US 2016096 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. l, 1935. w L MARTIN 2,016,096
DRIER Filled April 1932 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVLNTQR Oct. l, 1935. w MAR'I'N 2,016,096
DRIER Filed April 4, 1932 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Wendzil L Martin; j INVENTOR Patented Oct. 1, 19,35
turno ASTATES Pn'rlszrrrl OFFICE Wendell L. Martin, Cleveland, Qhio, assigner to The Martin Brothers Electric Company, @levelancl, Ohio, a corporation of' @hilo Application April t., i932, Serial No, @3,023
ll Qlairns., (Cl. 21g-39) My invention relates to driers, and has par?1 ticular reference to driers for use in drying hair, or the hands, or the like, and the principal object of my invention is to provide a new and improved 5 drier of this type.
ln the drawings accompanying this specification and forming a part of this application, l have shown, for the purpose of illustration, one form which my invention may assume, and in these l drawings:
Figure l is a side elevational view of a drier 'constructed inacoordance with my invention, with parts broken away, to illustrate the location or" the heating and resistance elements,
l5. Figure 2 is an enlarged longitudinal sectional view talren on line 2 2 of Figure i,
Figure 3 is a transverse sectional View taken on line Zl--il ot Figure l, i
Figure 4 is an enlarged fragmentary sectional 20 view through thetiniing mechanism, taken on line (li- Q oihigure i,
Figure 5 is a vertical sectional view taken on lin or Figure electric circuits employed and the relative position oi the contact elements and the heating and resistance elements controlled thereby, v3 Figure 8 is an enlarged front elevational View of the fan,
Figure 9 is a transverse sectional view taken on line 9 9 of Figure 8, while Figure 10 is a transverse sectional View through one ci the fan blades, taken on line lil-I0 of Figure 9. l
With reference to the drawings, a, drier constructed in Aaccordance with my invention is shown as comprising a substantially cylindrical 40.- hood, indicated as an entirety at |,which is adapted to be directed toward the head and hair of the person whose hair is being dried and which may, ii desired, at least partially embrace the saine. The hood l is carried by a vertical tubular sup- 45 port 2 through the medium of interposed linkage mechanism 3.
The 'hood l preferably comprises an outer ring l and an inner ring 5, which are connected at intervals by radially extending ilus or'bailie elements S formed integrally therewith. The outer ring 4 carries a forwardly extending substantially cylindrical casing member l to the forward edge of which is secured a ring member 8 having inwardly inclined walls adapted to intercept the 55 en issuing from the drier and to desear it radially inward against the head and hair. The ring d also carries a rearwardly extending substantially bell-shaped casing member t provided with an annular flange lll adjacent to its rear end, to which a motor casing l l is secured by means of bolts i2.
The inner ringl'i is'formed with a rearwardly and inwardly extending flange lthaving a plurality of radially extending arms I4 formed integrally therewith ,which are integrally connected y at their inner ends to a centrally disposed ring w member A substantially cylindrical member it is disposed within the casing member 9 in spaced relation thereto and is provided with a iange il which is secured to the ange i3 of the ring 5 and carries a circurnierentially arranged heating element lil and a plurality oi resistance elements lll and il@ which are insulated from the member lli by spacing members fil o insulating material. lfhe resistance elements i@ and il@ are x. arranged around the lower halt ofthe .member W lli so that any heat radiating therefrom will heat the lower portion of the air stream ilowing through the drier, which impinges in the vicinity of the nape of the necio and the lower portion of the n hair. A screen lili is secured to the liange iii and u ring i5 of the ring 5 so as to prevent any possibility of the hair being drawn into the drier loy the inwardly owing air stream. Secured to the forward edge or? the ring t, by means oi screws it,
is a forwardly and outwardly flared substantially 3@ bell-shaped inner casing member 2t, the forward edge of which terminates in a plane located just to the rear of thering member 8 and is provided with a plurality of upper apertures and a plurality of lower apertures 26, through which some of the air iiowing through the casing, between the cylindrical member 1 and the inner casing 24, may pass inwardly for contact with the hair.
Suitably mounted 'within the motor casing il 'w I is an electric motor il provided with`a forwardly extending shaft 2S# to which a centrifugal fan, indicated in its entirety at 29, is iixed. This fan, as will be hereinafter explained, is designed todraw air inwardly into the drier in a centrally disposed stream through the inner casing 24 and to expel the same outwardly in a. substantially annular stream surrounding the in flowing stream ci air, through the space between the inner casing 2li and the outer casing member 1,- and ben w tween the baille members 6. These. baille mem bers intercept the swirling air and direct the same in a forward direction, and also tend to prevent a localization ci the air stream, such as Cil might be caused by an unequal obstruction of the outlet of the drier by the head. The speed of the motor may be controlled at will by means of a rheostat 30 carried by the motor housing II and provided with a suitable operating knob or handle 3|, and the motor circuit may be opened and closed, in order to start and stop the motor, by means of a switch 32 which is also mounted on the motor housing II in a position where it may be readily accessible to the operator, and which cooperates with two fixed contact members 33 and 34.
