US 2016918 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct. 8, 1935.
G. E. BORN TILE AND LIKE WALL CONSTRUCTION Filed Jan. 19, 1953 2 Sheets-Sheet Oct. 8,1935. G. E. BORN 2,
. TILE AND LIKE WALL CONSTRUCTION v Filed Jan. 19, 1933 2 She ets-Sheet 2 'liillillllliiw,
iiiiiiimlllliiliiiiiw v I m K INVENTOR g Q 9 N N "N 4 30 W a.
v gZMMm Patented Oct. 8, 1935 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE TILE AND LIKE WALL CONSTRUCTION George E. Born, Pittsburgh, Pa., assignor to Bocjl Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Delaware. as trustee 18 Claims.
This invention relates to the construction of walls either on the exterior or the interior of a building, and more particularly to walls of the type which are covered with relatively thin bricks, blocks, or tiles. The invention will be described particularly with reference to tile walls, but it will be understood that this is by way of illustration and that the term tiles shall be understood to include either ceramic or glass tiles and other blocks and bricks used either on the outside or the inside of a building.
Ceramic tile walls as heretofore constructed have required the use of an experienced tile setter for their erection. The tile setter first coats the walls with a rough coat of plaster or cement. The tile setter endeavors to make this coating as nearly perpendicular as possible. After this base or rough coat has been made and sufficient time has elapsed for it to set, the tile setter then applies the individual tiles to the surface of the wall, cementing each tile in place individually, a highly adhesive cement being used for this purpose. Each tile has to be separated a uniform distance from the adjacent tiles in order that .the'- joint between the tiles may subsequently be filled with grout or cement. In order to maintain the distance between the adiacenttiles it is necessary for the tile setter to use some kind of pegs or spacers for keeping the tiles properly separated after they have been stuck on the wall and until the adhesive cement has set sufficiently to hold the tiles in place. which holds the tiles in place has been set, the spacers or pegs are removed, and the whole wall surface is wiped with a cement or grout mixture, the cement or grout mixture being worked into the joints between the tiles, the surface of the tiles being wiped clean.
From the foregoing it will be seen that the setting up of a tile wall requires considerable time and labor and it is, aside from the materials used, a quite expensive building operation. According to the present invention there is provided a means and method by means of which tiles or other facing blocks can be secured to a wall with very much less time and very much less work than has heretofore been required, and the tiles may be placed more regularly and evenly than has heretofore been possible and at a considerable saving in cost.
In the practice of 'my invention, the tiles, or
other surfacing blocks, are mounted in metal supporting members or clips. These clips are provided with means for engaging .in a specially formed metal plate which is first secured to the When the adhesive cement.
wall to be covered. After the tiles are mounted in the clips, the clips are hung onthe metal sheet, and since the metal sheet has regularly spaced means for cooperation with the clips, the tiles are uniformly supported with reference to one 5 another. After the tiles have been mounted on the supporting panel in this way the grout or cement can be worked into the joints between and around the tiles, and the wall is completed. The metal clips are "entirely concealed after the 10 joints have been filled. The clips can be used with standard shapes and sizes of ceramic tiles without requiring any special molding or cutting of the tiles, and the special shapes commonly used at the base and the top of the tile walls can be used with 15 the present invention. Narrow colored tiles can also be used in special places to provide for border effects.
The invention may be readily understood by reference to the accompanying drawings, which 20 have particular reference to a tile wall, but as previously stated, instead of tiles, the invention is' applicable to use with surfacing blocks of various other kinds and shapes.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 shows a plan view of a partly completed wall, this view showing also the formation of the wall at the corner, with the side wall in section;
Figure 2 is a view similar to Fig. 1 but show- 30 ing a relatively smaller area of the wall and illustrating, furthermore, one manner in which border effects can be produced;
Figure 3 is a perspective view of one of the clips for holding a tile as viewed from the back 35 of the clip;
Figure 4 is a similar view of a special clip for use where the tile has to be cut to a half or a third or some other fraction of its standard size;
Figure 5 is a section on a full sized scale in the plane of line V-V of Fig. 2; and
Figure 6 is a view somewhat similar to Fig. 5 illustrating the manner in which the'clips with the tiles are brought into position and mounted on the supporting panel.
