US 2023559 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
D R o F m A w H R.
Filed July 31, 1935 3 Sheets-Sheet l (lttorneg Dec. 10, 1935. R. H. WAINFORD PUMP Filed July 31, 1933 I5 Sheets-Sheet 2 [hi/drag rmentor Gttorneg Dec. 10,1935. R WAINFQRD 2,023,559
Filed J y 1 1955 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Patented Dec. 10, 1935 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Application July 21,
1933, Serial No. 681,573.
Renewed May 28, 1935 11 Claims.
This invention relates to certain new and useiul improvements in pumps, and particularly to pump cylinders, and the present application is a continuation in part of my prior patent application filed March 14, 1933, Serial No. 660,703. More especially the invention relates to the cylinders of pumps designed for pumping liquids of different kinds and different specific gravities and fluid solid and semi-solid stock materials under conditions where a variable quantity or pressure delivery action is required or desirable in order to prevent damage to the pump or to delivery receptacles.
One object of the invention is to provide a construction of pump cylinder whereby the surfaces of the cylinder and piston operating therein may be eifectually lubricated and sealed and protected against contact with the stock being pumped, thus reducing wear and tear on such surfaces and protecting the same against damage or contamination in the pumping of chemicals or like stock materials.
Another object of the invention is to provide a cylinder and piston construction wherein motion is transmitted to the stock or material to be pumped for a displacement pumping action through the medium of a neutral combined sealing and displacement fluid on which the piston or plunger acts, which fluid may also serve as a support on which a body of lubricating oil may float and be protected like the surfaces of the cylinder and piston against damage by chemicals or like stock material being pumped.
Still another object of the invention is to provide novel and improved means for supplying a lubricant to the cylinder and a novel and improved packing means for closing the joint between the piston and plunger rod and the cylinder head through which it moves to prevent leakages at this point and to secure desired lateral movements of the packing means to compensate for play of the rod and secure a free and easy action of the piston while furnishing a tight packing seal.
Still another object of the invention is to generally simplify and improve the construction and increase the practical efficiency of pumps of this character.
With these and other objects in view, the invention consists of the features of construction, combination and arrangement of parts, hereinafter fully described and claimed, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, in which:-
Fig. 1 is a sectional top plan view of a pump of the character described embodying my invention, showing two cylinders, one appearing in horizontal section and the other in top plan View.
Fig. 2 is a view of the parts disclosed in Fig. 1, showing one ofthe cylinders in vertical section and the other in side elevation, the piston of the first-named cylinder appearing at the limit of its return stroke.
Fig. 3 is a sectional view of the cylinder taken in a plane at right angles to the plane of section of Fig. 2 and showing the piston at the limit 01' its working stroke.
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary plan view showing one of the pump cylinder casings with its upper head and internal parts removed to better show a feature of construction.
Figure 5 is a section through the lower end of one of the cylinders on an enlarged scale.
Figs. 6, 7 and 8 are sectional views through the upper end of the cylinder showing different forms of stuffing boxes.
Referring now more particularly to the drawings, i designates the frame structure of the pump, which may be of any suitable and approved construction, and in or upon which are mounted duplicate or twin cylinders 2 and 2' fitted between and secured by angle brackets and fastenings 3 to the frame structure. The cylinders are arranged side by side and have fitted to reciprocate therein plungers 4 and 4 preferably operating in alternation to each other so that when one is on its working stroke the other will be on its reverse or return stroke, and vice versa. It will, of course, be understood that the number of cylinders and plungers employed may be more than two and may be varied to suit varying conditions and to regulate the capacity of the pump as desired.
Each cylinder 2 and 2' comprises an outer casing or housing 5 from the bottom 6 of which rises an internal tube 1, constituting the cylinder proper in which the plunger 4 or 4 operates, and an intermediate guard tube 8 disposed concentrically in telescopic relation to and between and in spaced relation to the side walls of the casing 5 and said inner tube or cylinder 1. The casing or housing 5 is provided at one side with an inlet 9 for the stock material or substance being pumped and at its opposite side with an outlet Ill for the discharge of such material, the inlet 9 being arranged at a higher level than the outlet it and said inlet and outlet being in communication in practice with inlet and outlet valve devices governing the flow of the material therethrough. These valve devices may be of the construction and arrangement shown in my aforesaid application Serial No. 660,703 and are omitted herein as not constituting an essential part of the present invention. The tube 1 may be secured in position to the casing bottom 6 in any preferred manner. In the present instance it is shown as provided at its base with a thickened and beveled marginal portion I l which fits between an annular series f undercut retaining lugs l2 on the bottom 6, the caulking material I2, preferably of softmetal, being interposed between the parts II and I2 to removably secure the cylinder in position.
