US 2011557 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Aug., 20, 1935. F. o. ANDREGG 2,011,557
' wINDow STRUCTURE Filed Dec. '7, 1933 I Hyg. 59.3.
WITNESS IVNVENTOR Patented Aug. 20, '1935.
UNITED STATES vPATENT OFFICE WINDOW STRUCTURE Frederick 0. Anderegg, Forest Borough, Pa.l
Application December 7,1933, Serial No. 701,354 17 (ci. en -56.5)
My invention relates to windows and particularly to double wall windows, An object of my invention is to provide a double wall anti-fogging window structure embodying a novel frame 5 structure.
Another object of my invention is to provide a window structure that shall have a relatively high heat-insulating characteristic.
Another object o f my invention is to provide a double wall window structure that shall be so constructed as to maintain its original non-condensing characteristic indeilnitely and prevent crystalline growth on vthe inclosed surfaces.
Another object of my invention is to provide a relatively simple and inexpensive assembly for A a double wall window structure that shall be easily and quickly installed,
Another object o f my invention is to provide a double wall window structure that shall be substantially self-contained and vbe provided with means for attaching' thereto the mounting or ysupporting fixtures.
Other objects of my invention will either be apparent from the description of a structure em'- bodying my invention or will be pointed out during the description thereof.
In practicing my invention I provide a pair of spaced panes of glass, each pane having a relatively thin layer of a transparent resin on the inner surface and a peripheral frame and gasket including a transparent resin, around .and between the edges of the panes of glass, the gasket a stiiener of any one of a number of different materials. I may also enclose a gas having a molecular weight greater than air, between the panes of glass and also. one` or more spacers intermediate the edges of the panes to prevent collapse thereof under extreme changes of atmospheric pressure. Figure 1 of the drawing illustrates, in front view, 'a window structure embodying my invenview, taken to Fig. 4, showing another modification of a gasket spacer,
8 is a'fragmentary sectional'view, similar to Fig. 4, showing still another modification of a spacer gasket, and,
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary view, in centralsection.
Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawing, I have there illustrated a double wall structure l I, which comprises two panes .of glass I3 and I5, which will usually, but not necessarily, be coextensive and which may be of any kind of glass used fo windows.
One surface of each pane of glass is coated, as by dipping,4 spraying, or any other method effective for the purpose, with a relatively thin layer I1 of a resin solution which is transparent, which adheres tightly to the glass, and which remains so during its entire life in the device.
There are a number ofl resin solutions which I may use and I may mention glyptal resins,
glycerol-phthalate modified by a drying oil suhas tung oil, and particularly a solution of vinyl acetate or a similar vinylite, or in fact any similar resin solution which is transparent and which. may or may not be thermo-plastic. The vinyl acetate or similar resin is mixed with a volatile solvent, such as any of the esters, for example ethyl acetate. I may also add thereto a plasticizer such as dibutyl phthalate, with the object of obtaining a transparent and substantially unchanging solution, which will readilyadhere tightly to the surface of a pane of glass and which will'prevent fogging and will not react with acids inthe air-to produce a bloom or efflorescence on the surface of the coating, which is not only unsightly but would also tend to reduce the transparency of the window. Before y applying such coating the surface of the glass should be thoroughly cleaned', and the coating should be so applied as to be of uniform thickness and be evenly distributed` In order to maintain this coating in its original condition it is necessary that it be sealed in and to samev kindused for making the spraying solution for the coating. This frame and spacer may be madev of vinyl acetate which may be vcompounded with a plasticizer such as dibutyl phthalate or other resins, s'uch as some of the A glyptals. I may also use nitrocellulose in the strip to increase the stiifnessbf the frame and l gasket. This spacing frame mayior instance be made up of a number of suitable pieces, either of straight or` of L-shape and applied to the the two coated panes of glass with thespacer frame gasket in proper operative positions relatively to each other and subject the whole assembly to the proper degree of heat to cause the frame and coatings to harden and adhere to each other and to the surface of the pane of glass, whereby the latter is protected from etching action and crystal growth. The two coated panes of glass may be clamped together during the heating operation with suiiicient pressure to cause the frame and gasket to adhere to the coatings and to form therewith a at-box-like air-` tight member located between the'two panes of glass and to holdl them in spaced position a small distance apart, the outer edge portion of Ithe frame extending beyond thev edges of the glass and Aalso enclosing the same, as shown in the drawing.
