US 2028967 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jam., 28, i936. CARLSTRQM 2,028,967
LINING FOR VESSELS Filed June 17, 1932 13 d( INVENTOR BY gawd/jf MQ ATroRNEY l Flea.
Patented Jan. 28, 1936 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE The Texas Company, ration of Delaware Application June 17,
This invention relates to interior linings for the protection of vessels in which the treatment of materials corrosive to the walls thereof may be carried on, and refers particularly to the lining of ordinary steel vessels used in the pressure cracking of hydrocarbon oil.
In the pressure cracking of petroleum fractions corrosive compounds are encountered or are developed in the decomposition process which atl tack the steel walls of the vessels in which the treatment is being carried on, which has the effect of deteriorating or corroding away the metal very rapidly.
In practice the shells of vessels of this class l5 are fabricated of much heavier material than is necessary merely to withstand the temperatures and pressures ordinarily employed, for the reason that in the course of operation the interior surfaces of the Walls are deteriorated to such an extent that their strength is materially impaired. Accordingly it has been necessary to allow for a certain amount'of deterioration by making the Walls of extra thickness. It will be seen that the expense of constructing large vessels is multiplied rapidly as the thickness of the shells is increased. It is therefore of advantage to provide an effective lining which is not corrosive to those constituents which attack a vessel and is adapted to protect the interior surface of a Vessel, and which may be readily repaired or removed from and replaced in the vessel.
In instances where the coeicient of expansion of the lining material is less than that of the vessel, the Vessel has a tendency to expand away from it in which event the lining, not being strong enough to withstand the pressure usually employed, may rupture or may be permanently expanded by the force of the pressure to a larger size and buckle when the temperature is next lowered to atmospheric. On the other hand where the coeiiicient of expansion of the lining is greater than that of the vessel it will have a tendency to bulge and buckle when the temperature is raised, in which event the lining may eventually rupture at the point of buckling.
I have discovered that in the pressure cracking of hydrocarbon oil it is not necessary to completely isolate the walls of the vessel from the inclosed oil or vapor and that moreover if certain of the products of reaction such as carbon or coky particles are permitted or added to deposit on the surface thereof they may form a protective coating which is itself resistant to corrosion. I have further discovered that corrosion often proceeds most rapidly from the clean surface of a New York, N. Y., a corpo- 1932, Serial No. 617,833
metal and that certain of the forming suldes and other corrosion products may themselves, as a coating, be a protection against more advanced or continued corrosion of the steel walls. It is noted, however, that in the vapor space of cracking vessels, where corrosion is more pronounced, the walls of the vessel are normally swept relatively clean of any protecting film such as coke and that any protection against corrosion which would otherwise be afforded by deposits of coke or of corrosion products, such as sulfides, is thereby continuously destroyed.
The invention contemplates a relatively thin lining formed of a plurality of sections of noncorrosive sheet metal which is adapted to fully cover and protect the surface or portions thereof of the vessel to which it may be applied. The sections comprising the lining overlap thereby forming a continuous lining surrounding the interior wall of the vessel. The invention includes novel means for securing the protecting plates to the inner wall of the vessel which will permit the individual sections of the lining to expand or contract freely with changes in temperature independent of the wall of the vessel and which will also permit inexpensive installation or removal of the lining.
It is not necessary in all instances to line an entire vessel as frequently the portion occupied by the liquid is not subject to the severe corrosive conditions as is the portion occupied by the vapor. Accordingly the present description concerns specifically a partially lined vessel, although if desired the entire vessel may be lined.
An object of this invention is to provide a corrosive resistant liner adapted to contract and expand freely.
Another object of this invention is to provide a corrosive resistant lining made up of a plurality of independent sections, each of which is adapted to contract and expand freely.
The invention will be more fully understood by referring to the following description and the accompanying drawing in which:
Fig. 1 is a view in sectional elevation of a portion of a partially lined vessel showing a preferred embodiment of my invention.
Fig. 2 is an enlarged view in sectional elevation of the means for supporting the dome lining plates at their lower ends and the means for bracing the upper portion of the top row of wall lining plates.
Fig. 3 is an enlarged view in sectional elevation of the means for supporting the top row of wall lining plates at their lower ends and the means for Vsecuring the upper ends of the next lower row oi wall lining plates.
Fig. 4 is an enlarged view'taken on the line 4 4 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 5 is a view in elevation of a typical clip which secures the lining plates to each other.
