US 2015864 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Patented Oct. 1, 1935 PATENT OFFICE 2,015,884 I mocassmc or 'rax'rmzs Adalbert Miiller and Theodor Stenzinger, Augs- Germany, assignora to-Erba Aktiengesellschaft, Fabrik Chemlscher Produkte, Zurich, Switzerland, a corporation of Switzerland No Drawing. Application October 18, 1932, Serial No. 638,345. In Germany December 17, 1931 4 Claims.
The invention relates to processes of treating textiles and similar materials, and it particularly relates to a method of incorporating waxy or fatty materials and other water insoluble materialsv in textiles, yarns or fabrics.
An object of the present invention is to provide a process whereby water insoluble materials may be incorporated in textiles and similar materials for softening, waterproofing, sizing, lustre-finishing and other finishing, with assurance that the loading material will be substantially permanently incorporated in the body of the fiber or structure of the textile.
Another object is to provide a process whereby water insoluble materials may be incorporated in textiles and similar materials for softening, waterproofing, sizing, lustre-finishing and other finishing, with assurance that the loading material will be substantially permanently incorporated in the body of the fiber or structure of the textile by treating with emulsons or colloidal dispersions whichadmits of the possibility of utilizing very dilute emulsions or colloidal dispersions containing the water insoluble material.
Another object is to provide improved colloidal dispersions or emulsions, which are particularly adapted for loading or filling textile materials, as for, example to waterproof them.
Another object is to provide improved waterproofed textile materials which contain relatively small quantities of the water-proofing or fatty substances, substantially permanently absorbed inside of the fiber or inside of the structure of the textile itself.
Other objects are in part obvious and will be-in part pointed out hereinafter.
If a textile or similar material having an electrical charge, for example a negative charge, is treated with a colloidal dispersion or emulsion, the suspended particles of which have an opposite or positive charge, it has been found that the dispersed particles of the colloidal dispersion or' emulsion will incorporate themselves with and penetrate into the structure of the textile, fabric, or other similar material, even though the emulsion be very dilute. Satisfactory incorporation and consequently desirable waterproofed or finished textiles are obtained without using a highly concentrated bath.
According to the present invention it is desirable to subject the textile materials to treatment in the colloidal emulsions or dispersions for a longer period of time than has previously been the case, but this increase in exposure is over-balanced by the many other advantages artificial silk, linen and the like may be treated v by the present invention. Materials in non-spun 15 state, as for instance top, or woven or knitted yarn may also be treated. If desired, paper, leather, fur and other materials may also be similarly processed. The emulsion may contain colloidally dispersed fats, waxy materials, oleaginous 20 substances and other water-proofing or water insoluble materials. Other substances such as resin, caoutchouc, sulphur, asphalt and the like may also be employed in the emulsions.
The following are several illustrative examples 25 of preferred modes of carrying'out the process of-the present invention, to which the invention is not to be limited:
(1.) 1 kg. of an emulsion containing about 25% cocoa fat and a small amount of acetic acid, 30 and the dispersed phase of which is positively charged, is mixed with 200 ltrs. of water. 10 kg. knitted cotton are treated with this solution on a mechanical or hand winch for about -10 to 15 -minutes at a temperature of 120 F. At the end 35 v of this'time the bath will clarify. After finishing, the cotton material will possess the desired degree of. softness.
If av negatively charged cocoa fat emulsion is I employed, that is one having the same charge as 40 the fabric, the same effect may only be obtained with an emulsion having 4 or 5 times the above concentration.
(2.) 30 kg. of woollen yarn are dyed with the aid of sulphuric acid. After rinsing, the yarn 45 will still contain considerable quantities of acid 3 and consequently will be positively charged. The material is then agitated in 2000 ltrs. of a bath containing 2.5 kg. of a concentrated paraflin emulsion, said emulsion containing about 30% 50 paraffin. After a processing for 15 to 20 minutes at to F. the bath will become completely clear. The treated yarns are then dehydrated by centrifuging and then dried, after which they may be easily spun. 65
(3)50kg.cfwoollmyarnaredyedinanmer taining sumcient quantities of aluminium salt "to clnrge it positively are'mixed with 3000 liters d. water. The dyed and rinsed wool is then treated'withthismixtureforaboutmminutesat atemperatureoffrun110to120'!'.afterwhich theiiquidmixturewilibecome perfectly clear. Aftertheliquidhasbemremovedthewoollen yarniswashedwithasprayofcoldwaterand centrifmed and dried. Very good impregnation isthusobtained.
(4) 0.3kg.ofanemulsimcontaining10%wax andl% ofafattyacidaremixedwithmlitersstance30%waterinsolub1e Textile materials, when treated with emulsions of this-character, are onlymechanically penetratedbytheliquorofthehathandretaimwhen orsquemcdmmliilto 100%oftheirown weightoftheliquidinthebath.' Inthesecases instead of the water-proofing or fatty materials beingincorporatedinsideoforabsorbcdbythe flberorstructureoftextile,theywillbedeposited on the surface uponevaporation of the water with 100litersofthebathcontainingforexample 2% of a concentrated emulsion, as above dacribed,about3kg.oftextilematerialmaybe treated. Inotherwords,3kg.ofgoodsmustbe treated with 2 kg. of the concentrated emulsion ul'witlranaaneiuntoftheemulsionequivalentto 66%oftheweightofthenmterialtreated.
