US 2027882 A
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D. E. Ross 2,027,882 yBUILIJING CONSTRUCTION Jan. 14, 1936.
5 sheets-sheet 2 Filed DeC. '7, 1955 v Jan. 14, 1936. D. E. ROSS BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Dec, 7, 195s A5 Sheets-Sheet 3.
dliozmupl Jan. 14, 1936 D. E. Ross 2,027,882
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION FiledDeo. 7, 1933 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Jan. l@ 1936. DE, R055 2,027,882
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Deo. 7, 1955 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 4 Patented Jan. 14, 1936 UNITED STATES BUILDING CONSTRUCTION David E. Ross, La Fayette, Ind., assignor to Rostone, Incorporated, La Fayette, Ind., a corporation of Indiana Application December 7, 1933, Serial No. 701,380
This invention is an improvement in fabricated buildings; and comprises a novel construction of metal framing, and novel means for attaching exterior wall blocks to such structure, in-
5 cluding weatherproong of the joints; all being so designed and related that an architect can plan buildings of various forms, dimensions, and external appearance and finish based upon the use of such parts;v and such building can then be readily assembled by unskilled labor from stock pre-fabricated parts. architect desires to have some special individual feature of construction incorporated inthe building the pre-fabricated parts can be readily ar- 15 ranged to accommodate such feature.
The parts of the metal framing can be economically fabricated from relatively thin sheet steel. The exterior walls may be formed of pre-molded blocks of stone or other materials, and the interior walls may be formed of wallboard, plywood, or any plane surface material suitable for interior finish, fabricated for attachment to the steel framing.
Other advantages and novel features of the invention are hereinafter referred to; and to facilitate a full understanding of the novelty and utility of the invention I will explain-the same with reference to one practical embodiment thereof illustrated in the accompanying drawings which show the several essential parts and features of construction whereby buildings may be pre-fabricated in accordance with my invention and subsequently readily assembled and erected. In the claims the novel features cf construction and combinations of parts for which protection is desired are summarized.
In said drawings:-
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a portion of a pre-fabricated building constructed in accordance with my invention.
Fig. 2 is a detail side elevation of part of the steel framing of such building.-
Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic sectional plan Vview showing the manner of arranging the stud units in such building.
Fig. 4 is a detail verticall sectional view showing the arrangement of the fioor beams and rafters. i
' Fig. 5 vis a left hand edge View of Fig. 4, and
Fig. 6 is a right hand edge view of Fig. l4.. I v1 Fig. '7' is' an enlarged detail vertical sectional view through a wall of the building.
Figs. `8 and 9 are detail sectional views showing the manner of applying the exterior Wall lblocks to the building.
In cases where the Figs. 10 and 11 are perspective views showing the means for weatherprcong the joints between the exterior blocks.
Fig. 12 is a detail view showing the preferred means for attaching the wall blocks to the stud units.
Fig. 13 is an enlargeddetail transverse section through the wall shown in Fig. 7.
. Fig. 14 is a detail view showing the preferred manner of attaching the stud units to the base channel.
Fig. 15 is a small perspective view of the preformed boxed end of the stud channel.
Fig. 16 is a section through the corner blocks showing theinterior threaded thimbles.
The skeleton metal frame comprises stud units, floor beams, and rafters, which are pre-fabricated of desired dimensions, and readily erected upon base channel irons, and tied by top channel irons. After the stud units are assembled an'd erected, block supporting rails are attached thereto, upon which the exterior wall blocks are mounted. Interior wall supporting devices are also attached to the inner sides of the assembled stud units. The floor beams, and rafters may be attached to the framing before the wall blocks are placed in position.
Each stud unit is preferably constructed of two spaced channel irons l (Figs. 2 and 3) united by metal X-bra'ces la, preferably welded thereto.
These vertical stud units are fabricated from sheet metal and the holes for the connecting bolts are preferably accurately punched therein in the shop. Preferably the stud units are fabricated with the flanges of the channels facing each other and the cross bracing spot welded to the flanges to accurately hold the webs of the channels to a unit dimension.
