US 2026253 A
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Patented Dec. 31, 1 935 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE,
SHEET MATERIAL AND METHOD OF MANUFACTURING THE SAllIE Joseph Raymond Sanborn, Cambridge, Mass., assignor to International Paper Company, a
corporation of New York No Drawing. ',Application March 14, 1935,
Serial No. 11,168
chemical wood stock and in raw water systems.
I have found that the growth and multiplication of slime deposits are due to the presence of micro-organisms and have isolated certain of the predominating types. The isolations represent types which predominate under the varied environmental conditions existing at mills in different localities. Although these micro-organisms present undesirable and uneconomic aspects I have found that they may be utilized to produce transparent and semi-transparent material as well as being utilized in the production of adhesives.
Accordingly, one of the primary objects of my present invention is to produce from cultures of micro-organisms found in slimes occurring in and around paper mills, sheets of material which are transparent or semi-transparent. and which compare favorably with commercial grades of transparent sheetmaterial.
Another object, of my present invention is to utilize the activities of micro-organisms occurring in paper mill slime deposits to form sheets of material which are transparent and semitransparent and to produce adhesive and gelatinous agglomerates.
Still another object of my present invention is to utilize the activities of those micro-organisms which produce strand-like growths and possess adherent, sticky or matting properties.
These and other objects of my present invention will become more apparent as the description proceeds.
In studying slime deposits found in and around paper mills and particularly those mills using large quantities of groundwood for the manufacture of paper, ,I found that it was possible to isolate from these deposits groups of microorganisms. The isolations represented types which predominate under the varied environmental conditions existing at mills in different localities. A list follows of the genera to which some of these micro-organisms belong.
' Filamentous Yeast-like Fungi of the Bacteria bacteria fungi mold type Achromobacter Actinomyoes Oidium Aspergil lus Pseudomonas Spirophyllum MOlllllB Penicilhum Escherichia Oladosporium Aerobacter Ohaetomium Bacillus Acrostalagmus Trichoderma Alternaria Mueor The majority of the forms cited above develop persistently in a groundwood system and build up extensive growth accumulations. The various formations of slime are governed by a number of factors, including the growth characteristics of the predominating flora, physical conditions at surfaces of attachment, and the influence exerted by the non-fibrous raw materials used in paper manufacture. In contrast to the undesirable and uneconomic aspects of slime deposits, activities of certain members of the group causing slimes may be used to 'advantage.
The following groups of micro-organisms are capable of producing thread-like and doughy masses for use in the production of sheets o1v transparent and semi-transparent materials.
(a) Slime-producingbacteria, forming gelatinous ropy or stringy growths.
(b) Slime-producing yeast-like fungi, belonging to the genera .Oidium, Monilia, or. related groups, forming pasty, gummy or doughy growths.
(c) Slime-producing fungi of the mold type, the growths of which possess adherent, sticky, or matting properties. i
' In the preferred embodiment of my present invention I grow the slime-forming micro-organisms upon or in a nutrient medium consisting of a potato extract or decoction, with the addition of one of the following: glycerol, corn syrup, malt syrup, glucose, 'dextrin,.or-sucrose. Instead of The slime growths are then subjected to treatments to convert the slimes either into strands or into comminuted masses. This may be accomplished in either of two ways. The most directand satisfactory method is to agitate and homogenize the material with water, in an agitating device, as for example, a beater or churn.
The approximate proportion of slime to water should be kept at one to six, although additional water can be used if desired. A homogenous suspension of comminuted slime masses will be produced in'a very short time, and, after dilution with water, is deposited on a making screen, wire, or fabric, and subjectedto those instrumentaliable the desired pliability may be secured by coating the sheet, while on moist condition, by spraying, by means of rolls or other devices with a lubricant or lubrication emulsion, drying' immediately aftersuch treatment.
The most effective method "of lubricationutilizes glycerol solution followed immediately by treatment with mineral oil. I have also found the following lubrication medium to be satisfacy.
i Y Parts Mineral oil emulsions. 100
Composed of mineral oil 88 lbs. Stearic acid 9 lbs. incorporated with 100 lbs. of water with the aid of an emulsifying agent. Glycer l h 50 The treatment of the sheet according to the above lubrication methods, gives it flexibility, resilience and sizing qualities. If desired paraflin ,wax may be added. It will also be appreciated that oil may be used either alone or in the emulsion form.
