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Publication numberUS2017402 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 15, 1935
Filing dateAug 3, 1933
Priority dateAug 3, 1933
Publication numberUS 2017402 A, US 2017402A, US-A-2017402, US2017402 A, US2017402A
InventorsChapman Walter J, Gustav Komarek
Original AssigneeKomarek Greaves And Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Process of producing solid fuel briquettes
US 2017402 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

0t 15, 1935- v G. KOMAREK Er AL PROJCESS OF PRODUCING SOLID FUEL BRIQUETTES Filed Aug. 3, v1935 2 Sheets-Sheet@ l l 1 l l lel/ Oct. 15, 1935. G. KOMAREK Er AL PROCESS OF PRODUCING SOLID FUEL BRIQUETTESl Filed Aug. 3, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 i a i l nl I I i I u i l I Patented Oct. 15, 1935 UNITED STATES PROCESS OF PRODUCING4 SOLID FUEL BRIQUETTES Gustav Komarek and Walter J. Chapman, Chicago, Ill., assignors to Komarek-Greaves and Company, Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois ,Application August 3, 1933', Serial No. 683,540

10 Claims.

Our invention relates to briquetting and -particularly comprises an improved method for the manufacture of briquettes of the smokeless type.

Since the making of fuel briquettes became an industry, the desirability was recognized of limtiing the amount of smoke producing binder to the quantity necessary for making the briquettes impervious to moisture and adding non-smoke producing adhesives as the principal binder to create strength. Many attempts have been made to produce smokeless briquettes, but the use of nonsmoke producing binders as a primary adhesive has been limited'because of the attendant diniculties occasioned by the requirement that mois-A ture or water be present before such binders can perform the expected function.

The present invention recognizes (l) the demand of the trade for smokeless briquettes, (2) the very limited production at the present time of smokeless briquettes, and (3) the diiiiculties which have heretofore discouraged the manufacture of briquettes of this type and in fact,` forced the briquette industry to resort to smoke producing briquettes in order to yield a profit.

The smokeless briquettes of the present invention comprise a body mass of combustible material having as its primary adhesive and in some cases its sole bonding agent a non-smoke producing binder. We have discovered a ynovel method of heating and conditioning the combustible mixture prior to briquetting which is (a) commercially feasible and (b) results in the production of briquettes which are firm and resistant, having a high calorific value and the required smokeless characteristics.

This method consists in bringing together a solid fuel combustible and a binder and initially spreading the latter under conditions to prevent premature hardening of the binder, continuously conveying the binder and combustible along a predetermined path and simultaneously agitating the mixture to spread the binder and heating the mixture along a portion of its path to render the binder adhesive and the mixture plastic.

Thereafter, along the remainder of its path the mixture is agitated and tempered, for example, by.

passing through a non-heated area when the binder is conditioned to optimum adhesive state and a final plasticvbriquettable mass is formed. This briquettable mass is directly briquetted in the usual brlquetting machine.

The method which we employ is continuous and controllable. 'I'he raw mixture is first heat treated and conditioned, and then delivered to the briquette machine or press from the'heat treatingconditioning means in a nal state, as regards plasticity, moisture content, and temperature, and with the binder exerting its optimum adhesive effect. This final plastic briquettable mass is obtained regardless of. the combustible employed and 5 its condition, for example, its moisture content, and likewise the nature of the binder or binders employed whether aqueous or non-aqueous is immaterial. The nal plastic mass delivered to the briquette machine is so conditioned that the briquettes ejected from the press are nished. They require no further treatment and are ready for commercial distribution or consumption.

Stated briefly, the method of the present invention is not limited by the characteristics of the ingredients of the briquette nor the presence of moisture or water. It essentially comprises a heat treating and conditioning of the mixture prior to briquetting whereby to render the mass in a final briquettable state. Neither preliminary drying of the combustible or preliminary treatment of the binder is necessary, and as stated, the flnal product delivered from the briquette press is a complete commercially acceptable article.

In general, the use of non-smoke producing binders of the glutinous or starch bearing type has required the provision of a carrier such as water acting. as a solvent or dispersing agent. The object of such an agent is to assure as far as possible spreading and contact of the binder over the comminuted combustible material and to render available the adhesive properties of the binder, that is, soften the binder and dissolve and disperse the active adhesive principles. With a starch containing binder, the solid fuel combustible binder and Water are brought together under conditions to prevent premature gelatinization of the starch and the mixture is continuously agitated to spread the binder over the combustible and is simultaneously heated, the temperature being controlled to remove excess water and bring the binder to an adhesive or gelatnized state forming a plastic briquettable mass. We find that more complete solution or dispersion of the binder in water is obtained if the combustible mass containing the carbonaceous material, binder and moisture is given aheat treatment, i. e., a cooking and simultaneous agitation. That is, the water normally tends to soften and dissolve the bonding agent in the case of a soluble binder and to soften and disperse the bonding agent in the case of an insoluble binder. 'I'he amount of the active principles dispersed or dissolved in'this manner is, however, greatly increased, in fact is quite complete, and the softening, dispersion or solution is materially quickened by a cooking operation. This cooking and agitating operation, moreover, in addition to bringing out the optimum adhesive properties of the binder and accomplishing em-I cient spreading of the binder, will also act to concentrate the binder by reducing the amount of moisture present and at the same time, eliminate from the combustible mixture such an excess of moisture as would preclude the formation of the nished article in the briquette machine.

We have referred to a cooking of the binder, and by cooking, we mean the heat treatment and conditioning of an aqueous solution or dispersion, or other spreadable bonding agent, for example, a non-aqueous one having potential adhesive properties. The invention is therefore not restricted to treatment of aqueous solutions or dispersions and can be employed with equal facility where the bonding agent is non-aqueous. The

cooking operation in either case will Iact to As stated, it is usual with non-smoke produc-V ing binders to form an aqueous dispersion. In such cases, the water or moisture employed is considerable, as for example, with starch bearing or glutinous materials which are preferably smokeless binders, water is often employed in amount as high as ten parts to one part of binder. Such an amount of water in a mixture of vcombustible and binder produces a soggy mass in whichthe binder is in a very weak state of adhesiveness.y With the present invention, the binder is preferably introduced dry into the combustible which either has a moisture content sufficient to form a paste, or water or moisture is added to the mixture to obtain the desired spreadable l l dispersion or solution. That is, the moisture may f be present in the combustible or supplied thereto in vamount whereby v,cooking-of the mixture will bring out the maximum adhesive properties of the bonding agent andlrender them available. In some cases, the binder paste is first prepared and supplied tothe combustible but this is not preferred, since it is unnecessary and adds an additional step to the method.

The combustible and binder vare kneaded and mixed in a chamber having a paddle mixer or other suitable mixing conveyor. The chamber is positively heated for a portion of its length and the mixture is treated while travelling through bustible. Again, the moisturecontent of the mass is reduced so that from an initial soggy mixture with the adhesive in a weak state, the mass is proand resistant.

gressively formed into a plastic state having the precise quantity of moisture essential to maintain the adhesive active and. the mass plastic. Moreover, the Acontinuous movement of the mixture through the. heating chamber with simultaneous 5 Y further conditioned to its final briquettable state so that it is discharged from the tempering area 10 in a heated condition exactly correct to assure quick self-curing of the briquette and setting of the binder.

