US 2023013 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 3, 1935.
L. DE R. FABER ET AL METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING TEXTILE AND OTHER MATERIALS Filed April 28, 1931 6 Sheets-Sheet l Dec. 3 1935.
L... DE R. FABER ET AL v fi 3 METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING TEXTILE AND OTHER MATERIALS Filed April 28, 1931 v 6 Sheets-Sheet 2 m fliivrlwy.
1935- L. DE R. FABER ET AL 2,023,013
METHOD 'OF AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING TEXTILE AND OTHER MATERIALS Filed April 28, 1951 6 Sheets-Sheet 3 R ,Swnla J0/N7' mu: 3
mknfon 1935- L. DE R. FABER ET!" AL 2,923,013*
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING TEXTILE AND OTHER MATERIALS Filed April 28, 1931 s sheets-sheet 4 ("a z? P L. DE R. FABER El AL 2,023,013
METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING TEXTILE AND. OTHER MATERIALS Dec. 3 1935.
Filed April 28, 1951 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 Dec. 3, 193 L. DE R. FABER ET AL METHOD OF AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING TEXTILE AND OTHER MATERIALS 6 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed April 28, 1951 DOB once a oooono 0000090 0000000 0 one.
i 00 a noo- 0 l 000- 0 u 00 0 0 o 000 o oon 00 n on. u 000 000 0 n- 0.000 ccoo 0 0000 000 c 6000 n to o a 900 I 00 q 00 000 o a"! 6 0o N 0 I. a. J o H v I I n I G I I a o a ano l fnveniors' Q Patented Dec. 3, 1935 PATENT oFricE METHOD or AND nrrms'rns Foa TREAT- mo 'rnx'rnn AND o'rnna MATERIALS Leon De R, Faber and Charles J. Carroll, Philadelphia, Pa., Company, Delaware assignors to Faber Engineering Philadelphia, PL, a corporation of Application April 28, 1931, swarm. 533,410
. Our invention relates to a method of and apparatus for treating materials of various types, including textile. materials and the like, such as clothing, garments, hosiery, household linen, natural andartiflcial silk, wool, cotton, and other fibrous and hair-like materials, or mixtures of one or more of them, either in the raw state or in wholly or partially manufactured state and in threads, yarns or,skeins, in the form of cloth or 10 piece-goods, or in the form of fabrics or articles woven or knitted, and otherwise produced therefrom, skins, chamois, leather, pelts, furs, felt and the like; they are treated by laundering, washing, cleaning, scouring, dry cleaning, degumming, bleaching, dyeing or otherwise aflecting them.
In accordance with our invention the material is treated by applying thereto or passing therethroug preferably continuously, a suitable treating liquid, aerated to contain in large proportion masses or bubbles of gas, generally air, 'of very small size, forming a mixture analogous to an emulsion of gas in liquid; the liquid is converted into foam comprising mist-like particles or bubbles, of small, extremely small or minute dimen-- sions.
More particularly in accordance with our invention the treating liquid is withdrawn, preferably continuously, from a pool, and aerated or converted into foam or small bubbles applied to 3Q the material to be treated while isolatedmfrom the pool of liquid, the aerated liquid, foam or bubbles passing into or through the material, with return to the pool of the de-aerated liquid or broken foam or bubbles; the aeration of the ,iiquid or its conversion into foam or small bub- I bles may be effected by any suitable means, preferably adjacent the material to be treated, or at a plurality of points or regions in the circulatory system. 4Q Ourinvention resides also in apparatus, for
efiecting'treatment of the character above described, comprising a container, for the'material to betreated, having one or more perforated walls, a chamber for the poolof treating liquid,
liquid from the pool and delivering it to liquidaerating or foam-generating structure, the liquid after operation upon the material returning .a pump' of any suitable type for withdrawing the the generation of flment while the basket is at rest. After treatment the circulation of treating liquid may be. discontinued and the basket revolved at suitably high speed for centrifugally wringing or drying the material.
Further in accordance with our invention, 0 either when the container is permanently stationary, or when it is a centrifugal basket as aforesaid, there may be additionally utilized pad dies, vacuum cups or the like for agitating the material during application of the foam or aerat- 25 ed liquid.
When a spinner or centrifugal basket is employed as the container for the material or goods to be treated, the soapy water or other treating liquid after treatment thereby'is preferably re 30 moved to a reservoir or storage tank, and water or the like introduced intothe basket for break-v sing the remaining foam or .bubbles therein and outside of it and below it, reducing the braking effect of the bubbles upon. the basket and also 9, making it possible for centrifugally, removing liquid from the treated goods, which is otherwise diflicult or impossible with large quantities of bubbles or foam remaining in the basket. The water or liquidso introduced will serve also to 40 rinse the treated material, and into the rinsing liquid, or into liquid delivered'into thebasket after the first or final rinsing, may be introduced bluing or eventually starch, In accordance with our invention, when utilizing a=spinner or cen- 'trii'ugal basket for the container for the goods to be treated, the entire series of operations, commonly practiced in commercial and domestic laundering, may be effected in one and the same container without removal of the goods until 7 pose apparatus of the character hereinafter described may be employed; particularly ,domestic holding dishes and the like, interchangeable with a centrifugal basket utilizable in the same machine for washing or otherwise treating clothing,'ho'usehold linen, and other textile materials and the like; and more particularly the cage may be oscillated or otherwise moved during treatment of the articles therein to insure complete application of the treating medium to all portions of the exposed'surfaces of the dishes or other solid articles.