Referring to the drawings, 2 designates a sheet metal panel having marginal flange portions 3, 'raised portions 4, and regularly spaced'horizontally extending corrugations or ribs 5. The 50 panels 2 are made of a size suillcient to cover a considerable wall area and sufllcient to support quite a number of individual tiles or surfacing blocks. The size of the panels can be varied to meet commercial requirements. The
wall to be tiled is flrst covered with these panels 2. The marginal flanges I and the bottoms of the ribs or corrugations are provided with closely spaced nail holes I so that the panels can be nailed to the studding of the building. By placing the holes close enough together it will always be possible for one or more nails to be driven into each stud. Care is taken in securing the panels to the wall that the ribs or corrugations 5 shall be horizontal. Where the length of the wall is greater than the length of a panel unit, the units may be arranged endto-end, and where the height of the wall to be covered is greater than the vertical width of the panel unit, the panels can be arranged one above the other, the flange portions 3 overlapping and maintaining the proper spacing.
The inwardly formed ribs or corrugations i serve two functions; the flrst is to hold the portions 4 of the panel spaced outwardly from the studs or from the surface of the wall to which the panel is secured. They are close enough together to prevent any material sagging or spring in the panels. Their second function is to reinforce the panels and hold them rigid so that they will not tend to bow out or sag inwardly between the studding. The panels are formed of a relatively light gauge sheet metal which is not too thick to be conveniently cut with tin shears, so that if the panels are made up in standard sizes the person installing them can cut the panels down to the necessary size to enable the entire wall to be covered.
Formed in the raised portions I of the panel are a plurality of slots I, the metal above each slot being slightly depressed, as indicated at 0, to form a slight groove or depression leading into the slot. The slots are arranged in horizontal rows, and the rows are arranged in pairs. For instance, in Fig. 1 the first two horizontal rows of slots form one pair and the second two horizontal rows of slots form the second pair. The rows of slots are all parallel, but the distance between two rows of a pair, 1. e., the distance A in Fig. 2 is less than the distance B. The slots in each row all line up vertically with the corresponding slots of the other rows, so that in a vertical direction there are vertical rows of slots, these vertical rows being equidistantly spaced.
The individual tiles or blocks, designated 0, are set in metal clips l0. These clips comprise a back wall portion ll having top and bottom flanges l2 and I3, respectively, and side flanges l4 and IS. The back portion II is approximately the same size as the tile to be clipped, and the flanges are sprung inwardly to a very slight extent so that when a tile is inserted in the clip the edges of the tile are held with considerable friction by the flanges. The corners of'the clip are preferably open, as shown. When the tiles are clipped in this manner they can only be pried out of the holders with considerable difficulty, the flt being a close, tight one. Moreover, the gripping action of the clips is such that any two opposed flanges are sufllcient to hold the tile in the clip. In other words, under some conditions it is desirable to omit the side flanges, and under other conditions, as will be hereinafter explained, it is desirable to cut of! the top or bottom flange, as the case may be.
Punched outwardly from the back of the sheet metal clip are integral tongues ii. The separation between these tongues in a horizontal direction is the same as the separation of the vertical rows of slots I, and the distance between the tongues in a vertical direction is equal to the distance A (Fig. 2), i. e., the distance between the slots in a pair of horizontal rows. When the tiles are mounted in the clips and after the panel 5 has been nailed to the wall, the tiles can be hung onto the panel by causing the tongues It to engage in the grooves 8, and then sliding the tile down until the tongues 16 are fully engaged in the slots 1. This is indicated in Fig. 6 where the full 10 line position of the detached tile shows the tile being brought up toward the surface of the panel.