Figq is a View in elevation of a typical clip which secures the last lining plate to be installed in each row.
Referring now to Fig. 1, an upper section of a vertical cylindrical vessel having a convex end or dome is illustrated which may be used in the pressure cracking oi' hydrocarbon oil. The appa= ratus shown is intended to be that portion of a vertical expansion chamber which is situated above a level of liquid carried in the vessel, which is usually1 referred to as the vapor space and in which the corrosive action of the existing vapors is especially pronounced. That portion of the vessel shown comprises a shell portion I, a manway 2, a'pipekconnection 3, a vapor outlet pipe l and the lining.
While I have shown a vertical cylindrical vessely having a convex end, it is to be clearly understood that my invention is not limited to a vessel shaped in this manner. The vessel maybe of any shape and may bepositioned in a horizontal or slanting position, if desired, without departing from the scope or" my invention.
` According to the invention the lining may include one or more circumferential rows of rectangular plate sections I0, depending upon the vertical dimension of the shell portion to be lined, and a top circumferential row of rectangular plate sections I. The plate sections l0 and II are individually rolled to t the curvature of the shell and the adjacent Vertical edges of the plates may overlap, as at I2, and the overlapping plates may be snugly secured at any desiredvertical intervals by rmetal clips -I3 which are preferably fastened to the covered edge of each plate.
Referring to Fig. E, a circular angle bar I'l,
which may be made up of arcuate sections ofv mild steel, is preferably welded at its lower eX- tremity to the shell I for supporting the plates I0. A circular flat bar I8 which may be in several arcuate sections to form a circular member is welded to the upper side of the horizontal extension of the angle I'I in spaced relation to the shell I for slidably securing the lower ends of and supporting the plates II. A sectional flat bar similar to the bar I8, may be welded to the lower side of the horizontal extension of the angle' I1 for slidablyv securing the upper ends of the plates A circular angle bar I5 may be welded to the shell I in a manner similar to the; angle bar I'I i and a circular flat bar It may bewelded to the upper side of the horizontal Yextension of the angle bar I5 for securing the lower ends ofV and supporting the plates Ill ina manner similar to shell.
Segmental dome plates 25, the adj acentedges of which overlap, as at 2S, are provided to form a lining for the convex end of the vessel. The dome plates may be supported at their lower or ilaring ends by a plurality of clips Zlwhich are fastened to the plates l I above the clips 2Q. At the center point at the top or the dome, a disc-like plate 28 upper or tapering ends of the dome plates 25V closely, but slidably against the dome.
A lining is provided for the manway 2 comprising a thimble or sleeve 39 which may be se-V cured therein by welding Ythe'outer end to the neck of the manway, as at 3l, and providing a iiange or extension 32 adapted to overlap the lining plates.
The pipe oonneotion 3, which in mostY cases is provided for communication to an adjoining vessel, may preferably be lined from one vessel through tothe other. The lining consists of a sleeve 35 of such length as Vto project slightly past the inwardly protruding end of the connection 3. A disc-like plate member 36, whose surface is compressed to form a circular concavity between the end of the pipe lining and the vessel lining, is welded at its inner edge to the enc` of the pipe lining, as at 31, and its peripheral edge presses against the vessel lining thus serving to protect the end of the pipe connection where it is welded to the wall oi the'vessel.
In assembling the lining herein shown and described, the angle bars I5 and I'I are preferably rst welded to the shell and. the sectionsof the bars i5, i8 and I9 are then welded to the angle bars. The plates I0 Vare next placed in position by forcing them upward behind the nat bar I9, which may be of greater width than the iiat bar I6, and then dropping them behind the fiat bar IS to rest on the angle bar E5. The several plate sections are successively adjusted in Vplace to' co-V operate with the previously placed plates by advancing the edges of the ones over the edges of rthe others in cooperative relationship with the.
clips I3 of t'ne previously placed adjacent sections. Referring to Figs. 4 and 6, it will be noticed that the clips of the last plate to be installed may be rotated to one side with the single rivet or screw being left somewhat loose, until after the plate has been properly adjusted to position when they are returned to a position to clasp the overlapping edge of the adjacent plate and hammered orL bars I5 and I1, respectively, to thus' secure the plates I0 in proper relation to each other and to the vessel wall. Similarly in taking the lining apart sections Yof the bars I6 and VI9 may first" be removed after which the plate sections I 0 may be withdrawn.