The continuous treatment in the chamber provides for (1) cooking the diluted binder solu- 15 tion or mixture so that the binder exerts the optimum binding or adhesive action and (2) reducing the moisture to a negligible -amount consistent with assuring that the binder will be active and the mixture plasticized to a state most suit- 2f able for briquettlng. This is accomplished" by the -initial heating and agitating of the mixture and' then the immediate or continuously subsequent treatment and agitation of the heated mass in the tempering area. There is thus obtained a pro- 2z 'gressive and controllable treatment in which the speed of travel of the mixture through the chamber, the rapidity of the agitation, and the temperature applied to heat the chamber are controllable to obtain the final briquettable mass. 30 The mixture delivered from the tempering area is in ideal briquettlng condition and (1) is free from sogginess, and (2) the initial weakened state of the adhesive is entirely overcome since the adhesive is in its optimum state of activity.

,and the extremely active state of the binder vassures that vthe binder will set rapidly and the briquettes ejected from the press will be hard They are ready for distribution and consumption and neither conventional air curing or positive heat treatment are required. In stating that the setting of the binder and the curing of the briquette takes place substantially within the time cycle of the briquettlng operation, we mean within a period of time whichnormally transpires from the deliveryof the briquettable mass from the tempering area to the briquette machine, its formation into briquettes in the machine, and its delivery therefrom. The 50 'briquettes taken from the briquette machines can bey safely handled without fear of squashing and can be shipped or stored or consumed immediately, since they are tough and integra'l. It should be pointed out here that the regulation of the 55 precise amount of moisture necessary and the rendering of the binder in its most effective state coupled with an appropriate temperature ofthe mass delivered to the briquette machine eliminates all necessity for any 'expensive subsequent 70 'treatment of the formed briquettes.

It will be observed that the nished briquettes of the smokeless type are thus obtained by what is essentially a two step operation as distinguished from the conventional unsatisfactory and expenof the squashy articles so produced, are considered vital. By a two step operation, we mean (l) heat treating and conditioning the mixture, and (2) briquetting to produce the final article. In the conditioning of the mixture, the heretofore insuperable dimculties incident to a presence ofa diluted and hence weakly adhesive binder and excess moisture are overcome. By agitating the mixture during travel through the heating-tempering chamber, these two factors are cared for, and at the same time, all parts of the combustible are uniformly heated, and the binder is likewise uniformly cooked to attain its maximum adhesive state. This producing of r'st a inal plastic briquettable mixture at the correct temperature for briquetting, as explained, and then briquetting to obtain the finished briquette without need of subsequent heat treatment or other conditioning of the briquettes, renders the invention successful both from the standpoint of obtaining satisfactory briquettes having negligible ,smoke producing characteristics and from the equally important practical consideration of a commercially feasible method of manufacture.

The advance represented by this invention will be understood from a brief recitation of the objectionable and expensive practice now followed in making smokeless briquettes and which has discouraged the manufacture of the product except to a limited extent in localities where its present high price can be absorbed.

Smokeless briquettes are now made by first drying the combustible to remove the moisture, a step obviated by this invention. Then a prepared binder paste is adde'd lto the combustible and mixed therewith forming a soggy mass having the binder in diluted condition therein and which thick soupy mixture is supplied to the briquette press. Because of thel highA percentage of moisture in the mixture, it must necessarily be weak and soggy. Moreover, by reason of this dilution, the binder is in its least active state; i. e., it exerts a very weak coeicient of adhesiveness wholly inadequate for the purpose of a. briquette binder. Where the combustible is not pre-dried these conditions of sogginess, Weak binding eiect' and excess moisture are aggravated. This thick soupy mass of uncertain bonding characteristics is difcult toA handle and control as contrasted with the self curing and final plasticized briquettable mixture of the present invention. It i's now briquetted, forming soft mushy articles which must be carefully handled to prevent squashing, and then given a iinal curing. In view of the excessive moistureA the drying of the formed briquetteand setting of the binder can only be practically accomplished by a positive heat treating. The necessity fora pre-drying of the combustible and particularly this final drying operation of the formed briquettes have been the serious drawbacks to' commercial production, for the reason that the drying'l equipment required is alone more costly than the expense ofA all equipment employed for making the raw briquettes. Moreover, the nal positive heat treatment of' the briquettes extends the time period of operation and is uncertain in that it often develops cracks and iis- `s ures in the briquettes.

the fuel expenditure for the heat treatments is heavy, and the time cycle renders the manufacture of smokeless briquettes unprotable, and (3) the results are uncertain and sometimes imperfect.

The present invention is distinguished from conventional practice in that (l) preliminary drying treatment of the combustible is unnecessary, for example, a wetted carbonaceous material from a washery or storage, or a dry carbonaceous material or an insufciently wetted carbonaceous material may be satisfactorily treated to form the combustible mixture; (2) the binders employed may be aqueous or non-aqueous and are preferably fed to the treating chamber in a dry or relatively dry condition, although they may be fed in pasty or fluid form, for example, glutinous andstarch bearing materials such as flour, tubers macerated and having their contained moisture, Portland cement, and oily substances may be fed to and mixed with the combustible without preliminary treatment, regardless of their condition of dryness, wetness, or fluidity; (3) the mixture is prepared and conditioned in one operation wherein (a) the' adhesive is efliciently spread and cooked with the combustible to render available its optimum bonding principles, (b) the heating of the mixture is controlled to assure precise cooking and concentration of the adhesive, .(c) the heating of the mixture is controlled to eliminate excess moisture from the mass and to impart to the" plastic briquettable mass a temperature to assure rapid self-curing of the briquettes and setting of the lbinder in an economic time cycle, (d) the moisture content is controlled (moisture being added Wherev that present either in the combustible or in the binder is insufficient to allow cooking or spreading of the binder), and (e) the amount of the combustible mixture, the speed of its travel through the heating and tempering areas and the temperature are regulated, so that the heat treated and conditioned briquettable mixture is hot enough to be self-curing and moisture is present in amount to maintain thev binder active andthe mixture plastic, as distinguished from a soggy mixture with the binder in a Weak state of adhesiveness and requiring positive heat treatment of the formed briquettes; and (4) the final plastic mass is delivered to the briquette machine and briquetted, forming va hard uniform briquette ready for distribution or consumption without further drying orl heat treatment. The method is a simple one and easily controllable, and smo-keless briquettes of high quality having a maximum of non-smoke producingbinder, and a minimum of smoke producing ingredients are made without large outlay for equipment, and in an economic time cycle.

We have discovered that with certain carbonaceous materials the particles exhibit a tendency to repel each other. This condition ,persists in the final briquette apparently regardless of the binder employed, and becomes objectionable when the briquettes are put in a furnace and start to burn. That is, when such briquettes are placed in a furnace, this repelling action appears to cause the briquettes to open in many places or shatter." To overcome this condition, we pass the hot briquettable mixture from the tempering area between rolls preferably of metal which may or may not be heated andredu'ce 'the mass to a thin sheet-like formation. The sheet is frangible, easily breaks up, and is collected in the briquette hopper.v It is then pressed into briquettes which we iind are not subject to the the briquette art. v

In the accompanying drawings:-

Figure 1 is a diagrammatic-view of one form of apparatus employed; I

Figure 2 is a similar view of a modication;

Figure 3 is a section of a briquette produced by using certain materials wherein the particles exert a repulsive action to each other;

Figure 4 is a detail view showing the voids between the particles in such a briquette;

Figure 5 is a view of a briquette in which this diiiiculty has been overcome;

Figure 6 is a composite view in end elevation of a strip or sheet of briquettable material from which the briquette of Figure 5 is produced,

Figure 7 is an enlarged View of a portion of the rolled material of Figure 6, and

Figure 8 is a top elevation of the strip shown in Figure 6 from which the briquette of Figure 5 is produced.