Our present invention comprises features of method and structure disclosed in our prior apand which has matured into Patent No. 1,948,568 granted Feb. 27,1934, of which this application is in part a continuation.
For an understanding'of our method and for an illustration of some of the various forms our apparatus may take, reference is had to the accompanying drawings, in which: e
s Fig. l is a vertical sectional view, partly in elevation, of treating apparatus embodying our invention; v Fig. 1a. is a vertical sectional view, partly in elevation, on enlarged scale, of a part of the structure shown in Figs. l and 4 to 8 inclusive;
Figs. 2 and 3 illustrate some of the forms of.
liquid delivering means whichmaybe utilized in lieu of the structure illustrated-in Fig. la;
Fig. 4 is a vertical sectional view, partly in elevation, of another form of apparatusv comprising'a centrifugal basket; 1
Fig. 4a is a plan view of a modification;
Figs. 5'and 6 are vertical sectional views, partly in elevation, of other forms of our'apparatus embodying paddles or means for agitating the material during treatment;
I Fig; 5a illustrates a filter for use with the invention;
Figs. 7 and 8 are vertical sectional views, partly in elevation, of further forms. of our apparatus in which agitation of .the material is effected by vacuum cups;
' Fig. 9' is a vertical elevational view, partly in section, of-a cage for holding solid articles to be cleaned or otherwise treated;
Fig. 10 15a top plan view, partly in horizontal section, of the cage shown in Fig. 9;
Fig. 11 'is a vertical sectional view, partly in elevation, of another form of our apparatus comprising a container, for the material to be treated, rotatable about a horizontalaxis;
Fig. 12 is a horizontal sectional view, partly in I plan, of the structure shown in Fig. 11;
Fig. 13 is a cross sectional view of the basket or container of Figs. 11 and 12;
, F g. 14 is a fragmentary view illustrating a motor drive.
Referring to Fig. 1, there is illustrated what may be termed for brevity a domestic or commercial washing; dry cleaning or laundering machine, -utilizable however for treating materials in accord with other aspects of our method.
Within the stationary container or tub I, preferably of sheet metal, supported upon legsor any other suitable means, not shown, is theremovsuitable for other types of treatment as hereinplication, Serial No. 448,114, filed April ;28, 1930,
able sheet metal false bottom or diaphragm 2, resting on members 2a and having perforations or holes 3 of suitable size, number and distribution, upon which is placed the clothing, garafter described.
- In the bottom 6, preferably in the depression or sump basin 8 thereof, is an. outlet opening 9 communicating through the hose connection ill with the pipe ll delivering into the suction 2o chamber or inlet 12 of a pump ii, of any suitable type. In the example illustrated and preferably, thepump I3 is of the rotary, centrifugal or impeller type having the rotorv or impeller I4, driven at suitably high speed by any suitable 25 meahs such as the electric motor ii, of constant or variable speed as may be desired. The pump withdraws liquid from the pool 1 and delivers it at higher pressure through the hose connection IE to the pipe ll communicating with the lateral 30 pipe 18 upon the upwardly extending. pipe I! 1 having at its upper end the slip connection or union 20 through which extends into the interior of the 'pipe lithe vertically adjustable.
pipe 2| having at its upper end the rotatable 35 valve 22 whose rotating element is secured to and is rotatable with the laterally or inwardly extending pipe 23 having the downwardly directed exteriorly screw-threaded end portion 24, upon which and the nozzle member 26, also threaded upon the pipe end 24, is confined the bell or cup shaped member 21 of rubber or other suitable material loosely and detachably fitting over the upwardly turnedtannular lip or flange 28 upon 45 thecover 4, to form a detachable yet-liquid or foam-tight connection with the interior of thechamber I. With the pipe 23 and other parts in the position shown the valve 22 is open, per
mitting continuous delivery of fluid by the pump 50. I3 through the pipe 23 into the passage nozzle 26a within the nozzle member 26.
The cross section of this passage throughout its length may be uniform and preferably, as illustrated, it is divergent toward its dischargeend. Within this 55 passage and at or adjacent the end of the pipe 24 is a transversely extending member 261), secured to or integral'with the nozzle member 26. Against the member 25b is held by the screw 29 the nozzle element 30 whose external diameter 60 may vary longitudinally of its axis in any suitable way. In the example illustrated the ex-' ternal diameter first increases, to the constriction or throat 3| in the nozzle passage 26b, then decreases, and then finally again increases in on diameter. Between. the exterior of the member 30 and the wall of the passage 26a. is formed an. annular nozzle passage which is first convergent to the throat 3| and then divergent to the outlet.
Extending upwardly in the member 30 is a pas- 7( sage 30a open at the lower end of the member SI which terminates in the flange or member 2|.
From passage 30a there extend outwardly and preferably downwardly in the direction of liquid flow from the pipe 24 several air passages 22 dis- 7.
which is threaded a washer 25 between 40 tributed or spaced circumferentially of the member 33. 3
Liquid from the pool I, or liquid mixed with .gas or air as later described, is delivered by the pump through the nozzle passage 26a. around the member 30,- and in so passing, at or near the throat 3| there is drawn in and entrained air entering through theseveral air passages. The rate of delivery of liquid or liquid and air, controllable bythe speedofimpeller I4, and the rate of admixture .of air are preferably such that the liquid becomes well or highly aerated, containing innumerable small or extremely fine or minute masses or bubbles of air, rendering the mixture discharged from this foam generator or aerator practically afoam of very small bubbles or a liquid and airemulsion, the liquid being the outer or continuous phase with respect to the minute particles, masses or bubbles of air.