The plate sections II are placed and adjusted in somewhat the same manner as the sections I0 except the sections II are merely set in at their lower ends between the bar I8 and the wall and adjusted with relation to each other while being supported upon the angle l1. As twoY or three sections II are placed and adjusted, an arcuate section of the circular flat bar 2| is dropped into the clips 20 toV secure theV plates in place. When all of the plates II are placed and adjusted the several sections of the bar 2l are adjusted and welded together, the circular bar when complete being of such size Vas to secure the ally, between the bar ZI andthe wall.
plates ratherV closely, though movable later-y The segmental dome plate sections 25 are next placed and adjusted, the circular plate 28 having been welded to the inwardly protruding vapor pipe 4 in appropriately spaced relationship to the dome. The tapering ends of the plate sections 25 are advanced upwardly far enough between the plate 25 and the dome for the ared ends of the plates 25 to clear the top of the supporting clips 21 and are then dropped down to rest upon the shoulders of the clips next to the plate sections Il. The successively placed plates 25 are moved laterally, when placed, to effect a sufficient overlapping of the adjacent edges. As a rule there is no vibration or sudden movement of vessels such as the one for which this lining is provided and as ample support is had at the flaring and tapering ends of the segmental plates, it is not deemed necessary to tie them together.
It will be seen that a lining has herein been provided which is not bonded to the shell at any point and which may expand and contract freely with changes in the temperature of the vessel. A lining is further provided which is constructed of a plurality of sections adapted to be readily removed from and replaced in the Vessel as required. Moreover if desirable the lining may be extended throughout the entire vessel.
Because of these several structural novelties it is possible to use a chrome-steel alloy or a chrome-nickel-steel alloy or any other suitable metal or alloy whose coefficient of expansion is greater or less than that of steel and which is resistant to corrosion. For example, when applying the present invention it is possible to use an alloy of 18% chromium 8% nickel and 74% steel, commonly known as stainless steel, which is almost entirely resistant to corrosion by the compounds which are present in the ordinary run of petroleum or which may increase or develop in it in the cracking step, and whose coefficient of expansion is approximately 50% greater than steel.
From the foregoing, it will be seen that my novel type of lining may be applied to either new or old vessels. If the lining is used in conjunction with a new vessel, it will be unnecessary to make the vessel of extra thickness merely for the purpose of taking care of subsequent corrosion. Moreover, if a vessel has been in use for a period of time sufficient to corrode the interior thereof to such an extent that any extended future use would further corrode same and make it unsafe, my corrosive resistant liner may be installed and the vessel operated safely.
The various angle bars, clips and arcuate bars may be made from the same metal or metal alloy as the sections comprising the lining. By following this selection, the various parts for securing the lining in place will resist corrosion to the same extent as the metal or metal alloy of the lining and consequently will not have to be replaced when the lining itself is otherwise satisfactory.
While I have shown and described an interior lining for a vessel used in the cracking of hydrocarbon oils, it is to be clearly understood that my invention is not limited to this type of vessel. Obviously the invention is applicable to any type of vessel in which a liner is desirable whose coefficient of expansion may be greater or less than that of the vessel itself and may or may not be resistant to corrosion. Moreover, my invention is not limited to a vessel of ordinary steel as any metal or metal alloy of sufficient strength may be used to construct the vessel.
Obviously many modifications and variations of the invention as hereinbefore set forth, may be made, without departing from the spirit and scope thereof, and therefore, only such limitations should be imposed as are indicated in the appended claims.
l. A vessel adapted to contain corrosive agents comprising a cylindrical hollow metal body having end enclosures forming a closed chamber, tubular connections communicating with the interior of said chamber, a plurality of metal sheets arranged Circurnferentially about alongitudinal section of the chamber wall and adapted to form a lining therefor, an annular bracket extending around the interior wall of said vessel, means securing said bracket to said wall, a vertically extending flange on said bracket spaced from the wall of said vessel to form an annular upwardly extending recess adapted to receive the One end of said metal sheets, a metal ring encircling the opposite end of said liner sheets interiorly thereof, means secured to said liner sheets for supporting said ring, and means interlocking adjacent longitudinal edges of said metal sheets to maintain said sheets in circumferential alignment.