Referring to Figure 1, the conditioningI cham# ber is indicated at IU. It is elongated and has ay mixing conveyor of the rotary paddle mixer type I I extending substantially throughout its length. The blades or paddles may be uniformly spaced or at certain portions more closely spaced to speed up the travel of the mixture at these points. A furnace I2 externally heats the chamber for substantially one-half its length. The chamber is thus divided into a heated area A and a tempering area B. It will be observed therefore that where the conveyor travels uniformly through the chamber the mixture will be exposed for substantially one-half the time to the heating area and during the remaining half of the time to the tempering area. The conveyor paddles may be arranged, however, to speed the agitation and travel of the mixture in the heating areav to a greater extent than in the tempering area or vice versa. The combustible is fed to the heated area by a conveyor I3 discharging into a hopper I4 which delivers to a feeding conveyor I5. Likewise, the non-smoke producing binder preferably in dry form is fed from a binder hopper I6 by a feeding conveyor I1 either (1) tothe conveyor I5 and discharged with the combustible into the chamber I0, or (2) to-a separate conveyor, not shown, and delivered separately and simultaneously to the chamber I0 with the combustible. Where the binder is fed as a prepared paste, the feeding apparatus will simply be changed to accommodate the binder in this state.

In some cases, the binder mixture will comprise a major amount of the non-smoke producing binder and a small percentage of a waterproofing or other agent or supplemental binder when necessary. On theother hand, the waterproofing agent may be separately supplied from a tank I9 heated at 20 by means of a pipe 2| and delivered (l) to the chamber either at the entrance end simultaneously with the combustible and smokeless binder, or (2) the pipe 2I extends into and along the chamber and the binder is discharged into the mixture at any point, for example, at the beginning of the tempering area through a suitable outlet or spray 22. This sup-- "or separately introduced at any point in the chamber.

At the opposite end of the chamber the iinal plasticized briquettable mass is delivered from the outlet 23 to the briquette press 24 and the formed briquettes removed by a suitable conveyor 25.

In Figure 2, the plastcized mass is rst passed between rollers 26 and formed into a thin frangible strip 21 of substantially 11g thickness, as shown in Figure 6, which strip easily breaks up and is collected in a feed hopper 28 and fed to the briquette press and formed into briquettes.

It, is to be observed (1) that the method is continuous, (2) that the quantity of the mass under treatment is regulatable, (3) that the heat applied to the mass may be controlled, (4) that the speed of travel of a definite mass and its time cycle in the heating and tempering areas may be regulated, and (5) that all operations for the production of a ilnal conditioned and briquettable plastic -mass of required temperature, moisture content and having the binder in optimum adhesive state are carried out as a single step in the chamber I0.

We also provide means comprising a pipe 29,

` shown in dotted lines having outlets 30 for supvplying moisture, as water or steam, at any point in the chamber as where the binder is supplied in dry form and the quantity of moisture present in the combustible is insufiicient to assure either proper spreading of the binder or its correct cooking and conditioning to a state of optimum adhesiveness, and also to insure a precise plasticity in the final briquettable mass. This line 29 also represents a bank of steam pipes or coils for applying heat to the chamber and the outlets 30 may be used to inject dry steam into the mixture for the purpose of heating the same. This heating by means of the line 29 may be the sole heating means or supplemental to the furnace heating. 1

Aas coal screenings, especially anthracite culm,

will be wet and the moisture present is sometimes more than sullicient. In any event, the moisture may be regulated, and be present (l) in the combustible; (2) in the binder or a prepared paste; or both; or furnished (3) to the mixture in the chambervfrom a separate source, 'either' as the sole moisture supply or added Where moisture Is already present to correct for any insufficiency.

The method is, therefore, applicable under a wide range of conditions and can be employed in various localities without restriction.

The important consideration is to form progressively a iinal plastic briquettable mass by a single ,step in which (a) the binder is thoroughly and uniformly mixed with the combustible and is cooked with the combustible to a state of exert; ing optimum adhesiveness, (b) wherein the moisture content is such that the inder will have optimum activity and the mass he required plasticity, and (c) the temperature of the massis such that (l) it will dry rapidly and the binder will set quickly under these conditions of moisture content and optimum adhesiveness, i. e., the

briquette will be self-curing. This self-curing quettes ejected from the press are finished ready for use. 1

'I'he operation of the method as stated, is continuous, and the quantity treated in the chamber I0, the speed of travel, the agitation, and the heat applied are controlled in accordance with the particular combustible and binders or other ingredients employed. The travel of the mixture through the chamber whereby a progressive cook- 'ing and conditioning is accomplished will usually be relatively slow, but, of course, may be speeded up as occasion permits. For efficient operation, a large quantity of the combustible mixture is usually under treatment in the chamber, and this treatment will be regulated by the several means of control described. This flexibility of control is important because in cases where the moisture of the coal screenings or culm is excessive more time will be required for the elimination of moisture than in cases where the Water or moisture is normal or sulcient. For example, a chamber having a ve ton per hour capacity receiving coal screenings or culm of 5% moisture content is best operated with the chamber lled to two-thirds capacity. In this manner, substantially two and one-half tons of mixture is under treatment and thetotal time consumed in passing the mixturev through the chamberis substantially thirty minutes. If the 'moisture content of the coal screenings or culml should be 10%, the operation will be carried on with the chamber full or nearly full and the total time the mixture is exposed to treatment will be approximately forty minutes. Since the heat applied to the chamber is capable of regulation, it is preferable to apply a greater amountof heat to the mixture when the coal screenings or culm contain excessive moisture. This is. accomplished by simply increasing the temperature in the furnacev under the chamber.

In this connection, while we have referred to a -furnace positioned below the chamber I0 as the most convenient means of heating the chamber, additional heat may be supplied to the chamber by means of steam pipes disposed in the chamber and if desired, dry steam may be injected into Athe mixture at the entrance end of the chamber or at any point therein during the travel of the mixture through the chamber. We mention dry steam, but, of course, saturated or superheated steam may be injected into the mixture particularly in cases where added moisture is desired. The steam line 29 therefore is either or both a heating means, or a means for supplyingI moisture to the mixture at any point during its travel in the chamber or at the entrance end of the chamber. y

It is to be noted that the furnace under the conditioning chamber In extends about one-half the length of the chamber and the invention comprises positively heating the coal and binder,

for example, a starch binder, in the presence of moisture during substantially one-half of the total time the mixture is exposed to treatment in the chamber IU. During the remainder of the` treatment, the temperature of the `mixture is loweredY and tempered, but, as stated,` the plastic mass discharged from the tempering area is suiciently hot so that a self-curing action of the briquette takes place. Any small percentage of excess moisture remaining in the briquette which is usually negligible, is readily and quickly evaporated and removed during the briquetting action and immediately thereafter. It is to be observed 'that the operation of preparing smokeless briquettes in accordance with this invention comprises two essential steps and is free from any drawbacks of conventional `briquetting methods which now utilize from necessity (a) apreliminary heat treatment or drying 5 of the combustible, and (b) a subsequent heat treatment of the soggy and weakly adhesive briquette. That is to say, in the present invention,