Bottom channel members I2 are fabricated of sheet metal and provided with properly spaced holes similar to the holes I2h of the upper channel members |2a (Fig. l) for engagement of the stud fastening members. The channel members I2 are laid upon a suitable foundation, and leveled. The vertical stud units I, are set on such channel members at desired intervals and fastened thereto by means of suitable fastenings 1 which are preferably such as shown in my companion application (Metal building construction), Serial No. 675,485 filed June l2, 1933, now Patent No. 1,986,980 issued January 8, 1935.
The lower end of each stud channel I preferably has the web folded inward as at la between the flanges and the flangesv folded under this folded web portion as shown at Ib in Figs. '1,514 and holes I2h similar to the base members I2.
The stud units in each wall are preferably equally spaced apart (except where door or window openings are to be formed) as indicated in Figs. 2 and 3. At the corners of the building the channels I of adjacent stud units will come together with their webs at right angles (Figs. 1 and 3) and the corner channels are preferably fastened together by a vertical angle iron 2'I. At the corners the channel members I2 and I2a may have their flanges cut away, and their webs overlapped and fastened together.
The metal floor beams 25 (Figs. 1 and 4) may be secured to the vertical channels I and the meta1 rafters 30 (Figs. 4-6) are secured to the top channels I2a (Figs. 4 6) preferably by fastenings '1 8 as described and shown in Figs. 5-6 of my' aforesaid Patent No. 1,986,980.
Where door or window openings are to be provided the stud units will be spaced apart the width of the door or Window opening desired. In Figs. 2-3 a door opening D and window opening W are shown. In the space above the door opening may be inserted a small pre-fabricated filler frame unit Id fastened to the adjacent stud units. In the space below the window opening W may be inserted a pre-fabricated filler frame unit Ie (Fig. 2) fastened to the adjacent stud units; and in the space above the 'window opening may beinserted a fabricated filler frame unit If (Fig. 2) fastened to the adjacent stud units. These filler frame units Id, I e, If may be constructed of light sheet metal frames diagonally braced, as indicated. Such ller frames would only be desirable in cases where the openings, as D or W, are of greater width than a stud.
The stud unitsfl1ler frame and channels assembled and erected as above described form a substantial skeleton frame, and to this frame is exteriorly fastened lines of horizontal wall supporting trackage and members 2 spaced at regular intervals throughout the height of the stud umts. These members 2 completely encircle the exterior of the building, and support the exterior wall blocks on the framing.
'I'he 'members 2 arev preferably thin steel bars having their upper portions flared outwardly at,
an angle of about 70 degrees (as shown in Figs. 7-12) and the outer edge of this ared portion is preferably curved downwardly as shown in said figures, and said bars extend across the stud units and the spaces between the stud units, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2, except where window or door openings are provided, and the lower portion of the bar is fastened to the stud channels at their intersections. The bars 2 thus tie and brace the stud units together, and enhance the stability of the framing.
To insure proper strength and yet permit use of light metal the bars are preferably secured to the stud units by fastenings such as shown in Figs. 'l and 12. In such case the flanges of the stud channels are punched with holes surrounded by concavo-convex collars Ib (Fig. 12) and the trackage has similar holes surrounded by collars 2b (Fig. 12), said collars being adapted to nest. The head of the tie bolt 'I fits into the convex side of the collar 2b, and a concaved washer 8 Ais placed on the exterior convex. side of the joint opposite the head of the bolt. When the nut 'Ia is tightened the assembly is drawn close together andthe interengaging concavo-convex collars on the member 2 and stud channel provide a large contact bearing surface between the connected parts which prevents cutting and tearing of the metal by longitudinal strains thereon such as would occur if the contact surface was only the thickness 0f the metal.
In Fig. 12 an insulating wall board 6 is shown as interposed between the member 2 and the stud I, and thereforea spacing washer 4 (equal in thickness to the wall board) is rplaced on the bolt 'I between the concavo-convex collars Ib, 2b. Said washer has a concave recess to fit the collar 2b, and a convex projection to t the collar Ib as shown. Where no wall board is used the metal collars Ib, 2b would nest one in the other, as indicated in Fig. 13.
Connected to the members 2 are thin metal strips 2' which serve both as fasteners and weather seals for the exterior wall blocks B, hereinafter referred to. Each strip 2' is preferably formed of spring metal, such as phosphor bronze or tempered steel. The strips 2' may extend downwardly along the lower legs of the members 2 as indicated in Figs. 11-12, and at the points of connection of the members 2 to the stud units the strips 2' may be also punched to fit the collars 2b; or if desired the inner edgesk of the strip 2' may terminate at the angles formed by the legs of the strips and may be welded to the members 2 as shown in Figs. '7-9 and 12-13 of the drawings.