Accordingtothepresentinvmticnthetextiles aretreatedwithatmostanamountofemulsion tto%byweightofthematerials beingtreatcd. Thna'3kg.ofthematerialmay' beheatedwith l00litersofabathcontaining 0.3%oftheunulsinn.
Thetreatmentofthematerialbythebathis mrfledoutforaratherextendedtimagenerally for10to30minutes.
totheproceasofthepresentinventhefimeoftreatmentofthematerialsin tlon alltheamnratususeminwhichthematerials m y be subjected to treatnent, as for example the reeling vat, the washing-machine, or .the vaseLispreferahlycmflnuedforasuitablyextendedperiod. Thetemperatureofthebathmay bebetwcenfllandlm'llaccordingtothema- Becauseoftheoppositechargesofthetextile materialandthecmulslmitappearsthatthe agulationaswillresultimonthcmixturenf 'oppositelychargedcolloidalsolutlonsordlsper 5 colloidal waxy and fatty particles is such that the water-proofing material will be retained in the textile even though it be subjected to drastic 5 washing or other operations over long periods of time.
I although'itisdesirabletoobtainacomplete extraction of the emulsion and a resultant clarity of the bath, the desirable wa action betweenthe textileandthecolloidwillbeobtained even if the bath does not clarify.-
The emulsions of the present invention may be conveniently prepared with soaps, sulphonated oils or fats or other proper fatty derivatives,
aromatic sulphonic acids, sulphmated mineral ollsandthelike. Furtherthemay beasistedbycolloidalsucliasproteins, albumins, casein, glue, starch, celluloslc materials, sulphite waste liquor and the like. These emulsions will a mflve charge and may be satisfactorily utilised to treat positively charged textiles. I I
- Positively charged emulsions may be obtained from such negatively charged anulsiins by the additionof substancesgivingaposilivec lm to the dispersed phase. Such subslances are free acids as for instance hydrochloric acid. sulphuric acid, formic acid,aeetic acid, lactic acid and tartaric acid or salts having anacid reaction. Salts of pol'yvalent metals, such as salts of aluminium, iron, zinc, copper and the like, as well as positively charged hydroeols for instance aluminium hydroxide may also be 61mm The posiiivecliargingofthedispcrsedphaseoiftheernulsionmaybe done byaddingsubstances to the dilute or concentrated negatively charged emulsion. In addition, positive emulsionsmaybedirectlyproducedbyhomogenizing thewaterinsolublesubstancewithanaqueoussolution of the emulsifying agmt and of the discharging substance.
If the discharge-causing materialis added to concentrated emulsions and before dilution, it is possible to incorporate in the emul- .orsimilarmaterialbeingtrmteiitispossibleto regulate the ailinity of these colloidal particles for the textile, materials. 4 v V The present application relatu to similar sub-w jectmatterasthe co-pending mlicatlomserial No. 562,608, filed September 12,1931. on Stable emulsions and processes for their production. I The claims of the present application are speciflcallydirectedtowaterprooftextiieswitha negative charge a positively charged emulsion, which process may be carried out in a one bath operation, eliminating the necessity of 'utilizingatwobathprocesswithitsattendantdisadvantages. Thesubjectmatterandreferredtoin'li the present application but not claimed herein is covered in the co-pending applications, Serial No. 659,506 filed March 3, 1932 and Serial No. 745,755 filed September 27, 1934.
It is to be understood that the many alterations and modifications may be made in the present application without departing from the invention set forth and described and it is to be understood that the examples given have merely been cited by way of illustration and not by way of limitation and it is intended by the present application to cover the invention in its broadest aspects.
What we claim is:
1. A process of waterproofing textiles with water insoluble, oily, waxy and fatty materials from aqueous emulsions thereof, which comprises providing the textile with a negative charge, preparing an emulsion of said water insoluble materials in which the emulsified or disperse phase is positively charged and then immersing the textiles in said bath to cause them to absorb the disperse phase from the bath by reason of their opposite charge. 7
2. A process of waterproofing textiles with a water insoluble material selected from the class consisting of cocoa fat, olive oil and paraflln,
which comprises providing the textile with a negative charge, preparing a dilute aqueous emulsion containing said water insoluble material in the disperse phase and having a positive charge, and immersing the textiles in saidbath to'cause said textiles to absorb said water insoluble material 4. A process of water proofing textiles with 15 'paraflln and an aluminum compound which comprises providing the textiles with a negative charge, preparing a diluted emulsion containing the parafiln in the disperse phase and containing an aluminum compound and positively charged and then immersing the textiles in the dilute bath to absorb the parafiin therefrom by reason of the opposite charge.
ADALBERT MULLER. 25 THEODOR STENZINGER.