It is then rested against the panel with the tongues IS in the grooves 8, and then slipped down until the tongues are fully home, the tile then occupying the position shown by the dotted line in Fig. 6. The tongues are shaped in such a manner as to facilitate their entry into the slots, and they are preferably slightly resilient in order to frictionally clamp the clip to the panel 'as the clip is slid down. The sheet metal panels can be applied to the wall without the use of any special tools, and without requiring any considerable degree of skill. The tiles can be furnished to the user already mounted in the clips, or the user can flt them into the clips himself. After the tiles are fltted intothe clips, the clips can be very rapidly hung on the panel. The size of the clips, the positions of the tongues, and the positions of the slots I are such that the tiles will be spaced 80 an equal distance from one another vertically and horizontally.
Where it is desirable to use a half width or any width of tile less than the full width, the clips shown in Fig. 4 may be used. This may be cut by the user with tin shears from the standard size clip shown in Fig. 3, or it may be furnished as an additional part. As shown in Fig. 4, this clip has a width much less than the full width of the standard tile. It hasa back portion 11 and top and bottom flanges I8 and I9, respectively, and has two tongues 20 similar to the tongues l6. Where the tile has to be cut, as it frequently does at the corners of the room being tiled to fill out the row, this form of clip can be used. It engages only the top and bottom edges of the tile, and for that reason a fraction of a tile comprising either a third, a half, two-thirds, or any other necessary width, can be supported.
So far as described, the invention is applicab to ordinary tiles which are completely flat. However, it is frequently the practice at the top of the tile wall to use tiles having an inwardly turned flange to form a slight ledge or shoulder at the top of the wall. At the bottom of the wall it is also common practice to use tiles having an outwardly turned flange. In Figs. 1 and 5 the uppermost tiles designated 2| have an inwardly turned flange, and in Fig. 1, the lowermost tiles designated 22 have an outwardly turned flange. For use with tiles such as the tiles 2| it is merely necessary to cut ofi the top flange i2 of the clip. As previously pointed out, the two side flanges are suflicient to hold the tile in place in the clip so that the tile 2i will be firmly held in place notwithstanding the fact that the upper flange is removed. It is desirable to leave the lower flange in place in that it facilitates centering the tile in the clip. It is thus apparent that with the present invention standard tiles having the in- 7 turned upper flange may be used with the same facility as the ordinary flat tiles.
With the tiles 22 substantially the same procedure is followed, but the bottom flange I2 is removed.
Where it is desired to use a narrow colored tile than does the base coat required for the laying to produce a border effect, the arrangement shown in Figs. 2 and 5maybe employed. In this case,'the narrow tile is fitted into the bottom of I ing an inturned flangebe used in this combination, as it is apparent that the ordinary flat tile can be used in place of the flanged tile. It is also apparent that instead of the clipmerely holding two tiles, 1. e., 23 and 2!, it may hold a greater number of narrower strips. In order to produce the joint effect between the border tile 23 and the tile that is supported in the same clip with it, the border ,tile, 23 may be provided along its upper edge with a slight groove 24 which will catch and retain mortar and cement when the cement is wiped into the joints.
After the wall structure has been erected in the manner described, a grout or cement mixture is wiped over the surface of the tiles, working into the space between the tiles, and forming the conventional mortar joint. This cement effectively conceals the edges of the metal clips. By cutting away the corners of the clips as shown in Fig. 3, the cement can creep under the corners of the tiles themselves and thus be eifectively locked in place. The completed wall has the appearance of the ordinary tile wall in every respect, with the exception that the tiles, being laid on a metal panel, can be more regularly and evenly spaced and more nearly in the same plane. Since the panel is reinforced against bulging or sagging between the studs of the wall in which it is mounted, the wall will permanently maintain itself. Moreover, the wall will'have less tendency to crack than does the ordinary tile wall where the tiles become an integral part of the building and are caused to crack with any settling movement of the building structure. In the present invention the metal panels yield to the necessary degree before transmitting cracking strains to the tile walls.
In the drawings, the tiles are shown as being square and as being laid without staggering or breaking of the Joints. It will be seen, however, that the invention permits the blocks to be staggered or offset where such an arrangement is desired, it being merely necessary to hang the clips in one horizontal row of tile out of vertical line with those of adjacent rows, the regular horizontal spacing of the slots in the panel permitting this oif setting'. Also, if rectangular tiles are used which are multiples of the sizes of the tiles shown, the clips for such tiles mayhave the tongues positioned to engage certain slots in the panel, other slots not being used, it being unnecessary to have more than four tongues on a single clip for the ordinary lengths of tiles; For rectangular tiles which are not multiples of the size of tiles here shown, the spacing of the slots would be varied to-suit the dimensions of the clips, as will be readily, understood by those skilled in the art, the invention being confined to no particular shape or dimension of tile or other surfacing blocks.