I may also use a glass rod 23 embedded in the gasket I9 as shown in Figs. 1 to 3 of the drawing, and as shown also on a slightly enlarged scale in Fig. 4'thereof. Fig. 3 shows a longitudinal section through one rame and gasket located adjacent one edge of the structure il.
Referring to Fig. 7 of the d a g I have there shown a stiilener and spacer 25 which may comprise a bundle ofrelatively thin rods or threads of glass. I may also use a twisted cord or rope of articial vsilk as a stiffener.
lReferring to Fig. 6 of the drawing I have there shown a metal insert 21 in a frame gasket 29 of resin,I and while I have shown a folded strip of metal, such as aluminum, I do not desire to be limited to any one form of folded metal strip or to one kind of metal. The main consideration is that the gasket shall cooperate `withthe layers of resin on the panes of glass to form therewith an air-tight box-like memberwhose characteristics will not change with age.
A double wall structure of this kind will be subjected to relativelyl large variations of presference of pressure being Ion the order of iour pounds per square inch when the car in which the window is located travels from sea level to` the highest altitude reached by railroad trains.
It is c-bvious that the size of the panes, f glass which can be used without an` internal spacer is quite limited and to enable me to use larger panes of glass I provide, as shown in Fig. `1 of the drawing, a plurality of spacers 3l located between the coated panes of glass. These spacers may be in the form of short lengths of glass rods cut to the proper si'ze or glass buttons, and any desired number of such posts or buttons may be used and distributed over the area of the window. A
I may use one or more strips of glass or other transparent material extending laterally of the structure, such as is shown at 33 in Figs. 1, 2 and 9. Such strips of glass or 'equivalent' material would prevent convection currents of air in the space between the panes o f glass or at least reduce the vertical lheight of the space in which such convection currents of air can flow.
MostA of the heat which flows transversely across the structure comprising the two spaced panes of glassv is by conduction and I provide suitable means to reduce such conductions. I may displace the air originally included between the panes of glass and in the air-tight'box-like member by ailuid, preferably gaseous, which is transparent and which has a high molecular Weight. eousV lling, and in order to exhaust the air and introduce vthe gas of heavy molecular weight I may provide two small tubes -35 at opposite corners or points of the assembly, shown generally in Fig. 1 of the drawing and shown on an en- I may use carbon dioxide for the gaslarged scale in Figs. 4 and v5 of the drawing.
'These tubesmay, for instance,l extend through the frame gasket. I9 and be open initially at both ends. After the air in the space between the panes of glass has been displaced by the gas of heavy molecular weight the outer ends of the two tubes 35 may be sealed offlush with the outer edge'of the structure. l
I may also use a iiuorchloro compound of carbon or of phosphorus or mixtures of such and similar gases, having a boiling point less than 20 F., compounds which are transparent and which have a molecular weight greater than air (which has a 'molecular weight of 29) their molecular weight being 50 or even more. The use of a gas having amolecular weight greater-than air tends to reduce the conduction of heat through the space between. the spaced panes of glass, such reduction being in substantially direct proportion to the increased molecular weight.
I prefer to introduce the filler gas at an elevated temperature, say on the order of 120 F. or more, and to seal at subatmospheric pressure on the order of ve to twelve pounds per square inch absolute. known manner and will ensure that a positive pressure will never develope within the structure because of change in barometric pressure or rise in temperature. be provided in the strip 33 to permit the above described process to be carried out.
The gasket surrounding the edges of the pair vof panes of glass extends therefrom a distance suicient toprovide a relatively strong frame which retains its mechanical strength under all ordinary conditions of operation and of service. Openings 39 may be provided in the frame to permit of securing thereto a mounting or supporting device, in the nature of a. hinge structure or a lock or catch.
The window structure embodying my invention thus provides a relatively simple and easily manufactured and assembled double-pane anti-fogging Window structure that embodies not only means for assuring that its original degree of transparency will continue throughout its use but in- This may be done in any well Small openings 31 may.
and may be made relatively thin in itslateral dimension, that is Vthe space between the two panes of glass may be on the order of .V4 inch or less.