2. A metal vessel adapted for use in the conversion treatment of hydrocarbon oils comprising cylindrical side walls and end walls forming an enclosed chmber, tubular connections communicating with said chamber, a plurality of metal sheets arranged circurnferentially about a longitudinal section cf said chamber and forining a lining therefor, an annular bracket secured to the wall of said chamber at .one end of the longitudinal section, a longitudinally extending flange on said bracket spaced from said chamber wall and cooperating therewith to form an annular recess adapted to receive one end of said liner sheets, means at the opposite end of said liner sheets for holding said liner sheets in transverse alignment aga-inst the wall of said chamber, and means including latches for interlocking adjacent longitudinal edges of said liner sheets.
3. A metal vessel adapted for use in the conversion treatment of hydrocarbon oils comprising cylindrical side walls and end walls forming an enclosed chamber, tubular connections communicating with said chamber, a plurality of liner sheets arranged circumferentially about a longitudinal section of said chamber wall and adapted to form a liner therefor, a plurality of metal sheets forming a lining for one of said end Walls having longitudinal edges converging toward the center of said end wall, an annular bracket secured to the interior wall of said chamber at the lower end of said longitudinal section, an upwardly extending annular flange on said bracket spaced from said chamber wall and cooperating therewith to form an annular longitudinally extending recess adapted to receive one end of each of said first mentioned liner sheets, a metal ring encircling said first mentioned metal sheets adjacent the opposite end thereof, means secured to said first named liner sheets for retaining said ring in position, means including latches for interlocking adjacent longitudinal edges of said first named liner sheets, means secured to said first named liner sheets for supporting the lower ends of said second named liner sheets, a central plate overlapping the converged ends of said last named liner convex end, an interior lining comprising a plurality of rectangular plate sections arranged in horizontal rows to surround the interior of the vessel, each of said sections having vertical and horizontal edges, the vertical edges overlapping .and secured together, circular angle bars secured tothe interior of the vessel for supporting the rectangular plate Vsections at the lower ends thereof, circular iiat bars secured to said angle Vbars for loosely maintaining the rectangular plate section in position at the upper and lower ends thereof and permitting expansion and contraction independently of the vessel, segmental plate sections adapted to form a lining for the convex end, each of said plate sections having a ilaring end and a tapering end, the aring ends being supported by vclips attached to the upper portion of the upper row of rectangular plate sections and the tapering end being secured by a circular plate secured at the center point of the convex end. Y
5. In a vertical cylindrical vessel having a convex end, an interior lining comprising a plurality of rectangular plate sections arranged in horizontal rows to surround the interior of the vessel, each of said sections having vertical and horizontal edges, each section overlapping at its vertical edges, clips attached to each rectangular section near one of its vertical edges adapted to clasp the overlapping edge of the adjacent plate section when assembled, circular angle bars secured to the interior of the vessel for supporting the rectangularplate sections at the lower ends thereof, circular iiat bars secured to said angle bars for loosely maintaining Ythe rectangular plate sections in position at the upper and lower ends thereof and permitting expansion and connear their tapering ends.
traction independently of the vessel, segmental plate -sections adapted to form a lining for the convex end, each of said plate sections having a flaring end and a tapering end, the ilaring ends being supported by clips attached to the upper portion of the upper row of rectangular plate sections and the tapering end being secured by a circular plate secured at the center point of the convex end. Y
6. In a vertical cylindrical vessel having a con- Vex end, an interior lining comprising a plurality of rectangular plate Sections arranged in horizontal rows Vto surround the interior of the vessel, each of said sections having vertical and horizontal edges, each section overlapping at its vertical edgefclips attached to each rectangular section Lnear one of its vertical edges adapted to clasp the overlapping edge of the adjacent plate section when assembled. circular angle bars secured to the interior of the vessel for supporting the rectangular plate sections at the lower ends thereof, circular ilat bars secured tothe angle bars for maintaining the rectangular plate sections in position at therupper and lower ends thereof and permitting expansion and contraction independently of the vessel, segmental plate sections adapted to form a lining for the convex end having overlapping adjacent edges, and flaring and tapering ends, clips attached near the upper ends of the rectangular sections in the upper horizontal rowv adapted to loosely clasp and support the segmental plates at the ilaring ends, a circular at bar retaining the upper row of rectangular sections in alignment with the interior of the vessel, clips attached above the iirst mentioned clips for supporting the flat bar, and a circular plate secured at the center point of the. dome for securing the segmental plates JOHN CARLSTRCM.