Since the clips and panels are relatively light gauge sheet metal, the walls can be erected at relatively little expense and without requiring highly skilled labor. The sheet metal panel, moreover, costs considerably less per square foot of ordinary tile.
At the present time ceramic tiles come in various sizes, the smaller size being only slightly smaller than the larger sizes, and it is the prac- 5 tice with the smaller tiles to use a wider mortar Joint. The present invention permits the use of smaller tiles by using smaller clips, but with the tongues ii spaced the same as they are for the larger tiles. The smaller tiles are thus evenly o spaced over the panel, and a wider space is left between the tiles to form'the wider joint. One panel, therefore, will adapt itself to all standard sizes of square tile within the range now commercially manufactured, the only change required being the size of the clips.
As previously stated, while.,I have described the invention with particular reference to ceramic tile walls, it will beunderstood that the invention is applicable likewise to the surfacing of go any other walls with previously formed ceramic or earthen blocks or similar surfacing blocks. It will be understood further that various modifications and changes from the specific structures illustrated may be made within the contempla-' 25 tion of my invention and under the scope of the appended claims.
1. A wall structure comprising a panel member, block holding members regularly arranged so on the panel, the block holding members and the panel having regularly spaced cooperating means for positioningand holding a plurality of vertical and horizontal rows of the block holding members on the panel in predetermined relation 35 to one another, and surfacing blocks in the block holding members, the panel member having an areasufilcient to receive a plurality of vertical and horizontal rows of surfacing blocks.
2. A wall structure comprising a panel mem o ber, block holding members regularly arranged on the panel in rows, the block holding members and the panel having regularly spaced cooperating means for positioning and holding the block holding members on the panel in predeter- 45 mined relation to one another, surfacing blocks in the block holding members, the surfacing blocks being maintained in uniformly spaced relation by said holding members, and a cement Joint between said blocks, the panel member hav- 50 ing an area sufficient to receive a plurality of vertical and horizontal rows of surfacing blocks.
3. A wall structure comprising a sheet metal panel member having rib portions on the back surface thereof for engagement against the wall 55 oi a building and having raised portions between the'ribs'which are held in spaced relation to the wall to which the panel is applied by said ribs, said panel having regularly arranged vertical and horizontal rows of slots therein, block hold- 60 ing members on the panel, each block holding member having a plurality of tongues for engagement in a plurality of the slots in thepanel for positioning and holding the block holding panel, and surfacing blocks supported in the block holding members.
5. A wall structure comprising a panel member adapted to be secured to a wall and having means therein for holding the panel in spaced relation to the wall, said panel having a multiplicity of slots over its entire surface, a plurality of individual block holding members on the panel and each having tongues engaging in the slots of the panel whereby the block holding members are secured in place in the panel, surfacing blocks supported in the block holding members, the slots in the panel and the tongues on the holding members being so positioned as to hold the blocks in predetermined uniform spaced relation, and a cement joint between the blocks concealing the panel and the holding members.
6. Building units for the mounting of surfacing blocks on the wall of a building, comprising a panel member, a block holding member adapted to receive and hold a surfacing block, and cooperating tongue and slot elements on said members for attaching the block holding member to the panel member, said block holding members comprising backing members having side flanges thereon for frictionally engaging the edges of the surfacing block, the depth of the flanges being less than the thickness of the blockto be engaged thereby.
7. Building units for mounting surfacing blocks on the wall of a building, comprising a panel member adapted tocover a relatively large wall surface, a block holding member adapted to receive and hold a surfacing block, the surfacing block and the holder therefor being of an area substantially smaller than the area of the panel whereby a multiplicity of blocks can becarrie'd on one panel, said black holding memberand said panel having means thereon which interlock for holding the block holding member in place on the panel.