The sizeof the bubbles or air masses is pref-- erably very small, mainly or wholly less than one-half inch diameter,- and largely or wholly less than indiameter, ranging down to minute globules, bubbles or sacksof air of the order of one to several hundredths of an inch, and preferably mainly of even smaller orders of magnitude.
The foam or aerated liquid is discharged on to the top ofthe material to be treated, enters, permeates or penetrates it, effecting most rapid and highly eiiicientlaundering or cleansing of the fabrics or other material treated.
There is developed or exists a difference in pressure between theregion above the material treated and the region in the vicinity of the' bottom 2 orin the chamber 5. This difference in pressure facilitates permeation of the materialpartially aerated liquid. The liquid loses its air' or the foam condensesinto liquid,'and as such passes through the perforations 3 into the pool I from which it is continuously recycled, and in each cycle becomes aerated or converted into foam or fine bubbles.
While liquid aerating or foam generating structure of "the type described is highly efficient, any other suitable form of injector, ejector or jet apparatus may be utilized; or there may be utilized any other suitable type of liquid discharge structure. v
For this purpose there may be'used upon the s end ,of the pipe 24 as indicated in Fig. 2, a spray nozzle or rosette 33. In discharging-therefrom the liquid becomes more or less aerated or converted into foamor bubbles. The cover 4 in this case is provided with an aperture 4a, large enough for insertion of the structure 33, and fitting the exterior of the pipe 24 and the cover 4 is a closure member 21a of rubber or other suitable material:
the pipe 23 into the container 2|, there may be and preferably is used also further structure for causing admixture of air with the treating liquid from pool I. Such structure may be of any suitable type or form;- in the example illustrated 5, it comprisesa member 34 joined by circumf'erentially spaced ribs or plates 35 with the member 38 having the downwardly extending tubular outlet 31. A tube 33, whose upper end is disposed above the liquid 1 in the air space in the cham- 1 her 5, is attached to the member 34 and com.- municates at its lower end with the interior of the structure. As liquid is drawn through the space between the ribs 35 inwardly and downwardly. through the discharge element 31, air 5 3 from the chamber 5 passes downwardly through the tube 38 and within the structure, and within the pump I3, comes into mixture with the liquid, to'some extent aerating it or converting it into bubbles or foam. However, the density is such 20 that it is readily acted upon and-raised in pressure by the pump impeller I4 whose speed is suited to the purpose. The mixture of liquid and air is passed through the pipes II, I9, .2! and 23, and is discharged into the container I through 5 V ,into the nozzle passage 26a through the several passages 32, increasing the amount of air contained in the liquid, thereby completing the foam v generation or aeration of the liquid.
Withdrawal of liquid from pool I and/or air from chamber 5 by the pump I3 reduces the pres-- surein chamber 5 or on the underside" of the goods undergoing treatment, producing or assist- 40 ing in producing that pressure difference on opposite sides of the goods which enhances passage of the liquid and gas or air into or through them.
For some processes including commercial and domestic laundering of fabrics, clothing, house- 5 hold linen and the like, it is desirable that'the liquid bemaintained at elevated temperature. For this purpose heat may be .continuously imparted thereto by any suitable means. For this purpose there is inserted through the lower end 5 of .the pipe I9 an electric heater unit 39 whose lower end is provided with a plug or enlargement 390. which forms a liquid tight joint with the pipe I9, preventing leakage of the circulating liquid. This heater may be of any suitable type, gener- 55 ally a resistance, heated by the current traversing'it and led thereto through the terminals 3% and 390 to which are connected the conductors cuit through any suitable switch, which may also 60 simultaneously control supply pump motor I5. a
When the heater isdisposed in the position of current to the indicated, heat is continuously delivered to the liquid during circulation by the pump I3. 5
Upon completion of' treatment of the material within the container I, the tube 23 may be rotated about the center of the valve 22 to vertical position closing the valve and stopping circulationof liquid. The cover 4 is then removed and the container I emptied and retharged with another batch of clothing or other fabrics. The pipe 23 is thenrestored to the position indicated with the member 21 making connection with th e I terials to be treated are flange 28 upon the cover 4 and the process repeated.
which the liquid is to be stored forfuture use.
To permit the discharge end of the pipe 23 to reach sinks or receptacles of difierent heights, the pipe 2| may be raised or lowered in the pipe l9 through the loose but liquid-tight union 20. The liquid not so discharged, and the dregs from sump basin 8, may be drawn off through cock 1.42.
In Fig. 4,.the structure is in principle the same. In this case there is provided a removable spinner or centrifugal basket 45 carried upon and driven by the shaft 46 extending freely through the tube 41 attached to. the bottom 6 of the container i and reaching above the level of the liquid pool I. Beneath the bottom 6 is provided any suitable driving means, such as an electric motor, which may be or serve as the motor l5 for driving the pump 13. Under such circumstances there is provided suitable means, well known in the art of washing machines of this general character, for coupling the motor rotor' or'armature 'to the shaft 46; the impeller l4 may be continuously driven by motor. l5 or through coupling means of the character aforesaid.
- For purposes later described, it is preferred that there be provided a storage tank or reservoir having capacity sufficient for storing the soapy water or other treating liquid of the pool 1. The reservoir or. storage tank may be separate; preferably, however, it is comprised in the washing or treating machine unit. In the example illustrated by Fig. 4 the extra storage tank la. is formed by the sheet metal wall la spaced instance the extra storage tank la is itself cylindrical within the cylindrical wall I.
