US 2016042 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. l, 1935.
M. J. `L Ewls 2,016,042
WELL kEURE DEFLECTING'TOOL 1` originai Filed sept. 15, 195s Patented Oct. `1 1935 en N 2,016,042
PATENT ori-*ics wsu. nonnpnrxinc'rmo 'root Miles 1.1mm, Long peut, cam.
Application september# 1s, 1933, serial No. 689,231 s 1 K f Renewed December 10, 1934 y V` Y f 11 claims.
This invention relates'tc well drilling apparatus and particularly to tool/s to bej'u'sed at'the bottom Aoi. a `well holeffor extendingthe hole in anew "direction f l` Forjvarious reasons, itoitenj Ihappens that it 'is' desirable to change the direction vofmagwell hole while it is being armed. Thus it may be necessary to` side-track lost tools and-parted strings of casingo'r drill pipe orto drill oil from a bridge or a plug in `a desired direction, The present invention makes it possible to extend a hole in a desired new direction'at Van langle to the lpreexisting portionof the hole. f Anobject of the invention is to providea simple, rugged and inexpensive tool adapted to be used on the'end of the usual rotary drill string for changing the direction o1' awell hole. The invention is particularly useful in deecting a vertical hole so that it extends "at an angle from the vertical but it'is 'equally well adapted for use in extendinglan inclined hole at a diierent inclination. 1 j VA full understanding ofthe invention may be had fromA the following detailed description when read in connection withnthe accompanying drawing, inwhich Y Fig. l Vis ari elevation view,V partly in section, showing a tool in' accordance with the invention as it appears in a well bore; Fig. 2 is a detail elevational section deflecting mechanism ofthe tool;` Fig. '3 is a detail elevationof a portion oi' the tool looking in the 4direction ofthe arrow IlI in Fig. 2; y l
lFig. 4 is across sectionin theplaneIV-IV of Fig.2;- 5 Fig. l'51s a detail elevation viewof the upper portion of the device showing a modified form of constructionto'thatshown in Fig. 1; andI Eig. 6 is a schematicview showing the device used rin a. relatively large Vbore to permit deflectionof the bore ata relatively Vsharp angle.` y
`Referring to Fig.l 1, mydevice comprises a collar I Vadapted to `beisecured at its upper end to the lower end oi a drill string 2,the connection being preferably .made by suitable, cooperating screw threads on the respective elements. VThe collar I is preferably enlarged at substantially its mid portion, as shown at 3, to act as a guide within the weilbore to properly center the collar I. Thisv enlarged portion 3vis` therefore preferably dimensioned to fit snugly within the well bore.
` Attached to the lower end of the collar I as by thread connections is the socketmember oi a ball and socket universal joint I. VI'he ball memthrough the collarY I and the drill `string (ci. ssl-1)' y ber ofthe universal joint is attached to the upper end of a `downwardly depending shaft I, which in turn is secured to theupper end offapilot bit 6. `A reamer l1 is preferably mounted upon the upper 'portion ofthe pilot bit 6to enlarge' the small hole 5 drilled by the' bit'.` s ,I i
Referring now to Fig. 2, itwill be observed that the ball member Blof the universal Joint nts snugly within the socket member 9 and'is substantially enclosed thereby. However,v the skirt portion III 1` of socket member 9 'is cut away'suiilciently to leave space aboutfthe shank of the `shaft 5 `i111- mediately below the ball 8 to permit the desired oscillation between the ball and socket members.
To permit the transfer of rotary motionbetween 15 the socket member 8 and the ball member 8, the socket member 9 is 'pro'vlded'with inwardly projecting pins II which-project into vertical slots I2 in the ball in registry with the pins II. To
reduce frictionlthe pins I If maybeprovided with so rollers Il on the inner ends thereof.
'lopermit the supplyingof drilling fluid from the-drill pipe 2 to the drill'bit 6, a central aperture I 4 is providedinthesocketmember 9 and a correspondingcentral aperture' I 5 is provided g5 in the ball member 8 and its associated shaitfi. The 'passage I5 in the shaft 5 registers with a similarpa'ssage inthe center of the pilot bit 6. `This construction of universal joint for supplying drilling iiuid therethrough is particularly de- 30 .sirable as it eliminates the necessity of using a iiexible hose toconduct the uid through or past the universal joint. It is to be understood, however, that other forms of universal joint may be employed, such asth'e form oi' construction shown 35 in my prior Patent 1,902,174, issued March 21st, `1933,on a Well borestraightening tool.