. whether the coal be in a wet condition or in a dry condition is not material. The binder likewise 10 may be initially prepared as a paste, but is preferably presented to the combustible in dry or its normal condition, whether aqueous or non-'aqueous. In any instance, where the moisture present is insuflicient to properly cook the binder and plasticize the mixture, provision is made for supplying an adequate amount of water or steam. Whereas, present conventional procedure is arduous, uncertain and expensive because the raw briquettable mass is soggy and the adhesive weak, the operation of the present invention due to its simple control features marks a decided'advance in briquetting practice because the briquettable mass is heat treated and precisely plasticized before briquetting. By control features, we mean (l) that the quantity of the mixture under treatment may be regulated, (2) that the moisture content is reduced to the desired minimum either by raising or lowering the applied temperature or the period in which the mixture is subjected 30y to heating and tempering through regulation of the speed of the paddle conveyor, or both, and -(3) the optimum adhesiveness of aqueous and non-aqueous binders is madev available and the binders are concentrated to their most effective state, and (4) the briquette is hot enough to be rapidly self-curing. These means of control are very simple and thoroughly effective, so that they may be easily operated to take care of particular types of combustibles and particular types ,40 of binders, as well as the moisture or water content of the mixture, which may vary in different localities. Recognition of these principles of operation have followed careful research efforts and the discoveries have enabled the production of substantially perfect briquettes by an economical method free from those obstacles which have tended to discourage the production of briquettes of the smokeless type.

The self-curing of the briquette is of vital importance in the briquetting operation, primarily because it eliminates any subsequent heat treatment or air-drying of the briquette which is both expensive and time consuming. Moreoven'the briquettes, as ejected from the press are, as stated, toughand rm, and practically dry so that i they are nished and may be immediately hanl died and shipped, or stored, or consumed. That is, they are not squashy or fragile, but firm and integral. In further explanation of this self-curing action, it is to be understood that the briquettable mixture'having the desired moisture content to assure the desired plasticity and adhesiveness of the binder, is supplied to the briquette machine from the tempering area of the 55 chamber I0 in a heated condition. The temperature, of course, will be controlled to accord with the particular combustible and binder employed. The heat in the mixture and the briquetting action serve to dissipate'any remaining moisture 70 yand to `set the binder. Apparently, what takes hot due to the thorough agitation and tempering which it undergoes. Thus, the briquettes ejected from the press are substantially dry or possess a. minimum of moisture. As to the latter, the not briquette surfaces dry rapidly and apparently attract, through capillary action, any moisture remaining in the interior of the briquettes which likewise is immediately evaporated.

The invention .is applicable for the manufacture of briquettes using various of the following comminuted combustible materials either alone or in combination:-V

Coal screenings ofalltypes in ground condition.

Anthracite culm (which is usually in wetted condition) Bituminous coal y.Anthracite coal Lignite Charcoal Coke oven braize or coke braize Petroleum coke Low temperature char.

The moisture in coal screenings and other of the combustibles is usually very high, especially when such coal screenings have been exposed to4 ground storage or come from a Washery. Anthracite culm for instance, is always washed in order to lower the ash content. .f

This moisture content in the combustible is no hindrance to the present Ainvention but rather an advantage, since usually it is .sufficient to form the required s'preadable binder solution -or dispersion and aibrd the desired cooking of the binder.

In some cases, the coal screenings and other combustibles are too dry to carry on the process of cooking the binder, i. e. possess no moisture or have insufficient amount of moisture present.

This deficiency is overcome by supplying saturated steam or water into the mixture through the lin'e 29 in the chamber I0. Of course, moisture may be supplied to the combustible or the binder or both before their introduction into the chamber, but this is not preferred.

The amount of moisture in the mixture in the conditioning chamber l0 will always be in excess of which is to remain in the mixture when itis briquetted. The heat treating of the mixture will cause the excess moisture to be evaporated to a point'where the mixture is plastic and the binder in its optimum statelof adhesiveness for briquetting, producing strong andtough briquettes.

`The primary binders employed are of the non smoke producing type as listed below, and this invention enables the use of a wide range of binders, i. e., those available in a particular locality,

as well as binders and binder combinations novel to the briquetting art.

Organic and inorganic binders are used with success as are binders and bonding materials endmut an be preuminarily added to either ingradient or at any point during travel of the mix- `Soy bean meal (preferably with one part sodium hydrate to ten parts meal) Soy bean cake Linseed cake" Cellulosic materia 5 Clays Bentonite Lime ' A small percentage of Cement and cement calcium chloride may be 10 mixtures added to accelerate the Portland cement hardening action of the cement in the briquette.

Magnesium oxychloride cement Sulphite liquor Molasses and molasses slop.

By ground grain, we mean substantially all varieties of grain having `starch or glutens. Such grain is preferably ground to a neness that will practically eliminate the hulls.- This neness is 20 also important from the standpoint of obtaining emcient mixing with the carbonaceous and combustible materials. We have developed by screen testing that in most cases best results are obtained if the neness approaches that 0f flour, 25 although, if the'ground grain is passed through a twenty mesh screen, it is satisfactory. For our purposes deteriorated grain is employed or iiour, starch, dextrines, glutens, etc., which have deteriorated are still suitable as binders.

In connection with the use of glutinous, starch bearing and cellulosic materials as above recited. we find that these are preferablyheated in the presence of water, i. e., cooked so' as to be soft .and plasticized and dissolved or dispersed in or- 35 der to bring out and make available their optimum adhesive principles and to attain eicient spreading action with maximum distribution and mixing of these principles with the ,combustible Initially, however, due to the moisture or water 40 present, the binder lacks optimum adhesive properties. Therefore, after first obtaining the ultimate in spreading and distributing properties of these binders, i. e., by their immediate mixing with the combustible in the chamber Il, the heat 45 treatment is continued until we progressively ob- .tain the ultimate in cementing properties. 'I'hisl is reached when the starch or ground grain or other binder begins to stien for lack of moisture. This heat treatment can be controlled (1) by the 50 -applied temperature and (2) by the speed of travel of the mixture through the chamber, i. e., through the heated area A and the non-heated tempering area B. The initial moisture or water content present in the ingredients of the mixture 55 fed to the chamber is therefore unimportant in view of these control features. which is of vital advantage. If sufficient or an excess of water or moisture be present, it will be reduced as the binder is conditioned, and in event of a deilciency. 50 moisture and/or water will be supplied in correct amount. As to the addition of water or moisture. this is usually and preferablyI applied initially to the mixture in the chamber at the entrance 05 ture through the chamber. Enough moisture is always left in the mixture to have the binder in its optimum state of adhesiveness and the mass of 70 gelatinization of the starch. That is to say, initially the starch and water are not subjected to any temperatures such as would promote rapid evaporation of the water and hardening of the binder such that it would notbe spreadable and would become hard or charred and hence non-adhesive. On the contrary, the three members are brought together under conditions to promote complete spreading and thereafter the mixture is continuously agitated to spread the binder and simultaneously the temperature of the mixture is progressively increased to assure proper removal of water and reduction of the starch to its adrendered adhesive and the mixture plastic so that it may be briquetted without the necessity of taking the final plastic mass and giving it a drying treatment before introduction to the briquetting press. The tempering area into which the heated mixture is introduced continuously and agitated, assures that at the outlet to the briquetting machine or other instrumentality, the briquettable mixture will have assumed a final briquettable state without need of additional treatment and may be directly briquetted.