'I'he outer portion of the strip 2 projects beyond the upper edge of the member 2 and is preferably bent down and into approximately an S-shape as indicated in Figs. '7, 8 and 11; the S-portion of the strip normally depending below the upper edge of the member 2 as shown in said figures.
The exterior walls are preferably formed of blocks of the synthetic material known as Rostone, these blocks are molded of desired thickness and preferably of a Width corresponding to the distance between adjacent rows of members 2, and of a length equal to the width of a stud, and are preferably arranged to break joints as indicated in Fig. 1.
The lower edge of the block B is recessedas shown in Fig. '7, having a downwardly inclined side adapted to rest upon the member 2, and a r front portion extending below the upper part of the member 2 as indicated in Figs. 7 and 11 so as to depress the S-portion o1' the strip 2 and hold it in contact with the upper edges of the adjacent underlying blocks. The upper edge of the block is beveled upwardly at rear so it may be entered under the projecting portion of the upper member 2 (Fig. 7), and the outer part of its upper edge is beveled downwardly, so that when an upper block is positioned above a lower block (see Figs. 7 and 11) the S-portion of strip 2 will be compressed between the acacent edges of the upper and lowerblocks and form a close weather seal therebetween as indicated in Figs. 7 and 11.
Figs. 8 and 9 show the manner of placing the blocks in position. The lower edge of the block is first placed upon a lower member 2, and then its upper edge is swung back under the vupper member 2, while the S-portion of strip 2' (Fig. 9) is raised, and then the strip 2' is pulled down over the projecting edge of the block, Fig. 10, holding the block in place. When the next higher block is set in place, it'presses down upon the S-portion of the strip 2 and forces it to form a tight seal with the top of the molded slab below.
If desired a packing 2p may be inserted below the strip 2 as shown in Fig. 7.
The vertical space between adjacent blocks may be sealed by means of strips 3 inserted in inclined grooves 3' in the ends of the blocks, as shown in Figs. 10-11. The grooves 3' are inclined so that the strips 3 will lie behind strip 2 at the top of the blocks and lie in front of theV strip 2 at the lower edge of the block. The resultant overlapping of they Vertical strips prevents leakage of water at the top and bottom of the vertical joints.
At the corners of the building blocks B (Fig. 1) may be fastened to the stud units I by means of cap screws or bolts 29a extending through holes 29 in the stud channels I and entering into interiorly threaded thimbles 29h in the corner The horizontal joints between blocks B can be sealed with mastic, and the vertical joints can be sealed by strips 3 as explained above. The insulating strip 3 may be covered with plastic material if desired to prevent moisture from traversing it by capillary attraction.
The wall thus constructed forms an outer or storm cover of the house of a stone material in which no two stones physically touch each other with the resilient intervening media stopping outer atmospheric and moisture transmission and having all the appearance of perfect masonry.
'I'he adjacent blocks set as described need not touch, and in case of any Wind stresses, earthf quake stresses or other disturbing agencies, one
' `forming the storm coat or the interior panel block will not break the adjacent block due to the resiliency of the intervening strip 3.
The interior walls may be formed of blocks I I of any suitable material and provided with fasteners 9a adapted to engage channel bars 9 secured to the inside flanges of the stud units as indicated in Figs. 7 and 13. The interior Walls are preferably formed and attached to the metal framing as shown and described in companion application of Ross and Alt led January 13, 1934, Serial No. 706,548 and therefore do not needto be' further explained herein.
The dimensions of the preformed stud units and filler frame units being known by the architect he can plan a house accordingly and with such plan in order to make the house assembly it is only necessary to pick out the proper combinations from stock.
