US 2017303 A
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@ct l5, l935. P. s. BEAR TUBULAR FISHING ROD Filed Nov. 1Q, 1934 Patented Oct. l5, 1935 UNITED STATES PATENT GFFIQE Heddons Sons, of Michigan Dowagiac, Mich., a corporation Application November 10, 1934, Serial No. 752,477
This invention relates to an improvement in tubular steel fishing rods of the general character shown in the Heddon patents, No. 1,961,968; No. 1,961,969, and No. 1,951,970, all issued June 5,
1934; and the present invention is designed to afford a maximum degree of strength and durability in rods of this general character.
In the more modern type of comparatively thin walled and highly tempered tubular steel fishing rods it has been found that owing to more or less frequent inclusions or flaws in the tube wall, and also because of the tendency toward fatiguing of the steel structure as a result of constant flexation and strain, sudden breakages sometimes occur unexpectedly from the first named cause, and ultimate breakages, after a certain period of usage, from the second named cause.
Therefore, I have attained in this improvement of the art a greatly increased insurance against breakage resulting from inclusions in the steel structure, and premature fatiguing of the structure, by the new and novel method of producing a tubular steel rod composedl of a multiplicity of tubular structures, one contained within the other. In this multiple construction, two or more tubular elements may be employed, depending upon the strength and weight it is essential that the particular rod may possess.
It will be manifest that in my new type of construction, should an inclusion occur at a particular point in one of the tubes so employed, it would be very unlikely that an inclusion would occur at the same point in the tube wall of an- 4other and independent constituent of the structure. In other words, the use of a multiplicity of tubes, by which is secured the desired weight and thickness of tube wall within the complete rod, as contrasted to the same weight and thickness attained by the employment of a single tube, will invariably result in jogging or staggering of those portions of any particular tube which may possess an inclusion.
In the use of the very thin wall type of tubing essential to procure the desired minimum of weight in this more modern type of rod, inclusions or flaws are frequently found even in the most carefully and expertly drawn tubing, and therefore the employment of this new laminated principle becomes of increasing value and importance.
As is well known, the constant flexing and straining of any material substance results in a more or less gradual but constant destruction of the grain or fibre structure, and the thicker the member as relatedto the specific degree of the required flexation, the more rapid will be the ber degeneration and ultimate breakdown. This is due to the well known principle that the thinner the material the less difference in tensile and 5 compressive strains that are .set up within the structure. Therefore, far greater and more constant movements may be had in thin walled members without reaching the elastic limit of that material. 10
It will be manifest that in the bending or flexing of any material, elongation of the grain structure occurs on the outside of the curve, due to the inherent elasticity of the material, whereas compression of the grain structure results on the inside of the curve. Halfway between the inner and outer'surfaces of the curve there resides a neutral line of stresses, within which occur minimum stresses, and the thicker the material so curved, the greater the strain in geometric progression. Therefore, the value of securing a given weight and thicknessof wall in the flexing tubular structure by the process of lamination, as contrasted to providing the same weight and thickness of wall in one integral 25 part.
If the structure is composed of one solid wall as contrasted with a laminated wall, which latter is provided for in this invention, it will be obvious that the distance between the neutral point of elongation and contraction is much greater, with resultant strain beyond the elastic limit causing an earlier condition of fatigue.
It will also be obvious that in the use of my laminated structure, should a failure occur in one of the tubes so employed, the other tubes of the structure will support this individual failure, protecting against complete breakage ofthe structure as a whole. l
Another objective and value to be found in my 40 invention reposes in the fact that in the normal processes employed in the tapering of tubular metallic structures, as commonly used in a flshing rod, if the rod is made with a single wall, the displacement of metal incident to the tapering 45 operation results in a thickening of the wall toward the smaller or tip end of the rod, which is frequently very undesirable. On the other hand, by the employment of a laminated wall structure, `as provided for in this invention to produce the 50 same weight of rod, the increasing of the accumulated wall thickness at the tip or smaller end of said rod is much less than where a single tube wall is employed.v
InV the drawing illustrating the invention, 5
Figure 1 is a fragmentary longitudinal sectional view of a double walled rod in which the inner and outer tubing extends from end to end of the rod;
Fig. 2 is a similar view in which the inner tubing terminates short of the tip end of the rod; and
Fig. 3 is a view similar to Fig. 1, in which the wall thickness of the tubing differs throughout the rod. Y'
For purposes of illustration only, I have shown a rod composed of two tubular sections, although it will be understood that the basic concept is directed to the employment of a plurality of tubular sections or laminations which if desired may be greater in number than the two shown for purposes of illustration.