As regards the use of tubers such as potatoes and yarns, these are valuable non-smoke producing binders which have heretofore not been practical because of the moisture which they contain. Such tuberswhen shredded or macerated can be fed in the manner described either with the combustible or separately thereto in the chamber. As understood, the present invention is in no way aiected by the moisture contained in the potatoes or yams which is rapidly eliminated through the application of direct heat in the chamber I0. The mixture of combustible, whether it be wetted, partially wetted or in dry condition, and the macerated tubers are cooked and conditioned and the binder spread and mixed with the combustible, and the moisture progressively evaporated to produce a properly plasticized briquettable mass. In connection with the use of tubers, secondary binders may be mixed with the macerated potatoes or yams, with the combustible, or fed separately to the combustible mixture in the chamber. Again, in localities where secondary binders such as asphaltum and coal tar pitch, etc., are not readily obtainable, they may be omitted if the briquettes are marketed in containers or under cover or in any manner where contact with water is prevented.

In connection with sulphite liquor and molasses and similar materials, these are sometimes quite thin and by reasonof the progressive agitation and the cooking treatment, are reduced to the point where they have the required adhesiveness. In such cases the presence of moisture in the combustible is not objectionable since it is rapidly evaporated and, of course', it is not necessary to have moisture present with materials of this character.

As regards the use of clays and cement or cement mixtures, these are preferably fed dry to a wetted coal or combustible or moisture is supplied to the chamber I if the combustible is deficient. The moisture permits spreading and dispersion of such binders as well as conditions and concentrates them to the required state of adhesiveness. Sufficient moisture is permitted to remain in the hot plastic briquettable mass so that the cements and clays will set rapidly at the temperature of the mass.

The primary binders above mentioned are smokeless and are the principal means of agglomerating and cementing theparticles intoA a strong solid form from which no dust or deterioration will result from handling and storage.

They are moreover, susceptible to the cooking and tempering action which takes place in .the chamber l0, whereby (1) the binders are cocked and spread over and mixed with the combustible; (2) the binders are rendered to a state of optimum adhesiveness; (3) the moisture in the mixture is reduced so that (a) the mass is plasticized to a briquettable plasticity and (b) the binders are in maximum active condition, and (4) the temperature of the mixture discharged from the chamber l0 is controlled so that with a given blinder and moisture content, the briquettes are immediately formed into finished articles, i. e., they are rm and str-ong when ejected from the press and are self-curing.

In some cases we utilize a secondary* binder preferably in amount only suicient to exercise its particular function.' For example, some briquettesv wherein glutinous or starch bearing materials are used as the bonding agent required a waterproofing agent. Also, 'some briquettes are enhanced by a coking of the binder. We employ secondary binders having one or both properties as listed below, and these are added (l) in a mixture with the combustible and primary binder, (2) with one or the other of these members, and (3)' separately and either at the entrance end of the chamber or any point therein, for example, at the beginning of the tempering area.

Asphaltum Asphaltum oils Residual matter from the distillation of crude oil Coal tar Coal tar pitch Residual matter from the distillation of coal Bunker C o ils Crude mineral and vegetable oils.

Fatty acids of mineral and vegetable origin Distillates from by-product coke ovens which are suitable as binders.

Distillates from crude mineral and vegetable oils Resins, gums and resinous material.

One or a mixture of the several secondary binders may be employed. As an example of a binder having the property of imparting moisture resistance to the briquettes as well as having coking propensities, we prefer wal tar pitch. This compound derived from coking coal creates strong coking propensities. Thus, such a binder used with a briquette of anthracite culm for example, tends to coke and strongly bind the particles of the briquette during. combustion.

Because of the strong binding action exerted by the smokeless binders described, the' amountr of these secondary and usually smoke-forming binders need only be limited, by their function. That is, only sufficient secondary binder need be employed to render the briquettes impervious to moisture. This is important since the briquettes remain for all practical purposes smokeless, by

reason of the predominance of the non-smoke ample, coal tar pitch, may be introduced into the chamber mixed with or separately, but at the same time as the primary binder, such as starch 'or ground grain or the other binders mentioned or at any time ,before the mixture is briquetted. The varying constituents of the coal will determine when the secondary binder is to be introduced. Anthracite coal for example, requires different treatment from bituminous coal and this is true with respect to certain of the other combustibles mentioned. lIt was found that when both binders were introduced simultaneously, good results were obtained with a certain carbonaceous material, whereas, a diierent combustible would show better results when the starch or ground grain cr other primary binder was iirst introduced and cooked with the coal before the secondary binder entered thel mixture. This secondary binderas stated, is used only to make the briquettes impervious to moisture and the quantity is held to a minimum for that purpose.

Examples The .following examples are representative of briquette compositions which are employed in accordance with the improved method for the manufacture of smokeless briquettes. It is to be observed that they meet the very exacting requirements of having as the primary binder a non-smoke producing adhesive and that the secondary binder, wherever it is smoke forming, is present to a substantially negligible minimum. In the manufacture of the nal briquettable plastic mass, the materials are mixed and progressively cooked to bring out the optimum adhesive properties as well as reduce the moisture content to the required minimum. With some of the binders, as for example, the insoluble ones such as clays, cement and cement mixtures, the cooking takes lthe form of dispersing the adhesive, and particularly of regulating the moisture present to such an amount as will assure rapid self-curing of the briquette and hardening of the Abinder under the temperature conditions employed.

The ingredients of the mixture comprising the carbonaceous materials and binders are introduced into the chamber preferably at atmospherthat the briquettes delivered from the machine have the required strength and will withstand handling' and loading.v Stated brieiiy,l the various binders employed are reducedlby the heat treatment 'and the tempering action to a residue of a required Vstrength whereby the briquettes ejected from the biquette press are finished.

With respect to the combustible employed, onel of those above mentioned may be used alone or two or more thereof combined. This is also true withv respect to the primary binders as well as the secondary binders.

It win be observed that with several of the bn- -quette compositions now to be described both the ent invention has enabled these binders to employed and form a. strong and tenacious briquette. Y

Combustibles- Anthracite coal Bituminous coal'. Total weight- Coke braize 1860 to 1940 lbs. 10,

Petroleum carbon, etc

Binders- Ground grain F1011?.- Starch Total weight- Dextrine ci..- 100 to 40 lbs.

Tapioca-; Glutens Hydrocarbons" Total weight- 20 Combustibles- Anthracite coal Bituminous coal Total weight- Coke braize 1820 to 1940 lbs. lPetroleum carbon Binders-I Ground grain Flour y Starch Total weight- Dextrine r Glutens Tapioca Magriesium oxychloride cement This briquette composition is an example of a briquette wherein both binders are non-smoke producing, and the secondary binder imparts moisture resistance. 50

Combustibles- Anthracite coal Bituminous coal Total weight- `5 Coke' braize; 7 1820 to 1920 lbs. VPetroleum coke Binders- A Ground grain..r..` l Flour yStarch Total weight- Dextrine'. ;,r 80 to 40 lbs.