This auxiliary tank Ia may be provided with cover lb which, at a point to which the discharge of the pipe 23 maybe swung, may have an open-- ing for discharge from the pipe 23 into the auxiliary tank of the liquid pumped from the pool I. At or adjacent its lower end the tank la is provided with a pivoted valve V operable by the rod 1' extending to the exterior where it is provided with a handle it.
i It will be understood, however, that the auxiliary tank In. may take any suitable form and be disposed in any suitable arrangement. In the example illustrated in Fig. 4a the storage tank la is in the form of an outer structure, extending part way around t casing wall I which with the wall la forms the storage tank which may be provided with a cover, having an opening lc to which the aerator or discharge end of pipe 23 may be swung to discharge the liq uid from the pool I into the tank In. This tank will also be provided with a valve V, controlled by handle 71., controlling communication between ..|3, through the outlet of the pipe 23 swung over the'tank 1a and the pool I or bottom portion of the casing l.
In this case the clothing, fabric, or the madeposited within the basket 45 which remains at rest during the application of aerated liquid or foam, as described in connection with Fig. 1. Besides the holes or apertures 48 in the side or circular wall of the basket 45, through which liquid is thrown when the basket is rotated at high speed for wringing .of the basket casing wall I and the therefrom. In this or d y ng, there are provided in thebottom 45a 45, the holes or apertures 49. The liquid after contact with or penetration of the material with the basket stationary, drains out through the holes 49, and thence directly into 5 I the pool I, if the false bottom or diaphragm 2 be omitted, or when present, as illustrated, through the holes 3 therein. In the bottom 2 may be provideda stufling box or gland 50 in which the shaft 46 runs freely.
In circulating liquid from and back to pool 1, and aerating it for treatment of the material within the stationary basket 45, there generally obtains the condition, at the end of such a run, that the interior of the'basket is filled with bubbles or foam, and the same is true of the space surrounding the basket and above the pool 1.
The foam and bubbles may be broken by introduction ofwvater or suitable liquid into the basket, but this would involve addition of water 20 or the like to the pool I, which is sometimes undesirable particularly whe re the treating liquid,
. as soapy water or the like, is not to be diluted and is to be saved for re-use.
After the material in the basket has been suitably treated by the aerated liquid from the pool I it is difficult, if not impossible, to break or throw out the foam or bubbles from the basket when rotated at high speed. Furthermore, the foam or bubbles contacting with the exterior of the basket and the outer side of its bottom, exert a substantial braking efiect upon the basket, Slowing its speed below that desirable or requiring a larger motor for driving it through the shaft 46. In addition, the foam or bubbles in which the basket is so immersed reduce .the weight of the basket and its contents exerted downwardly through the shaft 46,, thereby lessening the rotative driving force applied to the basket through a clutch or driving mechanism which depends upon the weight of .the basket and its contents for efiectivelydriving the basket.
To overcome these, disadvantages, and to make it possible promptly to centrifugally dry the material within the basket,"the'- valveV is placed in 45 its closed position illustrated in Fig. 4, the. aerator end of the pipe 23 isswung into the opening in the auxiliary tank cover lb, and all of the liquid of the pool 1 is delivered by pump [3 into the auxiliary tank 1a, where it is stored so long as the valve Vremains closed. Thereupon, through the now open aperture 28 in -the cover 4, or upon removal of the cover 4, water or other suitable liquid is delivered into the basket 45, preferably in a spray 55 as may be afforded by rosette or sprinkler R connected through a hose to either a hot or cold water spigot S, as shown in Fig. 5. The foam or'bubbles are in consequence condensed into liquidor broken, and while the basket 45 is rotating at high speed, the liquid will be thrown out through the basket perforations and passed to the bottom of the casing formerly occupied by the pool 1, from which the liquid there collecting is discharged under the operation of the pump or discharge position over a sink D or other waste: Delivery of water, into the basket may be discontinued at any suitable time after condensation of the foam or bubbles, whereupon the material within the basket is dried, 'sofar as possible, by centrifugal action. The condensation of the foam or bubbles permits centrifugally wringing the material within the basket, removes the braking effect otherwise applied to the basket, and eliminates the lifting efiect upon the basket and its contents thereby causing them to be positively driven at a suitably high speed. 7 a
After first centrifugally drying the material in the basket, or immediately after or as a continuation of application of water to break the remaining bubbles or foam, rinsing water may 'be delivered into the basket, fully to submerge the material therein, if desired, and the material there in agitated either by hand or by agitating structure such as paddles or vacuum cups of the character hereinafter referred to in connection with other figures, The water so applied may then be delivered to a sink or waste D-by pump I3 through pipe 23 which immediately before may have been in position to close-valve 22 to. allow accumulation of water within the basket to suitable height. I
To the water introduced into the basket at any stage after the initial washing operation by the' aerated liquid, may, be added bluing'or other material for bluing or otherwise affecting the clothes or other material; and similarly starch may be introduced into thewater within the basket at suitable stageFthe bluing and starch water eventually discharged to waste by pump l3 through pipe which will then be swung to horizontal position to open the valve 22 over sink or drain D.
In consequence, when a centrifugal basket is employed, the material maybe completely laun-- dered, washed or treated before removal from the basket. When finally centrifugally dried, the goods or material are withdrawn from the basket and dried upon a clothesline or otherwise artificially completely dried.