Thecasing or housing 5 is provided in its top with an opening l3 for the introduction of the cylinder l'and guard tube 8, and which permits access to the casing and cylinder whenever required for cleaning, repairs or other purposes. The wall of the opening I3 is provided with an inwardly extending supporting flange which rests an outturned flange 5 at the upper end of the tube 8, whereby the latter is supported in position with its lower end terminating adjacent to but at a desired level above the casing bottom 6, by which arrangement a flow channel [61 r ilgd betwe n t e c n 5 a d the uard tubefi and a sealing channel I! is provided between the inner tube or cylinder 1 and the tube 8, which channels are in communication at their lower ends through across channel l6 formed between the bottom 6 and lower open end of the tube 8.
In practice the stock material drawn into the pump casing 5 by the suction of the plunger on its upstroke flows through the inlet 9 and into. the channel It and is expelled through the out--v let l0 on the ensuing downward or discharging stroke of the plunger. The plunger is normally submerged, when on its discharging stroke, in a body of oil or fluid lubricant [8 which more or less fills-the cylinder 1 and channel It, and constitutes not only a lubricating medium but also a fluid transmitting medium through which the.
discharging force of the plunger is transmitted to the stockmaterial. The amount of lubricant or transmitting fluid contained in the cylinder and channel I] is normally sufficient to practically fill said channel I] and the lowerrportion of the channel l6, so as toseal said channel I! against the inlet theretoof any of the stock material. By this means the walls of the tube or cylinder 1 will be protected against corrosive or other action of stock material of. an acid or other character liable to cause a disintegrating or wearing action upon the cylinder, and. contact of the stock material with the cylinder structure is limited to the outer surface of. the tube 8 and the opposed inner surface of the casing 5 above the bottom of the tube. 8. Under some conditions where the stock material: wouldbe liable to contaminate the lubricant, I may interpose between the lubricant l8 and. stockjmaterial a fluid, as H], of an inert character, which may take the place of a part of the fluid lubricant l8, and which will be of such nature :as not to be affected by the stock or to contaminate the oil. This protecting fluid may consist of any heavy liquid having the desired characteristics and which is of higher specific gravity than the stock or the lubricant, or both, and in any case of heavier specific. gravity than the lubricant, and which will serve further as a force transmitting medium between the oil andthe stock without liability of intermixture therewith. Mercury may desirably be employed as this fluid I 9, except in cases where there is liable to be a chemical reaction between the protectingifluid and the stock. The casing 5 and cylinder I! are. provided with clean-out plugs 5' and ll',"respec.tively.
The oil is supplied to the cylinder 1 and channel I! through a feed channel 20 and a connection 2| from a suitabletype of lubricant supply device, such as ahydrostatic lubricator 22, said channel being formed in a detachable cover23 normally closing the opening l3 at the top of the casing 5. This cover 23 is provided with a packing box or stuifing-box 24 receiving an annular gland 25 between which and a supporting flange 25 at the base of the stuiflng-box is disposed a metallic or other suitable packing 21 and a flanged bushin 28'. The plunger 4 or 4' moves through this stuiflng-box and in engagement with the packing and bushing. The gland 25 is provided at its top with a flange portion 29 for the passage of machine screws or the like 30 which enter the 10 stulflng-box and adjustably secure the gland thereto, so that the pressure upon the packing may be regulated as desired. The cover plate 23 is also provided with a flange 3| for the passage of stud bolts 32 on the casing, which bolts are fitted 15 with nuts 33 whereby the cover is adjustably secured. in position. Between this cover plate 3| a'ndthe flange l5. of the tube 8 and between said flange l5 andthe flange M of the casing are disposed thin metal packing rings or gaskets 34 20 which provide a fluid-tightconnection between the aforesaid parts. This construction provides a simple closure and packing for the top of the pump, casing and the plunger which allows ready,
