|Publication number||US2025703 A|
|Publication date||Dec 31, 1935|
|Filing date||Mar 5, 1932|
|Priority date||Mar 5, 1932|
|Publication number||US 2025703 A, US 2025703A, US-A-2025703, US2025703 A, US2025703A|
|Inventors||Gage Robert B, William Baily Robert|
|Original Assignee||Gage Robert B, William Baily Robert|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (42), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Dec 31, 1935. r R w; A Y 1- 2,025,793
. AL v APPARATUS FOR CONS DATING PLASTIC M ERIALS BY I MEANS O VIBRATING ROLL I v Filed March 5, 1932 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Dec. 31, 1935 UNITED STATES;
APPARATUSFOB CONSOLIDATING PLASTIC MATERIALS BY MEANS OF A VIBRATING ROLLER Robert William Baily, Philadelphia, re, and
Robert B. Gage, Trenton, N. J.
Application March 5, '1932, Serial No. 597,074
The object of our invention is to provide a method and apparatus for consolidating plastic materials by means of a vibrating 'roller.
More particularly, it is our purposeto provide a method for treating plastic material used for pavement and various other purposes, by subjecting the plastic slab or mass tothe operation of a vibrating member rolling over the surface thereof. a
Another particular object is'to provide suitable apparatus including amember adapted to roll over the surface of a plastic mass and to-provide means for imparting vibration to such member during its rolling or traveling movement.
With these "and other objects in view; our in vention consists in the construction, arrangement and combination of the various parts of our apparatus and in the practice of our method, whereby the objects contemplated are attained, as hereinafter more fully set forth, pointed out in our claims, and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 shows a perspective view of a simple roller comprising an apparatus embodying our invention and adapted to be used for carrying out our method. 1
Figure 2 is a vertical, longitudinal, sectional view through the roller shown in'Figure 1, illustrating the vibrating apparatus and the means for mounting it in the roller.
Figure 3 is a detail, sectional view taken on the line 33 of Figure 2.
Figures 6 and 7 equipped with an endless tread member in the form of a flexible element.
Figure 9 is a view similar to that shown in'Figure8' illustrative of a modified form of the structure shown in Figure 8. I v
Figures 10, and 11 are similar views of other modifications; and V Figure 12 is a perspective view, parts being brokenaway, illustrating the manner in which our apparatus may be supported on a carriage or the like.v
' In making concrete pavement foundations and concrete surface pavements, concrete is ordinarily placed on the sub-grade to such a depth that when struck oil or consolidated, its surface will have the elevation and contour desired.
Various methods have been employed for removing the surplus material at the top surface.
Frequently a screed with a substantially vertical face is drawn over the slab. The screed may be moved by hand-or by a finishing machine. The usual practice is to slide the screed on forms at the sides of the slab. The screed may be given advancing movementand reciprocating movement in various directions. The use of such a screed does not properlycondense and consolidate the concrete, and, frequently produces a porous surface by detaching and pulling pieces of the coarse aggregate forwardly. y
We have found that the concrete in the bottom part of a pavement or pavement foundation is not properly, compacted and consolidated by the methods now in use of striking off and finishing such surfaces with either a hand operated screed or a screed operated by a finishing machine. The top inch or two of the pavement may thus be consolidated but the center and lower part is not properly consolidated. A
We have'found that ifa vibratory force is applied to the surface of a concrete pavement or foundation, the concrete in thecenter or lower half of such a pavement or foundation will be consolidated and freed of all porosity in the same manner as that in the upper part. The surface thus consolidated can then be. brought to the required, elevation and given the desired con-tour by either machine or hand operated screeds.
Thedevices that, have been usedrto datefor consolidating concrete by vibratory method, all require the use ofanintermediate device placed between the concrete surface and the vibrating element. This intermediate. device or platform was considered necessaryto permit the escape of the inclosed water or gases also to provide a support upon which the vibrating element could travel or be attached. Themethod which we have perfected does not require any'such'a supporting device or means to permit the escape of the entrained water orgases. When the vibrating element is in the shape of a platform or apron, its elevation must be constantly adjusted to the surface ofthe concrete, otherwise, it will not function properly, being'above the concrete I or else would 7 immediately embed itself in the concrete.