For the next run, after all liquid has been discharged from the space at the bottom of the chamber formed by the internal wall la, the valve V is retained in open position, by suitable operation of the handle 71., causing the soapy water or other treating liquid to return from storage tank la into the bottom of the chamber formedby the wall la, there accumulating again as the-pool I. Upon restoration of the cover and the retum of the aerator or discharge end of the pipe 23 to the position shown in Fig. 4,
the cycle of'operations is'repeated.
Thestorage chamber. Ia, particularly when empty or while liquid is circulated from and-to pool I and aerated, serves to conserve the heat in the liquid or applied thereto as by heater 39. j
In Fig. the arrangement is generallysimilar to that of Fig. 4 and the mode of operation is substantially the same. 'There are provided in addition, however, the agitating elements or paddles SI of suitable number and circumferentially spaced; they are secured upon and oscillated through suitable angle by the inner oscillator 'shaft 52, to which they are connected through the sleeve 53. With the basket 45 at rest, and dur-- ing the treating operation involving the recycling o'f liquid from and back to the pool ,1, the paddies .58 by their rotary oscillation agitate the goods within the basket, speeding and improving their treatment. 'After the. liquid is drained through the holes 49 back into the pool 1,-the
basket is driven at high speed-for centrifugal wringing or drying, by the outer hollow shaft 54 to which it is removably secured.
r In Fig. 5a there is shown an adjunct, a filter F, which may be utilized in connection-with any of. the forms of the' apparatus contemplated by our invention and as illustrated in Figs. 1 and 4 to 9 inclusive. 5. description thereof in connection with Fig. 5 will sufiice for all the other figures aforesaid. Within the filter casing 55, having a removable wall, as the cover 56, is a bag or cartridge 51,
having porous walls, within which is disposed a 5 filtering material, suitable to the treatingmaterial employed. The liquid circulated by the pump l-l and delivered into' the top of the container l is passed into and through'the filter through the pipe I; and passes out to the valve 10 22 and pipe 23 through the pipe 19a. From the pipe I! there is a by-pass pipe [9b around the filter to the valve 22. By opening the valve 58 the liquid is by-passed-or circulated'in the system without passing through the filter, which for this-operation is cut out by closing the valve 59. When the valve 58 is closed and the valve, is opn, the treating liquid passes through the fil r.
A filter is particularly desirable for dry-'cleanmg purposes in which case the liquid in the pool I which is 1 recycled, is carbon-tetrachloride, naphtha, gasoline or equivalent. During circulation of the liquid it is purified in the filter by removal therefro'mof. grease and other matet rials that have been dissolved therein or physically transported thereby. For dry-cleaning the apparatus contemplated by our invention 40 and va ous forms of which are illustrated.
In th arrangements employing a spinner or, centrifugal basket 45, (Figs. 4, 5) the bottom and a portion of the side above the bottom of the basket maybe devoid of perforations. .The "pump l3 delivers the dry cleaning liquid from the pool I through the pipe 23 into the basket, as through a simple pipe opening as illustrated in Fig. 3, without aeration, thereby producing a pool of cleaning liquid ,in the basket. Or the aforesaid lower portion of the side wall and/or the bottom of\the basket 45 (Figs. 4, 5) may have a few or small perforations through which liquid returns to pool 1 at a, rate less than the rate of'discharge of liquidinto the basket from pipe 23, whereby a pool is maintained in the basket. Through these perforations, especially those in the basket bottom, may escape solids and semi-solids removed from the material.
The liquid is circulated .from and back to the pool maintained in the basket long enough, to effect the necessary cleaning of the material within the basket which is stationary. The liq-I uid pool in the basket rises to a level up to the lowermos tv row of perforations, wholly-or partially submerglng the material. After completion of the treatment, the basket is drivenat high speed, and the liquid in the bottom of the basket drains-out or rises up along its side under the influence-of centrifugal force and is thrown'70 out through the perforations in the side of the basket and returns to the pool- 'I; and liquid is I centrifugally'extracted from the material and returned to pool 1. During the spinning action,
the pipe 23 is raised to position closing the valve 1;
22, leaving the cover aperture 28 open, while the cover 4 is in place. During the spinning of the basket a vortex is formed; due to the zone of reduced pressure or partial vacuum at the center of the vortex, a current of air is drawn in through the aperture 28 in the cover, and in. descending forces the gases, heavier than airwhich have separated'from the liquid,-downwardly to the pool I where they are reabsorbed. The spinning of the basket, as usual, removes the major part of the liquid from the goods which are then ready to be finally dried, either upon a clothesline or the like, or by artificial means.
When using dry-cleaning liquid, the heater 39 -may be employed or not, as may be desired.
In Fig. 6, the arrangement is generally similar to that of Fig. 1, except that the false bottom or diaphragm 2 is preferably conical with the apex. at the axis of the shaft 52 which oscillates the paddles or agitating members-i, whose lower edges conform generally to the incline of the bottom 2. As indicated, there may be attached to the casing i or to other suitable part of the apparatus, the manually or motor driven wringer 60 comprising as usual two rollers pressed toward each other. It will be understood that such a wringer may be applied also to the form illustrated by Fig. l, or in any case where a centrifugal basket is not present.