The rod comprises an inner section A and an outer section B, both of which may extend from end to end of the rod as shown in Fig. 1, although as shown in Fig. 2, it may be preferred to have the inner section, or sections as `the case may be, terminate short of .the kextreme tip end of the rod.
'I'he rod is provided with the usual handle C and line guides, and in other respects is finished and fitted in conformity with standard practice, and in the tapering of the rod and the vcomputation of variations in wall thickness from end to end thereof, if desired, I may vemploy the principles set forth in detail in the three Heddon patents previously enumerated, although it will be understood that, unless otherwise indicated, I do not intend to limit myself to any particular ratio of taper or wall thickness, since the principles of the present invention are in `the main applicable to shing rods irrespective of any particular ratio observed in computing the desired wall thickness and taper.
However, the features'of the present invention are particularly well adapted for use in the fabrication of rods in which it is desired to have the wall thickness progressively increase from the butt end toward the tip end of the rod, or in the direction of decreasing diameter as illustrated in Fig. 3.
In the construction of such rods, while it may be desirable to increase the wall thickness toward the tip end by a definite computed ratio, it is diflcult, where a single tube element is employed, to
secure a proper distribution of the metal during the drawing or tapering operation, by reason of the fact that with a single tube there develops a tendency to displace an excessive amount of metal toward the tip end of the rod in the operations required in reducing the diameter down to the relatively minute dimensions demanded in the production of high grade fishing rods.
Such difficulties are overcome in `large measure by the utilization of a plurality of internested tube sections which as a unit aresubjected to the tapering operations, since excessive tendency to crowd the metal toward the tip end and thus increase the wall thickness to an objectionable degree is overcome by providing a plurality of internested tubular layers of laminations in place of a single integral tube.
In Fig. 3 it will be noted that the wall thickness in the tip region is greater than in the butt region, and that as a result of the tapering operations the diameter of the bore throughout the tip region is reduced to very minute dimensions, or substantially eliminated, in conformity with the principles set forth in detail in the Heddon Patent No. 1,961,968. This gives to the tip region of the rod the functional characteristics of a solid 'at the tip region and external diameter to be reduced to comparatively minute dimensions, without excessive tendency to displace or crowd the metal toward the tip end of the rod during l5 the tapering operations and without sacrifice of strength in the tip region due to the possible presence of flaws in the metal, which, howsoever minute, might prove fatal in effect in a single tube rod if located in the tip region by reason of 20 the minuteness of the dimensions in the rod `at the point where such a defect occurs.
By employing multiple tubular walls in conformity with the principles of the present invention the weakening effect due to the presence of 25 the flaws is materially reduced or completely eliminated by reason of the fact that it is Wholly improbable that latent defects will occur at one and the `same point in the inner and outer tube sections, which thus mutually reinforce one an- 30 other against breakage due to the presence of defects in the metal. At the same time, the effects of fatigue in the metal due to continued usage are overcome to a much greater extent than is possible in the construction of single tube 35 rods.
In the fabrication of the rod of the present invention, two or more tube sections are intertted or nested together one within the other, and are then .as a unit subjected to a drawing process 4o such for instance as tha-t set forth and described in detail in the Barnhart patent, No. 1,711,825, issued May 7, 1929. The effect of such a process is to taper the rod by progressively reducing the diameter and drawing out the metal toward the 45 tip end, which results in a thickening of the metal walls as compared with the initial thickness of the walls in the same region. It may be desirable in some cases in the rst instance to employ intertted cylindrical tube sections, each 50 section having a uniform wall thickness throughout, and to subject the multiple tubing to a tapering operation of the character referred to, in which event, due to the displacement and crowding of the metal, there will be a tendency to 55 thicken the metal Walls toward the tip end of lesser diameter.
