US 2018434 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct 1935- E. w. BALLENTINE 2,018,434
APPARATUS FOR GENERATING IONS Filed March 15, 1934 Patented Oct. 22, 1935 APPARATUS Fort eENnaA'rmo IONS Earle W. Ballentine, Chicago, Ill., assignor to Solar Industries, Inc., Chicago, 111., a corporation of Illinois Application Ma -ch15, 1934, serial No. 715,789
8 Claims. (01.204-32).
This invention relates to apparatus for generating ions, and more particularly to apparatus for generating negative ions in air at atmospheric pressure.
One feature of this invention is that it produces a desired concentration of negative ions in the air to be breathed. Another feature of this invention is that it may be simply'and conveniently constructed for use in any household. Still another feature of this invention is that it operates entirely from any ordinary source of A. 0., not requiring excessive voltages or special forms of current for its operation.
Still other features and advantages of this invention will appear from the following specification and the drawing, in which- Figure l is a top plan view of an embodiment of this invention suitable for home use; Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view of the ionizing chamber; Fig. 3 is a vertical sectional view along the line 3-3 of Fig. 2; Fig. 4 is a diagrammatic view of the electrical circuit employed; and Fig. 5 is a fragmentary view along the line 5-5 of Fig. 2.
A certain minimum concentration of negative ions in the air we breathe is known to give a beneficial and pleasing effect. Positive ions, however. are undesirable and must not be generated. The problem has been to develop an inexpensive and simple device, suitable for operation in the average household without the necessity of special electrical voltages or currents, which will economically produce negative ions in the air at atmospheric pressure without generating an undesirable number of positive ions.
In the particular embodiment of this invention illustrated herewith, a box or container so designed as to be suitable for use in the household is indicated by the reference numeral Ill. The box has an air intake opening I l and an air outlet I2. These openings may, if it is so desired, be covered with protective meshes of suitable character, as 13 and I4. The intake leads through a pipe i5 to a blower l6, driven by a small A. C. motor l1. Any suitable means, for example, convection, blower, or both, may be used for moving the air. As here shown, blower l6 forces the air through the ionizing chamber l8 and out the opening l2. By this means, air at atmospheric pressure is forced through the ionizing chamber, where the desired concentration of negative ions is achieved, and then disseminated throughout the room.
The ionizing chamber i8 consists of a cylindrical sleeve of insulating material 19, adapted to engage with the blower l6. Within the sleeve I9 and attached thereto by the binding post 20 is a cylinder of sheet metal 2i, adapted to operate as an anode. The sheet metal is cut away at the points 22 and 23 to permit the metal posts or uprights 24 and 25 to extend therein without 5 making an electrical connection with this anode. The metal posts 24 and 25 extend through holes I 26 and 21 in the sleeve l9, and on the outside of said sleeve are arranged as binding posts 28 and 29. The.. metal posts have extending between them, along the axis of the sheet metal cylinder, a resistance wire or filament 30 adapted to function as a hot cathode.
The box It also contains a transformer 3|, and a manual control switch 32. The primary 33 of the transformer is connected in parallel with the motor ll to'the source of A. 0. supply, indicated by the wires 34 and 35. The manual switch thus serves to control the motor and the transformer energized ionizing chamber, thus requir- 0 ing only one action to render the entire delice operative or inoperative as desired.
Thetransformer 3| has two secondaries. one of which, 36, is adapted to'furnish a relatively high potential in comparison with that applied to the primary, while the other, 31, is adapt-ed to develop a, relatively low potential and to furnish a fairly heavy current. The secondary 36 may be wound of fine wire, since it handles a practically negligible current. The two secondaries are connected together at the point 38, from-which point a lead 39 goes to one side of the cathode 30. The other end of the high potential secondary 36 is connected by a lead 4| to the anode 2|.