In Fig. 7 there is again provided a centrifugal basket 45 having perforations in its side and bottom. It is mounted upon and rotated by the outer shaft 54, generally described in connection with Fig. 5. Upon the inner shaft 52 are secured the arms 6i carrying the vacuum cups 62 which are reciprocated upwardly and downwardly by the shaft 52,'and also rotated to different angles about the axis of the shaft 52, for agitating the goods during treatment by the circulating liquid from pool I; the vacuum cups alternately lifting 'and depressing the goods. With a vacuum cup system as commonly employed in a washing machine in which the goods are immersed in the washing solution, the upward strokes of the vacuum cups are more important in the agitation effected than the downward strokes. In connection with our process, however, the vacuum cups are about equally effective in theirv upward and downward strokes,
when used in accordance with our method, characterized by the fact that the goods are isolated from the pool of liquid and are subjected to treatment by foam or aerated liquid only.
InFig. Q is shown a modification without centrifugal basket, generally similar to Figs. 1 and 6. In this case, the goods lie upon the false bottom or diaphragm 2 and the vacuum cups are operated by shaft 52, upwardly, downwardly.
In apparatus of the character hereinbefore described solid or non-porous articles. such as household dishes,.utensils, table silver and the like maybe washed or cleansed by applying thereto aerated liquid, such as soap solution,' while substantially isolated from amass or pool of liquid. For this purpose the dishes or other solid articles may be disposed in the chamber A above the false bottom 2 in Figs. 1, 6 and 8, with the agitatingstructure' 5! or 52 ofFigs. 6 and 8 at rest or removed; or they may be disposed in the basket 45 of Figs. 4, 5 and '7 while the basket is stationary, and in the case of Figs. 5 and 'I while the agitating structure 5li or G2 is atrest or removed. The solid articles, dishes or the like are suitably arranged within-the chamber or basket, or suitably disposed upon racks or frames in the chamber or basket, to allow contact therewith of the aerated liquid throughout substantially their entire exposed surfaces. 5
Preferably, however, the solid articles, dishes or the like aredispos'ed in a cage of wire mesh or the like interchangeable with the removable basket 45 of Fig.4, 5 or '7.
One of various suitable forms of cage structure 10 is illustratedby Fig. 9, of which Fig. 10 is a horizontal sectional view, taken on the line l0ll of Fig. 9. The cage 45a, open at its top, comprises a cylindrical or other suitably shaped wall 45b and bottom 45c of. wire mesh, expanded metal. perforated sheet metal, or equivalent. The meshes or apertures in the bottom 45c arepreferably smaller than those of the side wall 45b, to retain solids or semi-solids washed from the dishes or solidarticles, The upper end of thesidewall 45b is attached to the metal ring 45d. Within the cage are provided a suitable number of suitably spaced rack or holder members of wire mesh or equivalently apertured elements 45c, of diflerent lengths, disposed, for example, on opposite sides of the diametrically or otherwise positioned member 45 which also may be of wire mesh or equivalent, and extending to the wall 451) to which they are suitably attached by welding or otherwise. At their inner ends they are welded or otherwise attached to the member 45!, and the latter and the members 45s are preferably attached or welded to the bottom 45c. Secured by welding or otherwise tothe bottom 450, or to several of the rack members 45c, or to the member 3 45!, or to all of them, is the round hollow shaft or sleeve 4611 whose upper portion is the solid member or stub shaft 46b beneath which may be provided splines engaging with splines 450 on the upper end of the basket driving shaft, Fig. 4. 4
The cage is interchangeable with the basket 45 of the machine illustrated by Fig. 4. Upon removal" of the basket 45, the cage 45a is substituted for it, the sleeve 46a, corresponding with the basket sleeve 46a of Fig. 4. passes over the upper 45 end of the shaft 46, and the stub shaft 451) rests upon the upper end of the shaft 48. Or, if the spline structure 4% is provided, the splines of the cage sleeve engage those on the shaft 45. many event, the cage is supported practically inthe po- 50 sition formerly occupied bythe basket 45, and into its spaces 45a of various sizes and shapes, 1 formed by the members45e, and-by some of them and the wall 45b, are deposited the dishes, utensils, silverware or other solid articles to be treated or sscleaned. The cover 4 and the aerator, which generates the foam'or bubbles, are returned to positions indicated in Fig.4 and the soapy water or other treating liquid is circulated. from and back tothe pool I, the foam or aerated liquid pass- 00 ing through the spaces between the-solid articles, cleansing them; the liquid passes through the cage meshes or apertures and returns to pool .I for recirculation. -After the cleansing operation, the liquid of the pool I may be discharged to waste or to storage .tanklaif it is to be used again. There can then be introduced, upon removal of the cover 4 and the aerator, water, preferably hot, for rinsing the solid articles and dishes, the rinsingwater collecting in the bottom of the container. and then discharged by the pump ll to the sink D, or elses where. g
The cage a may similarly displace the basket 4s m the structureof Figs. 5 and '1. the paddles n 7 j V or vacuum cups 6! having been removed prior to removal of the basket. The sleeve 45:: of the cage is then'slipped over the outer or'basket driving shaft 54 which remains at rest. 01'- the cage may be provided with structure for supporting or securing it upon the inner or agitator shaft52,-and that shaft may remain at rest or be rotatably oscillated as described in connection with the paddles 5| of Fig. 5, to move or oscillate the cage at suitable slow speed duringapplication of the aerated liquid more uniformly and thoroughly to distribute the foam over the dishes or solid articles.