As lshown clearly in Figs. 2, 3'and 4,the `skirt portion I0 oi the socket member 8 extends some distance below the ball member I in the form of 40 anannular ridge's'urro'uding the shaft 5. This skirt Ili'is utilized in combination with a cam element next to be described for deilecting the bit 6 in adesired direction with respectlto the 2to which the collarissecuredinuse.r` 1' Y i The aforementioned cam mechanismcomprlses a slidable collar I6 slidably mounted for longitudinal movement along the shalt 5 but keyed "thereto as by keys I1 to prevent relative rota- 50 tional movement between 'the collar and the shaft. Slidable collar I6 is normally forced into contact vwith the lower edge of the skirt `I0 on the'socket member 9 by a spiral spring Il which surrounds the shaft 5 below the slidable collar I8 55 I9 threaded upon shaft 5. A lock nut 20 is preferably provided below the retainer I9 to lock the latter in a desired position.Y
The upper end face of slidable collar I6 instead of being fiat, whereby it would lie completely in a plane perpendicular to the axis of shaft 5, is raised onone side as shown at 2|. Therefore, if the spring retainer I9 isradjusted to cause the spring I8 to exert substantial pressure against the slidable collar I6, the raised portion 2| of the latter will be forced into contact with the lower edge of the skirt I0 on the socket member 9 and will tend to bend the universal joint and deflect thebit 6 at an angle to the collar 1|, .as shown in Fig. 1. By making the spring I8 Vsufiiciently stiff and adjusting the retainer I9 to exert substantial pressure against the spring, this deflecting force .can easily be made suicient to overcome the weight of the bit 6 and hold the latter at a desired angle with respect to the collar I even when the latteris extending horizontally insteadof vertically as `shown in Fig. 1.
The device is used as follows: d
Assume that a well bore has been extended to a desired. depth and it is desired to continue the hole at an angle to the existing portion and in a Vcertain direction. The bottom of the existing hole is squared ofi, as shown in Fig. 1, by means of asquaring qff toolmounted upon a drill string. Thereafter the drill string and squaring off .tool are removedfrom the hole and the tool compris` ing the collar universal joint 4 and bit 6 attached to the drill string 2 and lowered intothe hole. Before insertion the spring retainerIS is adjusted to exert substantialpressure against the spring I8 Vso that as the device is lowered into the hole the bit 6 is deflected to one side as shown in Fig. 1, and,when the bottom ofthe hole `is reached, the point of the drill comes to `rest at oner edge of the hole, as shown in Fig. 1.
The enlarged portion-3 ofthercollar I may be hdimensioned to iit snugly in the well bore, as
with the axis of the hole.
shown in Fig.-l, to align the collar I substantially If the hole has been previously drilled or reamed .to fit the enlarged Yportion 3 of thev collar I, then the angle at which the bit 6 can be deflected will be accurately known since' it .will be determined by the diameter of the hole. Furthermore, by suitably orienting the drill string 2 as it is lowered into the hole, the bit 6 can be made tocome to rest pointing in a desired direction in which the hole is to be extended.
When the lpoint of the bit 6 has been set down on the bottom of the squared off hole in the mand ner described, power is applied to the drill string and thev latter rotated. This rotary motion is applied through thercollar I landthe universal joint 4 to the bit 6, causing the` latter toy drill into the bottom of the hole at the point where it was set down. The drill bit is preferablyV of a. type Y l that will cut in wherever it is set down instead of walking around `in the hole. Of course, there will be a natural tendency for the bit to walk around in the hole because of the angle at which string 2.
and is supported Vat its lower edge by a retainerthen moves upward again during the 'second half t revolution. This motion continues, the slldable collar i6 oscillating up and down along the shaft 5 as the device rotates. The net result is that while the slidable collar |6 exerts a. force tending to deflect the bit 6 in a predetermined direction with respect to the collar it yields in, response to outside forces to permit the bit 6 to be turned by the drill string 2 through the unlversal joint 4 while maintaining the original position in which it was set down on the bottom of the hole.
After the pilot bit 6 has drilled a suflicient distance in the desired direction,l the reamer 1 reaches the bottom of the hole and enlarges the hole made by the pilot bit to a desired size. The reamer I in the case of the assembly shown in Fig. 1 wouldv originaly be of lesser diameter than the guide portion 3 of the collar so that the depth to which the hole can be drilled in the new direction with the assembly shown in Fig. l' ls limited. When` this, limit is reached, the device hole is relatively small and thefdrill'string can yield laterally sufficiently tofollowaroundfthe bend in thehole.`
A dreamer' 3',` as shownin stituted for the smooth guide 6in VvFig. f1, the
reamer 3f simultaneously enlarging thewell hole to a desired diameter and at the same time centering the collar I within the hole'. t
The angle of the extended hole with respect to Vbit 6 with respect to the directional the original the original hole may be varied by varying the bit 6 the greater the angle it willvtake with respect to the drillstring.