Tapioca-; es

Portland cement...` Magnesium o'xyf l. 'l zvgeltchloride cement v Asphalt l f 7o .Coal tar pitch i l Bunker C oils Total weight- Crude oils or the fatty acid 40 to 20 lbs.

oils of vegetable or mineral f origin 7K5 100 to 4o ibs. o

t0 20 lbs. 45

No. 4 No. 8 Combustibles- Combustibles- Anthracite coal Anthracite coal B ltunlnous Coa'lw'" Weight- Bltumlnous coal Weight- 5 mgmt@ |860 to 1940 lbs Llgmte 1720t019001bs 5 Coke braize Coke braize Petroleum carbon Petroleum carbon Bindersl y Binders- Soy bean meal with one part of Portland cement Total Weight- 10 sodium hydrateto ten parts B'lgatglt Magnesium oxychloride ce- 80 to 201bs. lo

of the soy bean meal ment Linseed cake, I Potat e Asphalt Yamsf s Total Weight"- Coal tar pitch Total weightstarch bearing tubers 200 to 8 lbs 15 Bunker C oils 40 to 20 lbs.

No.9 Crude 011s N 5 Combustibles- Combustibles o Anthracite coal Anthracite coal ilnous coal-"T Total Weight- 20 :iltimous coal Total weight- Coke braize 1700 to 1880 lbs g e". 1820 t019401bs Petro1eum carbon Coke brame Petroleum carbon Binders- 25 Binders Portland cement Total weight- Portland cement Magnesium oxychloride ce- 60 to 20 lbs,

"T men Magneslum oxychloride ce- Total weight/ ment so to 2010s Potatoes Total Wei M Soy bean cake with one part- Yams 200 t 80 1gb 30 in ten of sodium hydrate Starch bearing tubers o s Total Weight/ Asphalt".v l

mnseed cake "1' "hoo to 4010s. coal tar pitch No. 6 Bunker C oils Total weighta5 Cmbustbles Crude oils or any of the fatty to 20lbs.

Anthracite EL acid oils of vegetable. or

"7" mineral origin B ltunlnous coa] Total Weight-, Llgnlte No. 10 40 Coke maize 1820 to 1920 lbs. o

'f Combustibles- .Petroleum carbon Anthracite coal Binders- Bituminous coal Total weight- Poxltland cement Lignite Magnesium oxychloride ce- Total Welght" Coke brame 1780 to 1870 lbs 40 60 to 20 lbs. 45

ment Petroleum carbon -Soy bean meal or soy bean Binderscake with one part in ten of Total weight- Total weightsodiuli hidrate 80 to 40 lbs. Sulphl hquor {140 to 90.1bs Linsee ca e f 50 Portland cement v Asphalt Magnesium oxychloride ce- 'allvgght- Coal tar pitch ment o s' Bunker C oils Total weight- No 11 Crude oils or any of the fatty 40 to 20 lbs. acid oils of vegetable or Combustibles- 55 mineral origin Anthracite coal N 0- 7 cl Total weightc0mbustib1es-2- Coke maize 1780 t0 18701bs- Anthracite coal Petroleum carbon 60 B ituminous coal Total weight- Binder? Llgmte 1760 to 1900 lbs. M Coke ,maize l Classes- -}Total weight- Petroleum carbon Molasses sions 14o to so ibs. 65

Q Portland cement Blgoes Magnesium oxychloride celvglhp fm-"- Total weightment S- Ya'ms 200 to a0 lbs l Starch bearing tubers No. 12 Asphalt Combustibles- `'10 Coal tar pitch Anthracite coal Bunker C oils Total Weight- Bituminouscoal T t l h crude 011s or any of the fatty 4oto201bs. Lignite Noatwfoffacid oils' of Vegetable or Coke braize o lbs' mineral origin Petroleum carbon 75 briquette water-proof.

Binders- Molasses Total weight- Molasses slops 160 to 100 lbs.

Aspha1t Coal tar pitch Bunker C oils Total weight- Crudeoils or any of the fatty 60 to 30 lbs.

acid oils of vegetable or mineral origin Combustibles Total weight- Charcoal 't -f }12o0 to 13001bs.

Binders- Ground grain y Starch Dextrine Total Weight- Flour 140 to 80 lbs. Gluten y Tapioca Total weight-l Water 66o to 62o ibs.

Combustibles- Total Weight- Charcoal- 1200 to 1300 ibs.

Binders'- Ground grain Starch i Dextrine Total weight- Flour. 100 to 50lbs.

Gluten y Tapioca Portland cement 4 Magnesium oxychloride Total Weight- 60 to 30 lbs. cement Total weight- Watr }640 to 62o1bs. It is to be noted that the present invention will utilize satisfactorily coal screenings of various types and particularly coal screenings'containing water or moisture which have heretofore not been available without the expense of pre# liminary drying.

As regards the binders, any of the non-smoke 1 producing primary or secondary binders may be used alone. This is particularly true with cement and cement mixtureswhich are sumciently adhesive, non-smoke producing, and render the Both the primary and secondary binder may be non-smoke producing as desired, and the invention permits this flexibility of operation as regards the selection of binders and carbonaceous materials, whence it may be employed without limitation in accordance with operating conditions in particular localities.

In connection with the use of Portland cement and cement mixtures, the briquettable mass is so heated and conditioned as to permit the cement y to retain sucient moisture to create additional hardness in thebriquettes after they come from the press. In this manner the insolubility of the briquette and its resistance to moisture is materially enhanced. A small ypercentage of calcium 'chloride or magnesium chloride may be added to accelerate the hardening action of in the briquettes if desired.'

In order to illustrate one representative method the cement of carrying out the invention, anthracite culm screenings, a starch or ground grain binder and a secondary binder of coal tar pitch are employed. Where heretofore anthracite culm screenings have not been available unless lirst dried, with the present invention, they may be fed Yin wetted condition directly to the chamber l0. The condition of wetness of the anthracite culm screenings from a washery or storage is ordinarily sufficient to promote the desired distribution and cooking of the starch or ground grain binder. That is, there is enough moisture in the coal to make it unnecessary to add further moisture to the mixture. The coal screenings and the primary binder preferably in dry condition is fed to the conveyer I5 and the mixture of combustible and coal are discharged into the entrance end of the chamber together. If desired, the Vsecondary binder of coal tar pitch may be mixed with the primary binder or with the coal or fed separately but simultaneously with the other infgredients to the entrance end of the chamber IU. The moisture present in the coal and the heat from the furnace I 2 will immediately act to soften and plasticize the primary binder and this starch bearing or glutinous material will thus be immediately dissolved and dispersed and distributed by reason of the rotating agitation promoted by the'mixing conveyor Il. As stated, the presence of moisture will soften and dissolve and disperse the primary binder, but we flnd that the presence of heat and attendant cooking of the binder brings out the maximum adhesive properties of the binder so that its use is eflicient. That is, in view of the fact that all of its adhesive principles are made available the primary binder can be used economically. This cooking of the -binder with simultaneous agitation assures that the treatment of the binder will be uniform. Of equal importance, the binder is treated in the presence of the combustible so that the coal is likewiseuniformly heated throughout its mass and the binder uniformly conditioned. The heat, of course, is more intense adjacent the entrance end 4of the chamber and decreases as the mixture is conveyed towards the opposite end of the chamber. As the mixture is agitated and passed through the chamber, not only is the binder brought to its optimum active state, but equally important, the reduction of moisture which takes place relieves the initial mass of its soggyconditlon and the binder from its weak adhesive state producing a change wherein the b inder stiifens and reaches a stage of maximum activity. As the heated mass is conveyed `through the chamber, it passes from the heated area A to the tempering area B. By reason of the rotary agitation and relatively slow movement of the mixture through the heated area, it is quite hotas it enters the tempering area. There takes place a cooling, but in view of the high temperature of the mass, a considerable amount of the moisture, if any excess be present, is evaporated, andthe binder further brought to its optimum condition. The mass as it leaves .the tempering chamber is hot enough to be self-curing, its moisture content assures the required briquettable plasticity and also the adhesive is in precise condition where itVwill exert its maximum adhesive effect. Furthermore, the plastic massis at a. sufli'ciently elevated temperature so that the briquettes will be self-curing and that the binder will set Within an economic time cycle. The final briquettes are hard and, tough and require no additional heat culm screenings had to be preliminarily dried,`