\ When the vibrating element is a roller asihere ly escape from the concrete on each side of the roller as it is slowly advanced over the surface of the concrete. It cannot embed itself in the concrete since its position is constantly changing. Also, theweight of such rollers when vibrated is suflicient to properly consolidate the concrete-for the full depth of the pavement or foundation and at the same time form a dense, smooth, homogeneous surface on the concrete.
In this respect the methods which we have perfected differ from any of the others now in use and is a distinct improvement over the others, due to the fact that no intermediate member is required and the entire vibratory force of the vibrating element can be applied directly to .th
surface of the concrete.
ing an upper course of a different kind of coni crete or of bituminous material.
We shall now describe illustrative types of apparatus, which may be used forour purpose, and shall then explain in somewhat greater detail the manner of practicing 'ourmethod.
In Figures 1 to 5 inclusive, we have shown a 'hollow roller indicated generally by the reference numeral l0. Such a roller is preferably provided with the bearings II at its ends. In these bearings are journaled the spindle shafts l2 and 13. The bearings may be carried by end discs It provided with annular flanges l5 telescoped into the roller l0.
The roller may bepropelled by means of'handles l6 connected with the spindle shafts l2 or may be supported on some sort of a carriage as hereinafter again referred to.
We provide means for imparting vibration to the roller as it is advanced over the concrete mass. Fixed to the interior of the roller I0 is the case of an electric motor IT. The motor shaft I8 projects from the case I! and it is extended and is journaled'in a spider l9 flxed on the inside of the roller l0. On the shaft I8 is an eccentric weight 20 for vibrating the roller when the motor is operated.
- Electric wires 22 are extended through the shaft 13 which is hollow and thenceiby anyknown means to the motor. We show a collector ring 23 journaled on the inner end of the shaft, and thence to the motor. The collector ring is weighted as at 23a to hold it against rotation.
In Figure 2, we have shown the roller traveling on a plastic slab or pavement 24 between side forms 25. 1
In Figure 4, we have shown the roller traveling on the side forms 25.
Figures 3 and 5 illustrate the manner in which the roller condenses and smooths the top surface of the plastic mass.
4 In Figure 6, we-have shown a slightly different form of our invention, In this form, the roller Illa is substantially the same as the roller to 32 arrangedwith their edgesalmost in contact with-the rollers and with their outer faces in I planesslightly above and below respectively the extreme upper parts and the extreme lower parts of the rollers as illustrated in Figure 7.
It will be obvious that both the rollers Illa and 30 might be vibrated if that were desirable. We
- surplus air and water and condensing and conprefer, however, to make the front roller the vibrating roller, or by vibrations applied to bars 3| and plates 32, and'through them to the rollers.
When vibration is applied to plastic concrete, the material flows rather easily and has some ofthe characteristics of a fluid in that it tends to seek its level.
In working some kinds of concrete, the material tends to flow up and behind the vibrating roller as indicated for instance at 33 in Figure 7, 10 and thus to some-extent nullify the object of the roller which is to consolidate and level off the fresh plastic material.
By using thedouble roller arrangement, this tendency of the material to rise behind the vi- 15 brating roller can be taken care of and counteracted.
Assuming that the device travels in the direc' tion indicated by the arrow 34, it will be seen that the plate 32 and roller 30 will smooth and g0 mechanism supported from a carriage frame 36.
It will be understood that any illustrated form 30 of the vibrating roller may be so carried from a carriage or from a larger machine.
In Figure 8, we have shown a slightly modified form of arrangement in which a flexible belt 31 is extended around the rollers Illa and .30..
In Figure 9, we haveshown another slightly modified form of structure in which instead of the plates 32, we have provided series of rollers 38.
In Figure 10 is another modification in which the structure is similar to that of Figure 8, ,ex- 40 cept that the flexible belt 31 is provided with transverse cleats 31 or ribs 39, which are preferably slightly tapered toward their outer portions.
In Figure 11 is still another modification of the structure shown for instance in Figure '7. In this later modification, the rear roller 301s provided with transverse'ribs orcieats l0.