As has vhereinbefore been pointed out several- ,groups of micro-organisms found in paper mill slimes may be employed and, broadly, any microorganism falling within the three classes enumerated may be employed. Specifically those microorganisms belonging to the genera Oidium and Monilia are the most important. The species found in the paper mill slimes are slimy varieties of Oidium lactis and M o'm'lia. candida.
According to another embodiment of my present invention the slimes collected from the cultures are digested in a 60% zinc chloride solution in water, with moderate heat during which treatment the material becomes very gelatinous and viscous. After digestion for a period up to two hours the viscous mass maybe regenerated by deposition in water to form threads or strands composed of a plurality of filaments, depending upon the type of extrusion device employed. I have found that the conventional type of spinnerette employed in the manufacture of artificial silk thread may be used with satisfactory results. Sheets similar to those previously described may be produced from suspensions of regenerated slime.
After the mass has been extruded into the desired form it is thoroughly washed. Care must be taken to remove all traces of the zinc chloride 5 in order to avoid subsequent deterioration of the finished product. In order to overcome any tendency of the said product to become brittle upon drying it may be subjected to an oil treatment similar to that described in connection with the first embodiment of the invention described above. 1
While I have described my invention with some degree of particularly, I realize that in practice many alterations therein may be made. Thus 15 advantage may be taken of the adhesive and cohesive characteristics of the slime obtained from the cultures to provide an adhesive for use in cementing or binding, either as a mucilaginous surface or an intermediate layer. Moreover material produced by my present invention may be utilized as a filler in the manufacture of paper by adding either the suspension or viscous mass to the paper making process either as an element of the paper furnish or by depositing it on the 2 paper making screen or wire.
It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art to which my invention pertains that many details in the steps of the processes may be modified without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention. I therefore do not purpose limiting the patent granted hereon otherwise than necessitated by the scope of the appended claims which are to be broadly construed. I
What I desire to claim as new is:
1. As a new article. of manufacture a sheet formed from growths formed from slime producing micro-organisms.
2. As a new article of manufacture a sheet formed from growths produced by yeast-like 40 fungi of the genus Oidium.
3. a new article of manufacture a sheet formed-from growths produced by yeast-like fungi of the genus Monilia.
4. As a new article of manufacture a binder comprising an adhesive mass of slime produced from a growth formed by micro-organisms of the slime forming variety.
5. As a new article of manufacture a binder comprising an adhesive mass constituting a growth produced by yeast-like fungi of the Oidium lactis group.
6. A method for the manufacture of sheet material which comprises the steps of treating with water growths produced from cultures of slime forming micro-organisms to form a homogenous suspension, depositing said suspension on a making screen, removing water from said suspension to form a sheet, and thereafter drying said sheet.
7. A method for the manufacture of sheet material which comprises agitating with liquid growths produced from cultures of slime forming micro-organisms to form a homogenous suspension of said growths, depositing said suspension on a making screen, removing liquid therefrom to form a sheet, and thereafter drying said sheet.
8. A methodfor the manufacture of sheet material which comprises agitating with water growths produced from cultures of slime forming micro-organisms, to form a homogenous sus- 7 pension, forming a sheet from said suspension, treating said sheet with a lubricant to impart the desired flexibility thereto and thereafter drying said sheet.
9. A method for the manufacture of material 7 which comprises agitating with an acidic material growths produced from cultures of slime forming micro-organisms, treating the mixture produced by said agitation with water to produce a mass of material and thereafter drying the same.
10. A method for the manufacture of formed material which comprises digesting growths formed from cultures of slime forming microorganisms with a zinc chloride solution to form a viscous mass, and regenerating said mass with water into the desired form.
11. A method for the manufacture of sheet material from growths produced from cultures of slime forming micro-organisms which comprises digesting said growths inform a viscous mass, extruding said mass into water in the form of a sheet, treating said sheet with a lubricant and \thereafter drying the said sheet. 4 12. A method for the manufacture of thread 0 and the like from growths produced from cultures of slime forming micro-organisms, comprises digesting said growths to form a viscous mass, extruding said mass through a thread forming device into a precipitating bath, passing said thread through a lubricating medium and there- 5 after drying said thread.
13. A method for the manufacture of sheet material from growths produced from cultures of slime forming micro-organisms of the genera Oidium, and Monilia, which comprises digesting 10 said growths with a zinc chloride solution to form a viscous mass, extruding said mass in sheet form into a precipitating bath, washing said sheet to remove all traces of the zinc chloride solution and thereafter drying said sheet.
14. As a new article of manufacture for use as a filler in the manufacture of paper, a mass of material produced from growths formed from cultures of slime forming micro-organisms.
JOSEPH RAYMOND SANBORN. no