whereas with the present invention they are fed in their wetted condition directly to the chamber l0. The presence of the moisturein the screenings permits a dry or relativelydry binder to be employed and relieves the operation from the necessity of adding moisture. The primary binder, namely the starch or ground grain, may be Afed with the coal screenings or separately and simultaneously to the chamber lll. This primary binder is in'dry or untreatedcondition. The secondary binder, such as Portland cement may be mixed with either of the other ingredients or fed separately and simultaneously therewith to the entrance end of the'chamber.

The moisture present in the coal screenings softens and disperses the binders and the complete solution and dispersion of all of the active principles of..the primary binder is enhanced and /rapidly accomplished by reason of the heating primarily, .and the rotary agitation towhich the mixture is subjected. The mixture moves slowly and progressively from the hottest end of the chamber, during which time 'it is subjected to the rotary agitation whereby the combustible is uniformly heated and the binders uniformly cooked with required moisture removal. The temperature is controlled and the speed of agitation and travel regulated so that the mixture from a weak and soggy mass, is changed into a substantiallyplastic condition and the binders stiffened to their optimum adhesive state by reason of the progressive reduction of moisture. The hot mass, as it leaves the heated area, travels through and is given a rotary agitation in the tempering area where further reduction of moisture with concentration and conditioning of the binders takes place. The result isrthat the plastic mixture discharged fronr the tempering area is in iinal briquettable condition, both as. regards the glutinous soluble binder` and cementitious insoluble binder, both of which are properly cooked and concentrated. That is, the mass is suciently plastic, contains the correct amount of moisture to render the binders quick setting and tenacious and the proper temperature, so that the briquettes ejected from the press are iinished and are self-curing. This self-curing action may be described as analogous to the baking of bread after the bread has been baked in the oven and removed therefrom and allowed to cool.

In this connection, where a cementitious or other insoluble binder is employed as' the only or primary binder, the heat treating, rotary mixing, cooking and tempering of the binder is progressively carried on as described.

With respect to binders of the order of .coal tar pitch and other oily substances, these` are changed during the progressive heating and tempering treatment so that they are concentrated or rendered adhesive to the optimum degree.

non-aqueous character are owable and spread- Y comminuted coal. A

able in the presence of heat and their slow and progressive cooking produces concentration of the binder and brings out its active adhesive principles.

While we have referred to a primary binder of 5 `Starch or glutinus material, readily dispersable in water, and an insoluble hydrocarbon binder such as coal tar pitch, it is to be understood that the process just described will be followed in the manufacture of briquettes of any of the composi- 1o tions mentioned.

The use of charcoal and a non-smoke producing binder such as starch or ground grain is made economically feasible by thepresent invention. Charcoal briquetting requires the introduction of 15 a very large percentage of moisture with starch or ground grain and the mixture is cooked and heat treated and tempered in accordance with this invention'. Thereafter, it is briquetted.

The briquettesain the case of charcoal some- 20 times require further drying because of the initially large abount of moisture necessary and the limitations as to the heating temperature which may be employed, usually below 250 F. We nd,

' however, by proceeding in accordance with this 25 secondary binders are useful alone or in combination and with equally satisfactory results to produce charcoal briquettes. 35

We have also found that comminuted coal which has been puriiledby means of oils or other substances in accordance with well known treatments can be satisfactorily briquetted in accordance with this invention. In such cases, the 40 primary binders with or Without secondary binders are mixed with the purified oil bearing coal, sumcient moisture being provided if necessary, and the mass heat treated and cooked and tempered to obtain aA nal briquettable, 45 plastic mixture. Any of the primary or secondary binders above mentioned may be utilized alone -or in combination for forming a briquettable mixture from such puried oil bearing We have referred herein to a furnace for heating the chamber as well as a supplemental heating means in the nature of the line 29 which may act as a radiator or convey dry steam into the mixture for heating purposes.y In some cases, 55 we will rely upon the internal heating means alone and will not utilize the furnace. As heretofore stated, this internalheating means, in addition to heating the mixture, may also constitute a source of supply for moisture, if added 6o moisture is necessary.

We have referred herein to acondition of excess moisture which may sometimes occur and which is effectively remedied, whether in the V'binder-or in the coal by the progressive heat 65 4treating land tempering operation wherein the temperature applied and the speed of the mixture may be simply controlled. It is, however, to be understood that in the case of coal screenings, the moisture ycontent is often suicient and 70 in the case of some of the binders,`for example, tubers, the moisture present in the macerated yams or potatoes will likewise be substantially correct for maximum distribution and cooking of the binder. 75

Where the moisture present is in excess or is just sufcient, the operation is controlled in either case so that the moisture content of the final briquettable mass is sufficient to assure plasticity of the mixture, 'and maintain the binder in its optimum adhesive state.

We find it desirable, as pointed out, to subject the mixture to a rotatable agitation during its travel through the chamber I0. This agitation assures thorough mixing of the various ingredients of the briquettable mixture and of equal importance, makes possible a uniform heating of the mass and conditioning of the binder. That is, a substantially homogeneous and uniformly treated plastic mass is discharged from the tempering chamber, which is important in promoting self-curing of the briquette and setting of the binder within an economic time cycle.

I have illustrated in Figure 2 the use of rolls 26 for receiving the nal briquettable mass/discharged from the chamber iii.y 'I'he purpose of this step in the method is to take care of conditions which we find have heretofore resulted in imperfect briquettes and seriously impaired their efficiency as a fuel. We nd'that with certain coals, regardless of the binders employed andthe treatment accorded the mixture, the particles have a tendency to repel each other,'and

denite voids or air spaces exist ,between the When such a bri-v particles of the briquette. quette is introduced into the furnace, cracks and fissures instantly appear at numerous points and the briquette appears to shatter.

'I'his phenomena is particularly truef of briquettes from coals of the non-coking variety. The repelling action of the particles persistsin the briquette and instead of holding together during combustion, the briquette disintegrates and assumes a mush-like condition in the fire.