Y The angler mayalso be increased by reducin the size of oreliminating the enlarged'guide portion 3 of the collar in which case the universal joint assembly will bear against one side of `the hole and the tip of the pilot drill will bear against the opposite side of the hole, as shown in Fig. V6.
latter purpose, the lock nut `2|! is loosened and the spring retainer I9 backed off until the spring Il exerts no pressure at all between the1sliding collar I6 and the skirt I0 on socket member `9. Therefore, when the' device Vis .lowered into, a crooked well hole on the end of a drill string, the pilot bit Sbeing freely suspended by the universal joint 4, will seek a vertical position regardless of the inclination of the Voriginal hole and the drill Y By Vsetting down the pilot drill 6 on the bottom of the hole while it is freely suspended in vertical position and continuing the hole vertically by rotating the drill string, the hole will continued in a vertical direction.v
and that the scopelof theinvention is to be limited only as set forth in theappended claims.:
1. A Well vboring tool comprising af drill bit,
means including a universal joint for operatively connecting said bit to the lower end lof a drill string and spring. means for yieldinglydirecting said bit ina .fixed predetermineddirection' with respect to said drill stringysaid spring means permitting lexure of.l said universal joint-Wand deflection of said bit in'response to external forces `of predetermined magnitude acting uponfsaid bit and drill string, respectively. i
2. A well boring tool comprising avdrilling bit,` a
reamerf adapted to be secured to the lower `end of a drill string, a universal joint operatively` connecting said'bit `to said reamer whereby said bit can be rotated `about its -own axis by the reamer while positioned at i an Iangle to the reamer, and means for `yieldingly deflecting said bit atan angle with respect. vto saidreamer.`
3. A well boring tcolcomp'rising a drilling bit, means including a universal joint for operatively connecting said bit to the lower end of` a drill string, saidkuniversal` joint `comprising `a ball member `and `a socket member, onejof which members is rigidly secured to said bit andthe other on said shaftfor compressing said spring to force said collar against said socket member with the i annular thrust faces on; said `collar and socket member in Contact, said thrust faces being shaped to bend said universal ljoint whenr forced together by said spring. K
. 4. A well boring tool as described in claim 3 in which the means on saidr'shaft for vcompressing said spring is adjustable along said shaft for vary-` ing the spring pressure on said collar.
`5. A well boring tool as'described in claim 3,`
in which cooperating guide means are provided `on said slidable collar and said shaft on which it slides for preventing relative rotation between saidslidable collar and said shaft. l
6. ,A wen boring tool comprising a drin bit having a shaft extending upwardly therefrom, a bit rotating member having a downwardly extending shaft, universal joint means for rconnecting saidshafts for simultaneous rotation for permitting lateral flexing therebetween, a hollow member on one of said shafts and rigid theredrill string. i
with, having an annularv thrust face adjacent Vsaiduniversal joint means, a collarV longitudinally slidableon said other shaft, and having an annular'zthrustface `juxtaposed to the thrust face `on said hollowl` member, and spring means for 5 l resiliently.compressingsaid collar against said hollow` member, at least one of said annular faces being higher on one sidelthanon` another to flex fsaidfuniversal joint means'in one` direction in "response `tothe compression of saidspring while 10 `perxnitting saidjoint to flex in the opposite direction` in` response to external `forces acting on said bit and bit rotating-member when such forces are `of 'springj f sufficient magnitude torcompress` said i y f 15 A'lfA Awell boring tool comprising a 'drill bit,
'meansincluding a universal "joint for ,operativelyy connecting said bit to the lower end of a drill string, whereby saidf bit can`be rotated about its own axis by the drill string while positioned at an 20 angle to the drill string, and` yieldable means for normally directing said bit in a fixed predeterminedddirection with respect to said drill string,
V'said yieldable means permittingfflexure of said universal joint and deflection ofsaid'bit in rev25 spense to external forcesfcf predetermined magnitude acting upon said drill bitfand drill string,
respectively. 'f i 8.` A `well `boring tool comprising a drill bit,
, `means including a universal jointfor operatively connecting said bit to the lower end 4of a drill string, whereby said bit can be rotated about its own axis by the drill string whilepositioned at an l, angle tothe drill string, and 4means for yieldingly deflecting said bit` at `an angle with respect to saiddrill string. j
9. `A` well boring toolcomprising a drill bit,
` means including auniversal joint for operatively connecting said bit to the ,lower lend' of adrill string, `whereby said bit can be rotated about its own axisby the drill string while positioned atan angle to vthe drill` string, and means for yieldingly deflecting the bit at an angle to and in a llxeddirectionof orientation withrespect to said 10. A well boring tool asdescribed in claim 8,
i in which saidrdrill string comprises a guide memberon the lower end thereof substantially cylindrical in shape anddimensioned to fit snugly within the well bore to, center itself and said 5d universal jointzwithinthe well bore.
11.*- A well boring tool as described in claim f8,
in which a v:reamer is mounted upon said drill bit betweenythe point of the drill bitand said universal'joint. i 55 MILES J. LEWIS.