quick and convenient assemblage and disassem- 5- blage of the parts of the cover and the packing and the adjustment of the packing elements to secure leak-proof joints. It will be understood from the foregoing that oil from the hydrostatic lubricator 22 may be supplied to' the space or 30 chamber 35 in the top of the tube 8 above the upper open end. of the cylinder for feed to the cylinder and to keep the surfaces of the plunger and its contacting parts efficiently lubricated at all times. A vent channel 35 having a valved vent 35., connection 3? leading thereform is provided in the cover 25 to permit vent of gases from the casing 5 to the atmosphere. Disposed alongside each cylinder is a gage column 38 communicating through connections 39 and 45 with the top of b the channel I! and bottom of the channel l6 and this column I8 is provided with drain or indicator valves 4| located at high, low and intermediate levels, whereby the level of the fluids in the channel I6 and tube 8 may be determined by test at any time. 1 In the operation of priming and starting the pump, the mercury orother protective fluid employed issupplied, withthe pump plunger at half 4 stroke, until the height of the fluid in the chan- 5g nel 15 reaches mid position, which may be determined by test at the middle gage cock, after which the vent 21 is opened and lubricant supplied to the chamber 35 until the level of the lubricant in the piston and guard tubes reaches a point at which the lubricant begins to flow out at the vent cock, at which time the vent cock isclosed, the channel [6 primed with stock, and the pump mechanism then set into action. On each cycle of operation of the pump it will 0 be understood that on its upward movement or return stroke the plunger moves out of the cylinder to its uppermost limit at the top of the tube 8, thus allowing the oil previously displaced from I the cylinder to flow backwardly thereinto, Whereby a suction is created to cause inlet of the stock into the channel It through the inlet opening, and that on the subsequent downward movement or working stroke of the plunger the oil will be displaced from the cylinder 1, with the effect of causing the level of'the liquid l9 to rise in the channel It, whereby the stock taken into said channel and resting on the top of the protecting liquid-will be caused to flow outward through the outlet Ill. 'The meansior operating'the plunger 4 or 4 has not been shown herein, as not constituting an essential part of the present invention, but it is to be understood that the type of plunger operating mechanism shown in my aforesaid application Serial No. 660,703, or any suitable equivalent therefor, may be employed for operating the pump whenever it is desired to secure a pumping mechanism with a cushioning action whereby the dead weight of the plunger will act by gravity to impart working power to the plunger on its working stroke and wherein any undesirable back pressure will balance the dead load of the pressure on the plunger and effect the automatic stoppage of the pump to prevent damage to the pump or to the receptacle to which the pump material is being delivered.
Various modifications in the form and construction of the working parts may be made within the scope of the invention, without departing from the spirit of the invention as set forth in the appended claims. For example, a modified construction of stuffing-box at the top of the casing may be employed, such as shown in Fig. 7, in which the stufling-box 24a of the detachable cover 23a is minus the flange 26 and terminates in a lower bearing edge 62 against which bears the body portion of a substantially Z-shaped carrier ring 43. The said body portion of this carrier ring is horizontally disposed and has an upturned supporting flange 44 at its inner edge and an upturned flange 45 at its outer edge terminating in an outwardly extending flange 46. The flange 4% here supports a series of any desired number of superposed packing rings forming a packing unit consisting of two sets of rings at and 48 arranged in alternation with each other. The rings 41, as shown, are of greater diameter than the rings 48 and have their outer peripheral edges arranged to engage the inner face of the wall of the gland receiving opening in the stufling-box, the inner edges of said rings 5'! being spaced from the surface of the plunger. The rings 48, on the other hand, have their inner peripheral surfaces tightly engaging the outer surface of the plunger and their outer peripheral edges spaced from engagement with the wall of the gland receiving opening in the stufling-box. The opposed faces of the rings and the bearing edge 42 of the stuffing box and the flange M of the 2 ring are provided with grooves or flutes 49 for the storage and transmission of lubricant to keep the surfaces efficiently lubricated. The packing ring or gasket 34 in this construction is of suitable thickness to serve as a shim spacing the lower edge of the gland with respect to the flange M of the 2 ring a definite distance apart so that the packing rings 41 and .8 may be sufficiently free or loose to slide laterally, thus securing a reliable pressure of the oil to all moving surfaces and at the same time ensuring at all times a reliable working action of the rings A! and as to compensate for wear and tear upon the piston or any other change liable to cause deleterious results. The flange part 45 of the 2 ring has a leak-tight engagement with the outer surface of the depending flange portion of the cover 23a so that leakage about these parts will be effectually prevented. The ring 53 and rings 41 and 58 are yieldingly supported by springs 49 engaging the flange 56 and resting on a flange 5E! extending inwardly from the tube 8, said springs being centered about retaining studs 5| whereby casual displacement of said springs will be prevented and the packing rings yieldingly supported and maintained by spring pressure in proper sealing engagement with each other and the coacting parts of the structure to provide oil or other leak-proof joints.