A close examination under a strong microscope revealed the fact that the small particles did not form contact with each other but left Figure 3 and in detail in Figure 4. v"Therefore, ,the briquettable mixture is rst passed through the rollsff26`which are preferably o f metal and formed into' 'a thin frangible ribbon. This strip or sheet breaks up as it falls -.into.the'briquette hopper 28 from which it is supplied to the'press. A close examination of the strip or ribbon and the briquette formed therefrom, under a strong microscope, revealed that the particles formed perfect contact.` The briquettes when placed in the fire' held their form and shape until entirely consumed. Instead of the repelling and shattering action b etween the particles, a cementing effect was observed which produced a coking action sufficiently strong to hold the briquettes together. It is probable that the particles of the plastic mass( are electrically charged and that they are discharged by therolls.

In referring in the specification to a progressive heating, cooking and temperiig, we mean that the mixture comprising soluble or'insoluble binders is iirst treated with rotary agitation in the hottest part of the chamber and slowly agitated and conveyed therefrom through the heated area when the temperature is progressivelyf reduced. In the tempering or unheated area, the hot mixture is conveyed with rotary agitation away from the heated area and progressively tempered until discharged.

of the binders indicated in Examples 13 and 14 5 with very excellent results. The weight of molasses or molasses slops employed will be some- Where between one hundred and forty (140) to one hundred and fifty `(150) pounds, and, in connection with Example 14, a suitable cement mix- 10 ture may be satisfactorily used.

We claim:-

1. The process of producing solid fuel briquettes which comprises bringing together a solid Lfuel combustible, a carbohydrate and gluten con- 16 taining binder which becomes coagulated or gelatinized by the application of heat, and water under conditions to prevent premature coagulation or gelatinization of the binder, continuously'agitating the mixture to spread the binder and si- 20 multaneously heating the mixture, controlling the temperature of the mixture to remove excess water and bringing the binder to a coagulated or gelatinized state, thereby forming a plastic briquet'table mass, and briquetting the plastic bri- 25 quettable mass.

2.- The process of producing solid fuel briquettes which comprises bringing together a solid fuel combustible, a carbohydrate and gluten containing bnder which becomes coagulated or gelatinized by the application of heat, and water under conditions to prevent premature coagulation or gelatinizaton of the binder, continuously agitating the mixture while conveying the same along a predetermined path to'spread the binder 35 and simultaneously heatingl the mixture, controlling the temperature of the mixture. to remove' excess water and bringing the binder to a coagulated or gelatinized state, thereby, forming a p astic briquettable mass,4 and briquetting the 40 plastic briquettable mass.

3. The process of producing solid fuel briquettes which comprises bringing together a solid fuel combustible, 'a starch containing binder and water .under conditions to prevent premature gelatinization of the starch, continuously agitating the mixture to spread the binder and simultaneously heLating the mixture, controlling the temperature of the mixture to remove excess water and bringing the binder to a gelatinized state. thereby forming a plastic briquettable mass, and briquetting the plastic briquettable mass.

4. The process of producing Psolid fuel briquettes which comprises bringing together a solid fuel combustible, a starch containing binder and water under conditions to prevent premature gelatinization of the starch, continuously agitating the mixture while conveying -the same along a predetermined path to spread the binder and simultaneously heating the mixture; controlling the temperature of the mixture to remove excess water and bringing the binder to a gelatinized state, thereby forming a plastic briquettable mass, and briquetting the plastic bri-- quettable mass. 65

5. The. process of producing solid fuel-briquettes which comprises bringing together a solid fuel combustible, a starchcontaining binder and f water under conditions to prevent premature l gelatinization of the starch, continuously agitat- 70.

,ing the mixture and simultaneously heating the same while conveying the mixture along a predetermined path, a portion of which is positively heated. controlling the temperature of the mixture during its travel to remove excess water and bringing the binder to a gelatinized state,

- thereby forming a plastic briquettable mass, and

briquetting the plastic briquettable mass.

6. The process of producing solid fuel bri- -quettes which comprises bringing together a solid fuel combustible, a starchcontaining binder and water under conditions to prevent premature gelatinization of the starch, continuously agitating the mixture and simultaneously heating the same while conveying the mixture along a predetermined path, a portion of which is positively heated, controlling the temperature of the mixture during its travel to remove excess wa-l ter and bringing thebinder to a gelatinized state, continuously traveling the mixture with agitation through a tempering or substantially nonheated area to reduce the mixture to -a final plastic briquettable state with the binder in optimum adhesive condition, thereby forming a plastic briquettable mass, and briquetting the plastic briquettable mass.

7. The process of producing solid -fuel briquettes which comprises bringingtogether a solid fuel combustible, astarch containing binder and Water under conditions to prevent premature l gelatinization of the starch, adding a secondary binder, continuously agitating the mixture to spread the binder and simultaneously heating the mixture, controlling the temperature of the mixture to remove excess water and bringing the binder to a gelatinized state, thereby forming a plastic briquettable mass, and briquetting `to spread the binder and simultaneously heating the mixture, controlling the temperature of the mixture to remove excess water and bringing the binder to a gelatinized state, thereby form-y ing a plastic briquettable mass, and briquetting the plastic briquettable mass. 5

9. Theprocess of producing solid fuel briquettes which comprises bringing together a solid fuel combustible, a starch containing binder and water under conditions to prevent premature gelatinization of the starch, adding a secondary binder, continuously agitating the mixture and simultaneously heating the same While conveying the mixture along a predetermined path, a portion of which is positively heated, controlling the temperature of the mixture during its travel to remove excess water and bringing the binder to a gelatinized state, thereby forming a plastic briquettable mass, and briquetting the plastic briquettable mass.

10. The process of producing solid fuel' bri- 20 quettes which comprises bringing together a solid fuel combustible, a starchcontaining bindder and water under conditions to prevent premature gelatinization of the starch, continuously agitating the mixture and simultaneously heating-the same whileconveying the mixture along a predetermined path, a portion.. of which is positively heated, controlling the temperature of the mixture during its travel to remove excess water and bringing the binder to an adhesive state, 'adding a waterproofing binder, continuously traveling the mixture -With agitation through a tempering or substantially non-heated area'to reduce the mixture to a nal plastic briquettable sta-te with the binder in optimum gelatinized condition, thereby forming a plastic briquettable mass, and briquetting the plastic briquettable mass.

- GUSTAV KOMAREK.

W. J. CHAPMAN. 40

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2835563 *May 7, 1956May 20, 1958Briko The Hague NvProcess for the manufacture of fuel briquettes
US2993686 *Nov 18, 1958Jul 25, 1961Brita SchlyterManufacture of briquettes
US3370932 *Nov 27, 1963Feb 27, 1968Johnson Coal Cubing CoFlame coloring product and method of manufacturing same
US3402033 *Aug 28, 1967Sep 17, 1968Mobil Oil CorpSolid fuel compositions
US4326854 *Jul 28, 1980Apr 27, 1982Tanner John DSynthetic firelog
US4787914 *Jun 1, 1987Nov 29, 1988Crace Associates, Inc.Briquet for gas and electric grills
US8367195 *Sep 4, 2009Feb 5, 2013Frank SantoroProducts made from recycled cardboard
Classifications
U.S. Classification44/554, 44/564, 44/560
International ClassificationC10L5/00, C10L5/10, C10L5/04, C10L5/22
Cooperative ClassificationC10L5/04, C10L5/22, C10L5/10
European ClassificationC10L5/04, C10L5/10, C10L5/22