; Jeffrey J.Roadable aircraft
US6619584Mar 11, 2002Sep 16, 2003Robin HaynesRoad/air vehicle
US9156550 *Feb 14, 2014Oct 13, 2015Toyota Motor Engineering & Manufacturing North America, Inc.Dual channel wing for an aerocar
Classifications
U.S. Classification244/49, 74/504
International ClassificationB64C3/00, B64C3/56
Cooperative ClassificationB64C3/56
European ClassificationB64C3/56