By pro'vidinga cage, interchangeable with a spinner or centrifugal basket in machines of the general character illustrated by Figs. 4, 5 and 7, there becomes available, particularly for domestic use, and especially for confined quarters such as apartments, a combined laundering and dish washing machine by which table dishes, utensils and the like may be washed by and in the same method and system in which clothes and the like may be completely laundered by washing, rinsing,
bluing, starching and the like, without removal larly desirable, and this, as before, is accomplished by the electric heater 39 which delivers heat to the liquid circulated from the pool I;
In Figs. 11-13, the container for the material or goods to be treated is a cylinder 53 disposed in .the casing or chamber I, in thebottom of which is the pool ;1 of treating liquid. The cylindrical wall comprises the perforated arcuate elements 64 and the perforated arcuate covers 65 slidable about the axis of the cylinder over the elements 54 to form openings through which the goods or material to be treated are charged into and removed from the interior which may be suitably divided by walls or diaphragms 66, perforated or not,'as may be suitable or desirable. The end 'walls 61 may be perforated or-not. The cylinder is mounted upon a hollow perforated shaft 58 hav-'- ing a bearing at its one end at 69 and at its other end at 10. The treating liquid as before is withdrawn from the pool I by the pump l3 and delivered to the pipe l9, which again may be providedwith electric heater 39, to the nozzle II which discharges a jet of liquid containing air when the structure 38, 34 is utilized, entraining air entering through the holes", aerating the liquid or producing foam which is discharged through the passage 13,-to the interior of the hollow shaft from which it escapes through the perforations of the shaft and passes radially out-,
ward, under a difierence of pressure, through the goods or material within the compartments of the cylinder 53.
During operation the cylinder filis'continu ously rotated in one direction or oscillated as may be desired. For-driving the cylinder 63 there is provided a motor M, Fig. 14. The motor M, through reducing gearing, comprising a gear 14,
n pinion. 84 upon the shaft 85 towhich is coupled the shaft of the cylinder or basket 63.
At the end of arun, theslides 65 are opened in succession, by access through the opening 86 of the casing i having the removable cover 8'|,and through this opening goods or material to be treated are removed from the. several compartments of the cylinder 63 in succession. 5
The apparatus illustrated in Figs, 1 .to 8inc1usive, is of aform and type utilizable as a domestic cleaning .or washing machine, and is generally of moderate size, though it will be understood that the size is not a feature of our invention and'that apparatus ofthis character may be constructed offiany suitable size, for commercial cleaning, laundering, and the like. j
Structure of the character illustrated in Figs. 11-13, comparable to'the system and structure illustrated in Figs. 2-5 of our aforesaid application Serial No. 448,114,'is generally constructed in larger sizes for commercial laundries, cleaning and dyeing establishments.
It shall be understood, as disclosed in our aforesaid application, the treating liquid besides carrying soap or equivalent for washing or launder- I ing purposes, may carry dye, particularly when the apparatus is used in washing and dyeing establishments though it may be utilized also in connection with domestic washing and cleaning machines.
It will further be understood that the gas which aerates the liquid, or forms the bubbles or foam, may be other than air, and of a character to effect a treatment of the goods or materials, as by bleaching or otherwise affecting them, as described in our application aforesaid.
It will be further understood that our method and apparatus are utilizabie for de-gumming dyeing silks either raw, in skeins, yarn; piecegoods, or manufactured articles, including hosiery.
For brevity in ,the appended claims, the term I air is employed in a generic sense to includ air 40 or other gas or vapor, or a mixture of them; and reference in the claims to aeration is synonymous with and comprehends production of foam or bubbles by combining or mixing air or other gas, or mixture of them, with liquid.
What we claim is: 1. The method of treating material, which comprises withdrawing liquid from a pool thereof, from contact with which the material to be treated is substantially isolated, passing the liquid in mixture with air to a region between which and said pool said material is disposed, there further aerating the liquid, applying the aerated liquid to said material, and returning the liquid after contact with said material to said pool. 2. The method of treating textile material and the like with a liquid, which comprises withdrawing air from a region charged with the vapor of liquid by which the material is being treated and passing the charged air with said liquid 6 to another region adjacent and in communication with said material, there further aerating the liquid, and causing the aerated liquid topenetrate the material under the influence of a difference between the pressures existing in said regions. f
3. The method of. treating material, which comprises confining the material ina substantiab. ly closed chamber out of contact with a pool of .liquid therein, withdrawing liquid from said pool,
withdrawing airfrom the. space'above said pool and passing it with the liquid withdrawn to a region between which and said space said material is disposed, there further aerating the liquid,
and applying the aerated liquid to said material under the influenceof a difference between the pressures in said region and space.
4. The method of treating textile material and the like, which comprises withdrawing liquid from a pool thereof, from contact with which the material to be treated is substantially isolated, withdrawing air from a region charged with the vapor of liquid by which said material is, being treated, and passing the charged air with the liquid withdrawn from said pool to another region adjacent and in communication with said material, there further aerating the liquid, causing the aerated liquid to penetrate the material under the influence of a difference in pressure existing between'said second and first named regions, and returning the liquid after its contact with, said material to said pool.
5. The method of treating material, which comprises confining the-material in a substantially closed chamber out of contact with a pool of liquid therein, withdrawing liquid from said pool, withdrawing air from the space above said pool and passing it with the liquid withdrawn to a region between which and said space said material is disposed, there further aerating the liquid, applying the aerated liquid to said material under the influence of a pressure difference exist ing between said region and said space, and returning the liquid to said pool after its contact with said material.
6. The method of treating textile material and the like, which comprises continuously supplying liquid in mixture with air to a region on one side of the material, there further aerating the 7 liquid, and maintaining a region of lower pressure to draw the aerated liquid through said first named material from said region to said region of lower pressure.