In Fig. 8 another modified form of the packing means is shown wherein the cover 23 and gland 24 are of a construction similar to that shown in Fig. 6 except that the flange 26 is provided in its upper face with lubricant distribution grooves or flutes 52. This flange 26 supports a set of packing rings 41 and 48 similar to those shown in Fig. '7, except that in the structure shown in Fig. 8 the rings are disposed directly between the bearing edge of the vertical flange of the gland and the flange portion 2'6 of the cover, the same provision being made, as in Fig. '7, to permit the rings to have suflicient freedom of lateral movement to conform to the lateral play of the plunger and any irregularities in its surface whereby a tight packing engagement between the cylinder and plunger will be ensured.
From the foregoing description it will be understood that the plunger on its up and down movements will cause by fluid displacement a suction action whereby a charge of the stock material, varying according to the stroke of the plunger, will be drawn in on the upstroke of the plunger and discharged on the downstroke of the plunger, that this action will be effected by the principle of a moving body of fluid supporting and transferring motion to another body of fluid, and
that on each working stroke of the plunger a positive pumping action of a definite amount, varying according to the plunger stroke, will be obtained. At the same time the cushioning action on the plunger will also be secured to prevent damage to parts of the pump under back pressure, and, in the event that the pumping mechanism is made of the variable stroke type disclosed in my prior application Serial No. 660,703, an automatic regulation of the pumping action will be obtained to obviate liability of damage to parts of the pump or to receptacles served with the stock material thereby. Also it will be seen that by reason of the use of an oil and protective fluid seal of the character set forth a reliable and efficient construction of variable stroke pump may be furnished while at the same time the surfaces of the pump most subject to deterioration may be protected from corrosion.
chemical or electrolytic action or excessive abrasive action due to the handling of various kinds of stock materials. The novel construction of stuffing-box with floating or shifting rings of the character described furthermore ensures a tight packing or seal between the surfaces of the plunger and casing in a simple and effective manner whereby leakage is prevented and an easy and maximum working action of the pump plunger obtained. I
It will, of course, be understood that while the inlet branch 9 and outlet branch ID of the casing are shown as flanged for connection with certain sized service line conductors, they may also be internally threaded for connection with smaller sized service line conductors; also that the flanged and/or threaded branches may be of standard type and any standard valve at inlet and outlet may be used. The valves disclosed in my application Serial No.'660,703 are considered best for pumping thick liquid mud. Standard ball, mushroom or clock valves may be adopted for other liquids.
While the structure disclosed herein is preferred, it will, of course, be understood that changes in the form, proportions and details of construction may be made within .the scope of the appended claims without departing from the spirit or sacrificing any of the advantages of the invention.
What I claim is:.- r
1. In a pump, a casing having a bottom head and a top head and provided at opposite sides thereof adjacent to said top head with a stock intake opening and a stock discharge opening, a cylinder within said casing, a piston operating in said cylinder, and a guard tube depending from the top of the casing and within the casing between the casing and the cylinder, said tube being operatively arranged in conjunction with the casing and cylinder to provide a channel between the casing and the tube communicating with the intake and discharge openings'and a channel between the cylinder and the tube'communicating at its upper end with the cylinder and at its lower end with the first-named channel.