The pairs of studs fabricated and held together by diagonal strips become, in effect, unit increments within a building frame. Therefore a total frame so constructed will resist horizontal stresses, due to the diagonal bracing within the increment, and can have movements in opposite' vertical directions simultaneously due to the flexing of the horizontal strips. The individual blocks supported on the frame, in case of earthquake or in case of settling of the wall foundation, may breathe (i. e., shift) each with respect to the other and in the same or opposite directions and yet not aifect the next adjoining unit. And since the outer storm .coating is put on by increments with resilience and each increment not touching the other, movement withinthe limits may occur without crushing of any of the blocks finish. Each block` is free to shift and yet not break the weather seal between joints. This freedom of movement is permissible in my design where each. block is supported by the horizontal members 2. The block at the base of the wall does not have ,to carry the load of the blocks above it.' In other words my blocks are not set up as in a masonry wall where each block is under` to be left in the wall.
compression and is bonded to the adjacent block4 with mortar so that it cannot move individually and is prevented from breathing. With my blocks mounted so as to be free to breathe, cracking of walls can be eliminated; andas the joints open and close the resilient nature of the material used in the joints will maintain a seal against the elements.
The invention provides a flexing frame covered by an outer'storm coat with the blocks breathing with respect to each other; and finished with inner panelling, according to the architects desire, but slipping with respect to each other; with intervening planes of insulation to break up conductivity and loss of heat; forming a structure to resist horizontal stresses produced by earthquakes, and which will not rupture if any given increment is distorted.
1. Structural framing for buildings; comprising a plurality of pre-fabricated spaced vertical wall stud units, each comprising two parallel spaced channel irons and metal X-braces interposed between and rigidly secured to the said irons; and a plurality of parallel wall-block-supporting members attached 'to and extending across the said units and the spaces between adjacent units except where openings are to be provided. n
2. In framing as set forth in claim 1, fabricated fller frames inserted between the stud units at opposite sides of the door or window openings, said block supporting members extending across said filler frames.
3. In combination with framing as set forth in claim 1, wall blocks supported upon one wall supporting member, and means to hold the upper ends of the blocks in position under the nex 'overlying wall supporting member.
4. Structural framing for buildings; comprising a plurality of pre-fabricated vertical wall stud units, each comprising spaced oppositely facing vertical channel irons and metal brace members welded to and between said irons; a'bottorn channel member upon which the stud units are mounted; and wall-block-supporting-members attached to and extending across the studunits and the spaces between adjacent stud units except where openings are to be provided; said supporting members comprising thin steel bars having their upper portions flared outwardly and upwardly to support the overlying blocks.
5. In combination with framing as set forth in claim 4, fabricated filler frames inserted between the stud units on opposite sides of the openings, said block supporting members extending across said ller frames.
6. In combination with framing as set forth in claim 4, exterior wall blocks supported upon a lower wall supporting member, and means attached to the adjacent overlying wall supporting member to hold the upper ends of the blocks in position thereunder.
7. Structural framing for buildings comprising a plurality of fabricated stud units each comprising spaced vertical channel irons having their flanges facing and interposed metal X-bracs welded to the flanges, a bottom channel member upon which the stud units are mounted, a top channel memberconnecting theupper ends of the` stud units, and wall block supporting members attached to the exterior faces of the stud units, said members extending across thespaces between adjacent studs except where openings are 8. In combination with framing as set forth in claim 7, exterior wall blocks supported upon an underlying wall supporting member and resilient strips attached to the next overlying wall supporting member to hold the upper ends of the blocks in position thereunder.
9. A building of the character specied comprising, framing; a series of parallel horizontally disposed thin steel bars attached to the framing and having their upper portions flared outwardly and upwardly to support overlying wall blocks; wall blocks having their lower edges supported upon lower bars and their upper ends entered under the next adjacent superposed bar; and resilient strips attached to the superposed bar and adapted to engage the upper edge of the underlying block and retain it in place.
10. In a building as set forth in claim 9, a resilient strip having a downwardly extending S- portion adapted to be compressed upon the upper edge of a lower block by a superposed block to hold the lower block and also form a weatherproof joint between such blocks.
11. Framing for building comprising a plurality of fabricated spaced vertical studs and a series of parallel wall block supporting members attached to the said studs, and extending across the studs and the spaces between studs, except where openings are to be provided, with blocks.
having their lower edges supported upon one member and their upper ends entered under the superposed member and means on the latter member adapted to hold the block in position, said means comprising a spring strip adapted to be compressed upon the upper edge of the lower block by the superposed block and form a weatherproof joint between such blocks.