8. Building units for mounting surfacing blocks on the wall of a building, comprising a panel member, a plurality of block holding clips each adapted to frictionally receive and hold a surfac ing block, regularly positioned tongue and slot elements on said members for attaching the clip members to the panel members at regularly posi tioned spaced intervals, and blocks carried in the clips and positioned in spaced relation from one another thereby.
9. A building unit for mounting a surfacing block to a supporting panel, comprising a sheet metal member having rearwardly projecting tongue elements thereonand having a pair of forwardly extending flanges thereon for frictionally engaging at least two edges of a tile or like surfacing block.
10. A building unit for mounting a surfacing block to a supporting panel, comprising a sheet metal member having rearwardly projectingtongue elements thereon and having a pair of forwardly extending flanges thereon for frictionally engaging at least two edges of a tile or like surfacing block, and a tile mounted in said member and having a thickness greater than the depth of said flanges.
11. A building unit for mounting a surfacing block to a supporting panel, comprising a sheet metal member having rearwardly projecting tongue elements thereon and having a pair of forwardly extending flanges thereon for frictionally engaging at least two edges of a tile or like surfacing block, and a tile mounted in said members and having a thickness greater than the depth of said flanges, the flanges being shorter than the tile whereby they do not engage the corner portions of the tile whereby cement can be worked under such corner portions when the tile is mounted on a supporting panel.
12. In a wall structure of the class described having tiles supported in individual clips with tongues at the backs of the clips, a supporting panel for receiving and holding the clips, comprising a sheet metal plate having horizontally extending corrugations therein forming ribs at the back of the plate for maintaining the plate in spaced relation to a wall against which the panel is positioned, the portions of the panel between the corrugations having regularly arranged slots therein for engagement with the tongues on the block holding clips.
13. In a wall structure of the class described having tiles supported in individual clips with tongues at the backs of the clips, a supporting panel for receiving and holding the clips, comprising a sheet metal plate having horizontally extending corrugations therein forming ribs at the back of the plate for maintaining the plate in spaced relation to a wall against which the panel is positioned, the portions of the panel between the corrugations having regularly arranged slots therein for engagement with the tongues on the block holding clips, the slots on the panel being arranged in vertical rows and in horizontally extending pairs of rows.
14. In a wall structure of the class described having tiles supported in individual clips with tongues at the backs of the clips, a supporting panel for receiving and holding the clips, comprising a sheet metal plate having horizontally extending corrugations therein forming ribs at I the back ofthe plate for maintaining the plate in spaced relation to a wall against which the panel is positioned, the portions of the panel between the corrugations having regularly arranged slots therein for engagement with the tongues on the block holding clips, said corrugations having nail holes formed therealong, the top and botv ly projecting tongues thereon, the panel member having regularly positioned vertical and horizontal slots therein in which the tongues of the block holding members are engaged, and surfacing blocks supported by the block holding members.
16. A wall structure comprising a panel member, a plurality of block holding members regularly arranged on the panel member, said block holding, members having rearwardly and downwardly projecting tongues thereon, the panel member having regularly positioned slots therein in which the tongues of the block holding members are engaged, and surfacing blocks supported by the block holding members, the panel having depressions formed therein above the slots for guiding the tongues of the block holding members into the slots when the block holding memtom edges of the panel having flat/flanged porbers are applied to the panel, said panel being rality of individual block holding clip members on the panel, the clip members and the panel having interlocking means for holding the clip members in regular predetermined positions, surfacing blocks in the clips of regular size and shape and maintained in spaced relation with respect to one another by means of said clips, some of the clips being provided with at least two tiles arranged to produce a border eflect.
18. A wall structure comprising a supporting panel member adapted to be placed against a wall to be covered with surfacing blocks, a plurality of individual block holding clip members'on the panel, the clip members and the panel having interlocking means for holding the clip members in regular predetermined positions, surfacing blocks in the clips or regular size and shape and maintained in spaced relation with respect to one another by means 01' said clips, some of the clips being provided with at least two tiles arranged to produce a border efiect, one of the tiles in a clip where there is more than one tile being re- 10