In the particular embodiment of this invention herein described, the cathode 30 is constructed of a piece of No. 26 B and S gage wire, composed of about 20% chromium and 80% nickel, and having an effective length between uprights of about 2%". -Iron can be substituted 40 for the nickel in whole or in part. 19 watts at 3.65 volts is applied thereto, resulting in an operating temperature of about 1600 F. which heats the cathode to redness with an air velocity through the cylinder of about 150 feet per minute. The anode or metal cylinder surrounding the cathode is approximately 3%" long and 4 in diameter. This anode is given a potential difference with respect to the filament of about 1000 volts. I
The operation of my device is as follows:
The wires 34 and 35 are connected to any convenient outlet of an alternating current, for example, 110 volt A. C. The switch 32 is then moved to the on position, energizing the motor I! and the transformer 3|. Energization of the motor results in operation of the blower l6, causing air to be driven through the ionizing chamber l8 at the desired velocity, and then out the opening I! into the room. The transformer secondary 31 supplies current to the cathode 30, which almost at once attains its proper operating temperature. The high potential secondary 36 serves to place the anode 2! at a high voltage diflerence with respect to the cathode 30. Although the voltage applied to the anode is an alternating one, yet at the voltages and cathode temperatures chosen the ionization chamber produces a large number of negative ions and a relatively negligible number of the undesirable positive ions. The velocity of the air stream passing through the chamber serves to carry the ions outside of the box I before they can be drawn to either the cathode or anode, depending upon the particular instantaneous potentials at any moment throughout the alternating curent cycle.
While I have shown and described certain embodiments of my invention, it is to be understood that it is capable of many modifications. Changes, therefore in the construction and arrangement may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention as disclosed in the appended claims, in which it is my intention to claim all novelty inherent in my invention as broadly as possible in view of the prior art.
What I regard as new, and desire to secure by Letters Patent. is:
1. In apparatus for generating negative ions substantially free from positive ions in air at atmospheric pressure, and in combination; a metal anode; a resistance wire of nickel-chromium alloy adapted serveas a hot cathode; and a source of alternating current whereby said wire is energized and said anode is given a potential difference with respect thereto.
2. In apparatus for generating negative ions substantially free from positive ions in air at atmospheric pressure, and in combination; a hollow metal cylinder adapted to serve as an anode; a resistance wire of nickel-chromium alloy axially located therein and adapted toserve as a hot cathode; a blower whereby air may be driven through said cylinder; and a source of alternating current whereby said wire is heated and said cylinder is given a potential diiierence with respect thereto.
3. In apparatus for generating negative ions substantially free from positive ions in air at atmospheric pressure, and in combination; a cylinder of sheet metal; a resistance wire of nickelchromium alloy located along the axis of said cylinder and adapted to serve as a hot cathode: a blower whereby air may be driven through said cylinder: a transformer adapted to heat said wire 5 and to place said cylinder at a potential diflerence with respect thereto; and a source of alternating current whereby said transformer is enerode: means to force air between the electrodes at 15 a velocity ranging between 50 and 500 feet per minute; a source of alternating current adapted to maintain said filament at a temperature between 1000 and 2000 F.; and a source of alternating current whereby said anode is given an 20 eflective potential difference with respect to said filament of between 500 and 10,000 volts.
5. A method of generating negative ions substantially free from positive ions in air at atmospheric pressure, including, operating a cathode at 2 a temperature of substantially 1600 F., placing a cooperating anode at a potential diiference of substantially 1000 volts with respect to said cathode, and forcing a stream of air between the cathode and the anode. 30
6. A method of generating negative ions substantially free from positive ions in air at atmospheric pressure, including, operating a cathode at a temperature of substantially 1600 F., placing a cooperating anode at a potential diflerence of 35 substantially 1000 volts with respect to said cathode, and forcing a stream of air between the cathode and the anode, at a speed of substantially feet per minute.
7. A method of generating negative ions sub- 40 stantially free from positive ions in air at atmospheric pressure, including, operating a cathode at a temperature of substantially 1600 F'., and a ,cooperating anode at a potential diflerence of substantially 1000 volts with respect to said cathode.
8. A method of generating negative ions substantially free from positive ions in air at atmospheric pressure, including, operating a cathode at a temperature of substantially 1600- F. and plac- 50 ing a cooperating anode at an eifective alternating potential difierence with respect to said cathode of substantially 1000 volts.
EARLE W. BALLENTINE.