The motor housing I is mounted directly upon a housing 35 which contains the timing mechanism for controlling the temperature of the heating element I8, hereinafter to be described, and which is connected at'its lower end to the pedestal 2 by means of the linkage mechanism 3.
The timing mechanism, in the present instance, may-be of any suitable commercial type of clock-work mechanism, and therefore need not be described in detail. For the purpose of this description, it is suficient to state that this mechanism comprises a central shaft 36 provided at its outer end with an operating handle 31, by means of which the mechanism may be set in operation, and which is provided with a pointer 38 for cooperation with a suitable .dial 33 provided exteriorly of the housing 35, and which may carry suitable indicia, such as maximum heat, medium heat and low heat, indicating the temperature of the air passing through the drier. The shaft 36 is driven by means of a spring 4|), through the medium of interposed gearing mechanism 4I, and is provided at its inner extremity with a disk 42 provided with a pair of substantially diametrically disposed pins 43 and 44.
The pins 43 and 44 successively operate a plu- Yrality o1' electric switches, each indicated as an entirety at 45, 46, and 41, respectively, which control the supply of electric current to the heating element I8 and to the resistance elements I9 and 2|). Each of these switches comprises a plurality of fixed contact elements 48 and 49, which are mounted in spaced relation upon an insulating block 50 and which are adapted to be bridged by a movable contact element 5I in order to close the circuit controlled thereby. The contact element 5I is mounted on one end of an insulating member 52`provided with a collar 53 and is formed at its other end with a slot 54` adapted to receive a pin 55 carried by a lever 56 pivoted intermediate its ends ona bracket 51 by means of a pin 58. A spring 59 is interposed between the collar 53 and the pin 55 and urges the contact member 5| either into or out of operative position with respect to the fixed contacts 48 and 43 with a snap action, in the-weil known manner, when the pin 55 is moved from one side of the center to the other by the movement of the lever 56. The lever 56 is provided with a slot 60 adapted to be engaged by the pins 43 and 44 when the device is operated. l
' When it is desired to operate the drier, the shaft 36 is rotated in a clockwise direction, thereby winding thespring of the clock--work mechanism. During the first part of this movement,
tinued rotation o! the shaft 36 carries the pin 44 y out of the slot 63 in the lever 56 of the switch 45 and into the slot 60 of the lever 56 of the switch 46, thereby actuating the ccntactelement 5| of this switch so as to close the circuit through the xed contact elements 48 and 49. By this time the pin 43 has reached a point where it enters the slot 60 of the lever 56 of the switch 41 and actuates the contact member 5| of this switch so as,to close the circuit through the fixed contact elements 48 and 49. After the switches 45, 46 and 41 have all been closed, as above described, the pin 43 engages the side of the lever 6U of the switch and arrests the rotation of the shaft 35.
,The handle 31 is then released and the clockwork mechanism under the action of the spring 40 rotates the shaft 36 backwardly in a counterclockwise direction at a predetermined rate.
When the switches are all closed, electric current will traverse a circuit of least resistance,
which may be termed the maximum heating circuit, passing from a source of electrical energy through wires 6| and 62, switch 41, wire 63, heating element I8, and wire 64, back to source. A circuit for the motor 21 will also be established passing from the source of electrical energy through wires 6I, 65, 66, 61, fixed contact 33, movable contact 32, wire 68, windings of motor 21, wire 69, and wire 64, back to source. Under these conditions, both the heating element I8 and the motor 21 are energized so as to cause a current of heated air to flow through the casing. When a predeterminedtime interval rhas elapsed, the pin 43 will actuate the lever 56 of the switch 41 so as to openthis switch, therebyopening the maximum heating circuit just traced and compelling the current to traverse a medium heating circuit of increased resistance passing from the source of electrical energy through the wires 6|, 65, and 10, switch 46, wire 1I, resistance element I9, heating element I8, and wire 64, back to source.` By reason of the increased resistance in this circuit, the electric current traversing the heating element I8 is reduced, thereby decreasing the heating effect of the heating element and the temperature of the air iiowing through the casing.
After another `time interval of predetermined duration has elapsed,fthe pin 44 rotates to a position Where it enters the slot 60 of the lever 56 of the switch 46 and snaps the movable contact member 5| to an over-the-center position, thus opening the medium heating circuit and compelling the current to traverse a low heating circuit of still higher resistance passing from the source of electrical energy through wirss 6I, 65, 66, 12, switch 45, wires 13 and 14, resistance elements 2l) and I9, heating element I8, and wire 64, back to source. By reason of the increased resistance of this circuit, the current traversing the heating element I8 is still further reduced, thereby resulting in a still further reduction in the temperature of the heating element I8 and that of theair passing through the casing.