'7. The method of treating textile material and the like, which comprises continuously-supplying liquid in mixture with air to a region on one side of the material to be treated, there further aeratmg the liquid, maintaining a region of lower pressure to draw the aerated liquid through said material from said first-named region to said region of lower pressure, .and applying heat to the circulating liquid.
8. Apparatus for treating material comprising areceptacle therefor, a liquid aerator comprising a member having a passage, a second member e disposed in said passage and spaced from said first named member to form an annular nozzle passage, means for continuously delivering liquid to said first named passage from said receptacle, said second named member having passages in communication with said receptacle for delivering air from said receptacle into said nozzle passage from which foam is discharged into contact with the material to be treated.
-9. Apparatus for treating material comprising a receptacle therefor, a receptacle adapted to contain a pool of liquid and in communication with said first-named receptacle, means forcontinuously circulating liquid from said pool and discharging it to said material from which it returns to said pool and is recirculated, and means for delivering air into said circulating liquid from a region, said material being disposed between said region and the region of discharge of said liquid .to said material.
10. Apparatus for treating material comprising a receptacle therefor having a perforated wall isolating said material from a pool of liquid, a liquid aerator disposed to discharge into said receptacle, means -for continuously circulating uously delivering liquid to said aerator, means for rial, a liquid aerator above eczema ing a receptacle therefor, an aerator delivering aerated liquid to said material, means for contincontinuously admixing air with the liquid dellvered to said aerator, and means for applying heat to the liquid.
- 13. Apparatus for treating materialcomprising acontainer therefor and adapted to contain 20 a pool of liquid, perforated structure separating said material from said pool, a pump and conduit for circulating liquid from said pool to said material, and means on the suction side of said pump for admixing the liquid with air withdrawn from 25 a region within said container charged with vapor of said liquid.
14. Apparatus for treating material comprising a container therefor and adapted to contain a pool of liquid, perforated structure separating 3 said, material from said pool, a liquid aerator, a pump and conduit for circulating liquid from said pool to said aerator for delivery of aerated liquid to said material, and means on the suction side of said pump for admixing with the liquid air withdrawn from a region within said container charged with vapor of said liquid.
15. Apparatus for treating textile material and the like comprising a container and adapted to contain a pool of liquid, stationary perforated 40 structure isolating said material from said pool andpermitting flow of liquid to said pool, means for agitating the material, a-liquid' aerator delivering aerated liquid into contact'with said material, and means for continuously circulating liquid from said pool to said aerator and recirculating the liquid returned to the pool through said perforated structure.
16. Apparatus for treating textile material and the like comprising a container adapted to contain a pool of liquid, a normally stationary basket having perforated side and bottom walls dise posed above said pool for containing said matethe material in said basket, means for continuously circulating liquid from said pool to said aerator and for recirculating the liquid returned to said pool through said perforated side and bottom walls, and means whereby said basket may be rotated after dis-' continuation of liquid circulation for removing liquid remaining in said materal. j
17. Apparatus for treating textile material and the like substantially solely by aerated liquidcomr prising a container adaptedto contain a pool of liquid, a normally stationary basket havingperfo- 18. Apparatus for treating textile materialor the like substantially solely by aerated liquid comprising a container adapted to contain a pool of liquid, a normally stationary basket having perforated side and bottom walls disposed above said pool and containing said material, a liquid aerator above the material in said basket, means for continuously circulating liquid from said pool to said aerator, means whereby said basket may be rotated after discontinuation of liquid circulation for removing liquid remaining in said material, and paddle structure mechanism agitating the material within said basket when stationary and while said material is surrounded substantially solely by aerated liquid. 7 19. Apparatus for treating textile material and the like substantially solely by aerated liquid comprising a container adapted to contain a pool of liquid, a normally stationary basket having perforated sides and bottom walls disposed above said pool and containing said'material, a liquid aerator above the material in said basket, means for continuously circulating liquid from said pool to said aerator, means whereby said basket may be rotated after discontinuation of liquid circulation for removing liquid remaining in said material, and vacuum cup structure for agitating the material within said basket while stationary and while said material is surrounded substan tially solely by aerated liquid. I
20. emethod of treating material which com prises continuously circulating liquid in a path including a treating zone containing said ma terial, generating foam by admixture of a fluid with said liquid for application to said material for treatment substantially solely by foam, ef-
thereof through said material by maintaining reduced pressure beyond said zone, subsequently liquid through said zone without generation of foam to condense foam remaining in the material, and rotating said material in said zone to extract the liquid and condensed foam by centrifugal action.
21. The method of treating material which comprises continuously circulating liquid in a path including-a treating zone in which said material 10 is disposed, generating foam by admixture of a fluid with said liquid for application to said material for treatment substantially solely by foam, effecting passage of the foam and constituents thereof through said material by maintaining reduced pressure beyond said zone, diverting said liquid to a reservoir, introducing and passing another liquid through said zone without generation of foam to condense foam remaining in the material, removing said second liquid, and returning said first liquid for circulation in said .path for treatment of another batch of material.
22. Apparatus for treating material substantially solely by aerated liquid comprising a con-'- tainer therefor adapted to contain a pool of .liq- 5 uid, perforated structure isolating said material from said pool, a liquid aerator for delivering aerated liquid to said material, and means for circulating liquid from said pool to said aerator,
said perforated structure permitting of de-aerated liquid to said pool, and ensuring that said material is treated submtially solely by. aerated liquid.
LEON DE- R. FABER. CHARLES J. CARROIL. g5