There are frequent occasions as where a bituminous wearing surface is to be applied to the i concrete when it is desirable to roughen or corrugate the lower or base course.
:The cleats are shown as illustrating apparatus by which this corrugation may be done. They may be placed directly on a roller orotherwise.
. It will, of course, be understood that the formof the invention in which two rollers are employed may be used directly on the surface of the concrete or may be caused to travel onthe forms.
Itis obvious from the foregoingthat a great variety of structures may be employed embody- [ing the general idea of using a vibrating rolling member. Where such apparatus is employed, the plastic mass can be subjected to weight and vibration at the same time for thus taking out solidating the concrete. Any known means, such as rheostat may be used for controlling the speed of the motor. 1 This method has numerous advantages.
It is eflicient and eliminates certain disadvantages of sliding or dragging a screed over the concrete. It reduces the number of operations that would otherwise be necessary and effects the vibration and condensing, the reduction of men ried by the rollers and extending close to their faces with its lower face approximately level with the lowermost parts of the rollers and means for circularly vibrating at least one of said rollers.
2. In an apparatus of the class described, a
' hollow roller, a mechanism inside the roller for transmitting vibrations thereto, comprising an.
electric motor having a stator fixed to the roller, a rotor, and. a. vibrator, operatively connected with the rotor and mounted to rotate around the axis of the roller. i
3. In an apparatus of the kind described, a pair of parallel horizontally spaced rollers, a frame supported on the rollers, having a plate between the rollers approximately level with theirlower faces, and a vibrating mechanism in one of the rollers.
4. In an apparatus of the kind described, a pair of parallel horizontally spaced rollers, a frame supported on the rollers, an endless track device extended around the rollers, and a vibrating device in one of the rollers- 5. In an apparatus of the kind described, a pair of parallel horizontally spaced rollers, a frame supported on the rollers, an endless track device extended around the rollers having means i on its exterior for forming grooves in a plastic surface over which the apparatus may travel and a vibrating device in one of the rollers.
6. In an apparatus of the kind described, a pair of parallel horizontally. spaced rollers, a
frame supported on therollers, a vibrating mechanism in one of the rollers, one roller having. a smooth surface and the other having on its outer face means for forming grooves in a plastic surface over which the apparatus may travel.
7. In anapparatus' of the kind described, the combination of a pair of spaced cylindrical 'surfaces with a plate between the lowest points of said surfaces and means for circularly vibrating said surfaces and said plate in approximately 5 vertical planes perpendicular to the axes of said cylindrical surfaces.
8. In an apparatus of the kind described, the combination of a pair of spaced cylindrical surfaces with a plate between the lowest points of 10 said surfaces, means for circularly vibrating said surfaces and said plate in approximately vertical planes perpendicular to the axes of said cylindrical surfaces and means for determining the elevation of said surfaces and said plate. 15
9. An apparatus of the kind described comprising the combination ofa cylindrical surface with a plate substantially tangent thereto and trailing the lowest point of said surface and means for circularly vibrating said surface and 20 plate in approximately vertical planes approximately perpendicular to the axis of said cylindrical surface.
10. In a device of the class described, a roller adapted to roll over the surface of a material to 25 be vibrated, an eccentric weight supported by the roller to rotate around the axis of the roller, and means for imparting rapid rotation to the weight in the direction of the rotation of the roller on its axis in its rolling travel, for impart-, 30 ing vibration to the roller and to the material over which it rolls.
11. In a device of the class described, a vibration transmitting member having a surface partly cylindrical and partly plane, adapted to travel 5 over the surface of a material to be vibrated, an eccentric weight supported by the member to rotate around an axis approximately parallel to the linear elements of the cylindrical portions of the surface, and means for imparting rapid ro- 40 tation to the weight in the direction of the travel of the member for imparting vibrations to the surfaceand to the material over which it travels.
ROBERT B. GAGE.
.452 ROBERT WILLIAM BAILY.
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|U.S. Classification||404/117, 425/456|
|International Classification||E01C19/43, E01C19/28, E01C19/22|
|Cooperative Classification||E01C19/281, E01C19/28, E01C19/43|
|European Classification||E01C19/28B, E01C19/43, E01C19/28|