2. In a pump, a casing having a bottom head and a top head and provided at opposite sides thereof adjacent to said top head with an inlet and an outlet, a cylinder extendingfrom the bot-.
tom head upwardly within said casing, and a guard tube depending from the top of the casing and telescopically arranged within the casing with respect to the cylinder to provide a flow channel between the guard tube and casing communicating with the inlet and outlet and a lubricant channel communicating with the cylinder at its upper end and with the flow channel at its lower end. i
3. In a pump, a casing having a bottom head and a top head and provided adjacent to said top head'with an inlet and an outlet, a cylinder extending upwardly within said casing, a guard tube depending from the top of the casing downwardly thereto in spaced relation to the cylinder to provide a stock flow channel between the guard tube and easing communicating with said inlet and outlet and a lubricant flow channel between the cylinder and guard tube communicating at its upper end with the cylinder and at its lower end with the first-named flow space, a plunger operating in the cylinder, an oil receiving channel located at the top of the cylinder through which the plunger passes and in communication with the oil flow channel, and a packing ring in said oil receiving channel about the plunger.
4. In a pump, a casing having a bottom head and a top head and provided at opposite sides thereof adjacent tosaid top head with an inlet and an outlet, a cylinder in said casing, a guard tube depending from the top of the casing and in the casing between the casing and cylinder spaced to provide channels therebetween communicating at their lower ends, and a plunger operating in said cylinder.
5. In a pump, a casing having a bottom head and a top head and provided at opposite sides thereof adjacent to said top head with an inlet and an outlet disposed at different horizontal levels, a cylinder in said casing, a guard tube depending from the top of the casing and in the casing between the casing and cylinder spaced therefrom to provide channels therebetween communicating at their lower ends, and a plunger operating in said cylinder.
6. In a pump, a casing having a bottom head and a top head and provided at opposite sides thereof adjacent to said top head with a stock introducing inlet and a stock discharge outlet,
a cylinder in said casing, a guard member depending from the top of thecasing and between the cylinder and easing forming outer and inner channels communicating at their lower ends, a piston operating in the cylinder, and a protecting fluid normally filling the cylinder and inner channel and rising'to a predetermined maximum level in the'outer channel.
' 7. In a pump, a casing having a bottom head and a top head and provided at opposite sides thereof adjacent to said top head with a stock introducing inlet and a stock discharge outlet, a cylinder in said casing, a guard member depending from the top of the casing and between the cylinder and casing forming outer and inner channels communicating-at their lower ends, a piston operating in the cylinder, a protecting fluid rising to acertain level in said channels, and a fluid lubricant resting on said protecting fluid in portion of the inner channel above the level of the protecting fluid.
8. In a pump, a casing having bottom and top heads provided at opposite sides adjacent to but belowthe top head with an inlet and an outlet,
a plunger chamber extending upwardly from the bottom head to a level between the inlet and out let, a plunger movable through the top head and into and out of said chamber, means forming a sealing space between the chamber and casing, and a protecting fluid in the cylinder and said space below the level of the inlet and outlet.
9. In a pump, a casing having top and bottom heads and an inlet and an outlet at opposite sides thereof adjacent to and below the bottom head, a cylinder in the casing, a guard tube in the casing'between the casing and cylinder and spaced therefrom to provide intercommunicating flow channels, a plunger extending through the top head of the casing and operating in said cylinder, and fluid sealing means in the cylinder and in the spaces, between the casing and the guard tube and the guard tube and cylinder.
10. In a pump, a casing having top and bottom heads and inlet and outlet passages arranged at opposite sides thereof adjacent to and below the bottom head, a cylinder in the casing extending upwardly from the bottom head, a piston extending through the top head and operating in the cylinder, said top head being provided with a stufiing box chamber, a plunger movable through said top head and in said cylinder, a gland in said box, a packing in the box, a guard tube disposed between the casing and cylinder and spaced therefrom to provide intervening flow passages, and .fluid sealing'means in said passages.
11. In a pump, a casing provided with top and bottom heads and having an inlet and an outlet at opposite sides thereof adjacent to and below the bottom head, a cylinder insaid casing extending upwardly from the bottom head, a guard tube in the casing between the casing and cylinder and spaced therefrom to provide flow passages, a protecting fluid in said passage, the top head being provided with a packing chamber, a plunger movable through said head, a packing in the chamber and about the plunger comprising sets of rings. of different diameters arranged in alternation, the rings of one set closely engaging the wall of the chamber and the rings of the other set closely engaging the plunger and having a lateral floating motion in the chamber, and means for supplying a lubricant to said chamber.
' RICHARD WAINFORD.
.the inner channel and filling the cylinder and