12. In combination, a block supporting member having a lower portion adapted to be attached to the framing of a building and an upper portion projecting outwardly at an angle; and a building block having a bevel inner portion on its lower edge adapted to rest upon the projecting portion of said member and a front portion depending below the said projecting portion of the supporting member and a resilient strip attached to the upper member and normally depending below the outer edge of the upper portion thereof to engage the upper edge of the block and retain it in position.
13. For a building,` a block supporting member having its lower portion adapted to be attached to the framing of a building and its upper portion projecting outwardly at an angle, and a resilient locking strip attached` to the member and depending below the outer edg`e of said upper portion thereof, and adapted to be yieldably raised above the outer edge of said upper portion.
14. In combination, block supporting members attached in parallel alignment to the frame of a building, each member having a lower portion secured to the frame and an upwardly and outwardly inclined upper portion, resilient locking strips attached to the member and depending below the outer edges of the inclined portions of the member; and wall blocks each having a. rear downwardly inclined portion on its lower edge adapted to rest upon the upper portion of a supporting member, and a front portion depending below the said downwardly inclined portion of said member, the upper edge of said block being inserted under the -projecting portion of the overlying supporting member, and retained by the strip thereon.
115.In combination, block supporting members attached in parallel alignment to the frame of a building, each member having a lower portion secured to the frame and an upwardly and outwardly inclined upper portion, resilient locking strips attached to the member and depending below the outer edges of the inclined portions oi the member; and wall blocks each having a rear downwardly inclined portion on its lower edge adapted to rest upon the upper portion of a supporting member, and a front portion depending below the upper portion of said member; said block also having a downwardly inclined portion on its upper edge adapted to be inserted under the projecting portion of the overlying supporting member and engaged by the locking strip and having a front downwardly extending portion on its upper edge against which the projecting part of said locking strip is depressed by a superposed block resting upon said upper supporting member.
16. In combination, parallel block supporting members each having an outwardly and upwardly inclined portion; and wall blocks each having a rear inclined portion on its lower edge, adapted to rest upon the upper portion of an underlying supporting member, and a front portion depending below the rear inclined portion of said member, said block also having a downwardly inclined inner portion on its upper edge adapted to be inserted under the projecting portion of the overlying supporting member and a front downwardly extending portion on its upper edge in front of the adjacent inner portion.
17. In metal framing for building, a preformed box-ended channel iron stud having the end portion of its web cut from the flanges and turned inwardly between the anges, and the adjacent end portions ot its flanges turned inwardly and overlapping the said inturned web end portion `to form a bearing surface for the stud.
18. Structural framing for buildings; comprising a plurality of pre-fabricated spaced vertical stud units, and a series of parallel wallblock-supporting-members attached to the said stud units, and extending across the stud units and the spaces between such units except where openings are to be provided, said supporting members comprising thin steel bars having their upper portions iiared outwardly and upwardly to support overlying wall blocks; wall blocks having their lower edges engaged with and supported upon one member and their upper edges entered under the next adjacent superposed member; and resilient strips on the latter member adapted to hold the upper edges of the blocks in position.
19. Structural framing for buildings; comprising a plurality of pre-fabricated spaced vertical stud units; a series ofparallel wall-blocksupporting-members attached to the said stud units, and extending across the units and the spaces between the units except where openings are to be provided; said supporting members comprising thin steel bars. having their upper portions flared outwardly and upwardly to support overlying blocks; blocks having grooves in their ends, and their lower edges engaged with and supported upon one member and their upper ends entered under the adjacent superposed member; a resilient strip on the latter member adapted to hold the blocks in position; and strips inserted in the grooves in the ends ofadjacent blocks.
20. In combination; a wall block supporting member having a lower portion adapted to be attached to the framing of a building 'and an upper portion projecting outwardly at an angle; and a wall block having a. beveled recess in its lower rear edge adapted to engage and rest upon the projecting portion of said member and having a. front portion depending vbelow the said projecting portion of the supporting member.
21. For a. building, a block supporting member having a. portion adapted to 4be attached to the framingof the building and an extending portion projecting outwardly at an angle, and separate locking means attachable to thev extend'- ing portion and depending below the outer edge of the extending portion; said locking means 5 .being adapted to hold the underlying wall block in position.
DAVID E. ROSS.