At the expiration of a still further interval of time of predetermined duration, the pin 44 enters the slot 6|) of the lever 56 of the switch 45 and actuates this leverto throw the movable contact element 5I to an over-the-center position, thus opening the low heating circuit and interrupting the supply of current to the heating element I8.
However, with the switch 32 in the position shown in Figure 7, motor 21 will remain energized and cause the iiow of air through the casing to continue. Under these conditions the air will be unheated and is utilized to cool the scalp followof said mechanism to vary said working characteristics as a function' of time; a switch adapted to connect said motor parallel and/or in series with said switching mechanism and a locking member operable at will to interrupt the cycle of' operation of said automatic mechanism and lock the same in stationary condition, and thus prolong the effect at any given movement, said .ocking member also beeing releasable at will to permit resumption of said cyclic operation.
6. Apparatus for subjecting a person to the action of a stream of gas-like fluid, comprising: a casing; an electric motor; a generator driven by said motor for generating a stream of fluid within said casing; heating means, comprising a plurality of resistance elements arranged in parallel circuits to each other and said motor; mechanism automatically operable to vary the heating effect of ,said resistance elements upon the stream of fluid, including a snap switch for the circuit of each of s'aid resistance elements,
and a moving member successively engageable with each of said snap switches to control said resistance elements; and a time measuring means controlling the action of said moving member, and a switch adapted to connect said motor with one of said snap switches for joint control of said motor and the heating circuit controlled by said snap switch.
7. A hair drier, comprising: a casing; an electric motor, means driven by said motor for causing a current of air to ow through said casing; electrical heating means disposed within said casing and extending about the interior thereof and adapted to heat the air passing through said casing, said' heating means including an additional resistance element disposed in said air stream; and mechanism, including a time measuring means, automatically operable to control said heating means as a function of time, and
having means for connecting said additional resistance element inA circuit with said heating means to reduce the total heating effect thereof, and switching means, adapted to connect said motor parallel and/or in series with said connecting means for joint and individual control of said heating means and said motor, said addi- A tional resistance element being positioned at one side portion of said casing and operating to concentrate the greater portion of the reduced heat of said heating means in a selected part of said air stream.
8. Apparatus for subjecting a person to the action of a stream of gas-like fluid, comprising: a casing; an electric motor, a generator driven by said motor for generating a stream of fluid within said casing; heating means, comprising a plurality of resistance elements arranged in parallel circuits to each other and said motor; mechanism automatically operable to progressively diminish the heating effect of said resistance elements upon the stream of fluid, including a snap switch for the circuit of each of said retime measuring means controlling the action` sistance elements, a moving member successively eng-ageable with each of said snap switches successively to cut into circuit additional of said resistance elements; a time measuring means controlling the action of said moving member, and 5 a switch for selectively connecting the motor in series with one of said snap switches.
9. A hair drier, comprising: a casing; an electric motor means driven by said motor for causing a current of air to flow through said casing; electrical heating means arranged in parallel to said motor disposed within said casing and extending about the interior thereof and adapted to heat the air passing through said casing, said heating means including a plurality of resistance elements disposed in said air stream; and mechanism, including a time measuring means, for controlling operation of said heating means, having means operable to successively connect said resistance elements in circuit with said heating means to progressively reduce the total heating effect thereof, and switching means adapted to selectively connect the motor in series` with one of the connecting means of said resistance elements, a greater portion of said resistance ele- 2 ments being positioned at one side portion of said casing and operating to concentrate the greater portion of the reduced heat of said heating means in a selected part of said air stream.
10. Apparatus for subjecting a person to the action of a stream of gas-like fluid, comprising:
a casing; electrically operated means for generating a stream of fluid within said casing; electrical heating means for heating the fluid of said stream; switching mechanism automatically operable through a .predetermined cycle for controlling the operation of both of said means, ln-
cluding a time measuring means controlling the action of said mechanism as a function of time; elements operable at will to interrupt the cycle of operation to prolong the effect at any given movement; and a switching device adapted to connect said electrically operated meansin parallel and/or-in series with said switching mechanism for selectively controlling the operation of one of said means independently of said mechanism.
11. Apparatus for subjecting a. person to the action-of a stream of gas-like fluid, comprising: a casing; an electric motor, a generator driven by said motor for causing a stream of fluid to recirculate through said casing; switching and heating mechanism automatically operable through a predetermined cycle to vary the working characteristics of the stream of fluid, including a time measuring means controlling the action of said mechanism to vary said working characteristics as a function of time; switching means adapted to selectively connect said motor in parallel and/or in series with said switching 30 mechanism; and means operable at will to in.- terrupt the cycle of operation to prolong the el'- fect at any given movement.
WENDELL L. MARTIN.