In other cases it may be desirable to initially employ tube sections having a progressively decreasing wall thickness toward the end of the 60 tube intended to form the tip, so that during the tapering operation the initially thin walled end of the tube will be progressively thickened as its diameter is decreased with resultant equality in wall thickness throughout, or, if desired, with less 65 ultimate wall thickness at the tip end than at the butt end, as set forth and described in the co-pending application of John Heddon, Serial No. 704,375, led December 29, 1933. Such refinements in detail, however, are all regarded as 70 within the purview of the present invention, which from the aspect of method resides in the intertting of tubular sections and subjecting them concurrently and as a unit to the tapering operation howsoever performed.
'I'he rod of the present invention is one in which the duplication or multiplying of the tubular constituents extends throughout the medial region and preferably throughout the greater portion of the rod, or from end to end thereof, so that the intertted tube sections will all partake of flexation during the bend of the rod when subjected to strain, so that the several tubular sections are to be regarded as constituents in the structure of the rod as a whole and not as mere local reinforcements for particular regions in the rod. The tubular constituents thus partake in unison of all of the strains yand stresses to which the rod is subjected when in use, and mutually reinforce one another and co-operate together in imparting to the rod as a whole the required distribution of Weight, exibility and balance required in the fabrication of rods designed to meet the critical inspection of discriminating users.
1. A tubular metallic tapered fishing rod formed throughout substantially its entire eiective length from a plurality of tapered tubular laminations each integrally formed throughout its entire length and intertted one Within the other and mutually reinforcing one another and all partaking of flexations when the rod is bent under strain.
2. A tubular metallic fishing rod tapered throughout a substantial portion of its length and formed throughout from a plurality of tapered tubular laminations intertted one Within the other and all partaking of the taper characteristic of any particular laminated section of the rod and mutually reinforcing one another and all partaking of flexations when the rod is bent under strain.
3. A tubular metallic fishing rod tapered throughout a substantial portion of its length and of Variable thickness and formed throughout from a plurality of tubular laminations intertted one within the other and all partaking of the taper and wall thickness variation characteristic of any particular laminated section of the rod and mutually reinforcing one another and all partaking of flexations when the rod is bent under strain.
4. A tubular metallic fishing rod tapered throughout a substantial portion of its length and of variable Wall throughout its medial region from a plurality of tubular laminations intertted one Within the other and all partaking of the taper and Wall thickness variation characteristic of any particular laminated section of the rod and mutually re- 10 inforcing one another and all partaking of flexations when the rod is bent under strain.
5. A tubular metallic fishing rod tapered throughout a substantial portion of its length and formed throughout its medial region from a 15 plurality of tubular laminations interiitted one Within the other and all partaking of the taper characteristic of any particular laminated section of the rod and mutually reinforcing one another and all partaking of flexations when the rod 20 is bent under strain.
6. A flexible tubular metallic fishing rod of decreasing diameter from the butt to the tip and formed throughout a substantial portion of its length from a plurality of laminations of drawn 25 tubing intertted one within the other and all partaking in unison of the reduction in diameter characteristic of the contiguous region of the rod as a Whole and mutually reinforcing one another and all partaking of exations When the 30 rod is bent under strain.
7. A tubular metallic tapered fishing rod varying in taper and in Wall thickness in various portions of the rod and formed throughout a substantial portion of its length from a plurality of tapered laminations of drawn seamless tubing interfltted one Within the other and all partaking of the taper and Wall thickness characteristic of the contiguous region of the rod as a Whole and mutually reinforcing one another and all partaking of exations when the rod is bent under strain.
PAUL S. BEAR.
thickness and formed 5