While I have illustrated and described several forms of my invention now preferred by me, I do not-wish to be restricted thereto but desirethat all equivalents covered by the appended claims l shall be included therein. Y
I claim as my invention:- 1. A unitary anti-fogging window structure including two spaced parallel extending panes of l glass, anti-Rigging coatings adherent to and supspaced panes of glass, relatively thin layers of a transparent resirr one on each inner surface of each pane of glass and a reinforced gasket of a transparent resin at and between the edges of the panes of glass.
4. A window structure comprising a `pair of panes of glass, a relatively thin layer of a transparent resin on the inner surface of each pane of glass, said layers being independent of each other and a spacing gasket at and between the edges of the panes of glass, said gasket including a core of solid material and a surrounding body of transparent resin.
5.A window structure comp sing a pair of spaced parallel-extending panes of glass and an lair-tight flat-box-like member of a transparent resin located between the panes of glass, having Y its flat sides adhering to the inner surfaces of the respective panes of glass and including a transparent spacer between the flat sides of the boxlike member.
6. A device as set forth in claim in which the gasket includes a'stiifener extending longitudinally of the gasket.
7. A window structure comprising a pair of spaced substantially coextensive panes of glass,
a relatively thin layer of transparent vinyl resin on the inner surface of the respective panes of glassand a spacing strip of vinyl resin at, be-
, tween and around the edges of the panes of glass.
8. A structure asset forth in claim 'I in whichl the material of the spacing strip has chemically mixed therewith a stiffening material. 9. A structure as set forth in claim core. v
10.' A window structure comprising spaced coextensive panes of glass, an air-tight i'iat-box-like member of `a ytransparent resin .located between the panes of glass-and having its larger sides adhering totheinner ofthe.
respective panes of glass and tgaseous means at sub-atmospheric pressure within the box-like member to reduce the speedof convection currents of air therewithin and to ltransfer of heattherethrough.
11. Awindow structure comprising a pair of per square inch absolute.
'1 in whien the spacing strip includes a transparent refractory v apairof e 3 spaced parallel-extending panes of glass, relatively thin layers of a transparent resin on the inner surfaces of the respective panes of glass, said layers being spaced apart, a peripheral gasket of resin at and between the edges of the panes of glass and a heavier-than-air gas between the panes of glass to reduce the heat transfer therebetween. v
A12. A window structure comprising afpair of coextensive parallel panes of glass, a relatively thin layer of a. transparent resin adhering to the inner surface of the respective panes of glass, said layers being spaced apart, a peripheral gasket of a transparent resin at and between the panes of glass to space them apart and a transparent gaseous uid having a boiling point of less than 20 F. be-
tween the panes of glass.
V13. A window structure comprising a pair of spaced panes of glass, a thin layer of a. transparent resin' on the inner surfaces ofthe respec- -tive panes of glass, a transparent peripheral gasket having an air tight union with the` two layers of resin, and a gaseous filling between the panes of glass having a pressure between seven and twelve 14. A structure as set forth in claim 12 in which the gaseous fluid is at sub-atmospheric pressure.
15. .A window structure comprising a pair voi? ,spaced parallel-extending panes of glass, a unitary air-tight flatbox-like member of a transparent vinyl resin located between the panes of glass and having its fiat sides tightly adherent to the inner 'surfaces of the respective panes of glass and aV heavier-than-air gaseous fluid within the flat-boxlike member having a boiling point of less than F., a molecular weight of more than 30 and y a pressure of between seven and twelve per square inch absolute.
b 16. A window structure comprising a pair .of spaced co-extensive panes of glass, air-tight flatbox-like 'means'formed of a transparent medium located between the panes of glass and having its larger sides adhering to the inner surface'sof the respective panes of glass, said medium at 'all conditions of the outer atmosphere'being transparent,
AV of solid status, adherent to glass, and a heavierthan-air gas confined within said air-tight flatbox-like means.
17. A window structure comprising a pair of spaced co-extensive panes of glass, air-tight flatbox-like means formed of a tt medium located between the panes of glass and having its ditions ofthe outer atmosphere being ofsolid status, adherent-to glass, and a heavierthan-air 'gas at sub-atmospheric pressure consned within ma air-tight ina-impune means t msnnarcxo..
:largersidesadheringtctheinnersurfacesof the Vrespective panes of glass, said medium at all'con-