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Publication numberUS2029131 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 28, 1936
Filing dateMay 27, 1931
Priority dateMay 27, 1931
Publication numberUS 2029131 A, US 2029131A, US-A-2029131, US2029131 A, US2029131A
InventorsMilton J Shoemaker
Original AssigneeCarbide & Carbon Chem Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Wrapper of transparent or ornamental character and method of making the same
US 2029131 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan- 28, 1936 M. J. sHoEMAKL-:R 2,029,131

WRAPPER OF TRANSPARENT OR ORNAMENTAL CHARACTER AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed May 27, 1931 Patented Jan. 28, 1936 WRAPPER OF TRANSPARENT OB ORNA- MENTAL CHARACTER AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Milton J. Shoemaker, Madison, Wis., assignor, by mesne assignments, to Carbide and Carbon Chemicals Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application May 27, 1931, serial No. 540,375

1s claims. (01.93-2) This invention relates to wrappers, of transparent or ornamental character, adapted to be applied to articles of commerce or containers therefor, and to the method of preparing and applying such wrappers. The wrappers may completely or partially enclose the article to be wrapped. A particular application of the invention is in the form of a new type of wrapper for covering or sealing closures for containers, es-

pecially bottles, jars, cans and the like. The closures may be in the forms of corks, rubber or other Stoppers, screw tops, snap tops, pressed tops, and the like.

It is an object of the invention to provide a wrapper for containers and closures and other objects which may be applied in moist sheet or strip form and which shrinks upon drying to form a. tight-fitting, smooth, glossy and attractive cover- 111g.

u Another object of the invention is to provide a wrapper of this character in which the inherent a. adhesive properties-of the wet sheet are sufcient to hold the overlapping portions together against the shrinking forces exerted.

5 It is a further object of the invention to provide a wrapper for containers and closures which cannot be removed without causing permanent, readily noticeable injury or defacement, thereby aiiording assurance to the user-that the closure :3Q has not been tampered with and the container has not been opened.

It is a further object to provide wrappers for the closures of bottles, jars, cans and other containers of transparent or ornamental character 3., in a manner such that pre-molding is not required.

It is a further object to provide a Wrapper for container closures which is more simple to manufacture and to apply than present known per- 1.) ormed bottle caps or wrappers of similar charac- An additional object is to provide a wrapper for containers or closures, which is considerably thinner than previously known wrappers for similar purposes, with the advantages that less material is required and also less time, heat, air circulation, etc., in the drying operation.

Other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent as the following description progresses, which is to be considered in conjunction with the exemplary embodiments of the invention shown in the accompanying drawing wherein:

Fig. l is a front elevation of a bottle top showing the conditions which obtain immediately after a stripof transparent film material is applied in moist condition to a bottle closure in accordance with my invention;

Fig. 2 is a similar view showing the conditions which obtain after the material has lost part of its contained water and has undergone partial shrinkage;

Fig. 3 is a similar view showing the wrapper after it has shrunk to its -nal proportions;

Fig. 4 is a top view of the portion of the bottle with the closure and wrapper which is shown in Fig. 3;

Fig. 5- is an end view, in perspective, of an article like an ordinary box which is being enclosed in a sheet of moist transparent hlm material, showing the folding of the edges thereof;

Fig. 6 is a similar view showing the edges after they are folded in place;

Fig. 7 is a front view of the same article after the transparent sheet has dried and shrunk upon it.

In the first four gures the dotted lines do not necessarily represent hidden lines but merely lines which are not upon the exposed surface.

Briefly, my invention comprises wrapping the article, or portion thereof or closure therefor which it is desired to seal or cover, with moist, distended lm material in sheet form. In this connection the term sheet is used to include the different shapes the sheet may take, such as strips, ribbons, etc. The material preferably is arranged so that portions overlap and the overlapping portions are pressed together. It is then dried in air or in a suitable dryer and the shrinkage which accompanies the drying operation cases it to draw up very tightly against the adjacent surface of the enclosed object. Under proper conditions the material adheres to itself permanently at the overlapping portions to form a tight joint or seal without the use of special adhesive, and it also adheres to the adjacent surface of the object. The material used may be a cellulosic material having transparent lxn forming properties, such as many cellulose materials are known to possess. By cellulosic material is meant cellulose or a compound thereof. Other materials may be used, however, as will be more fully explained thereinafter.

One of the preferred lm forming materials is a hydroxyalphyl ether of cellulose, prepared as described in the pending application of A. W. Schorger, Serial No. 477,752, filed August 25, 1930, now Patent 1,863,208 issued June 14, 1932. Briefly, the ether is prepared by subjecting soda cellulose to the action of an olefine oxide. The 55 oxides at the lower end of the series especially those of ethylene and propylene produce the most practical cellulose derivatives. ViOf these the oxide of ethylene is preferred, because it is now more available commercially and is the cheaper of the two. The corresponding chlorhydrins may be used in place of the oxides. Glycerol 'monochlerhydrin may also beA used.

When ethylene oxide or ethylene chlorhydrin is used it is preferable to keep the ethylene oxide content of the nal product below about 20% of the cellulose used. YSuch ethers are cheaper because of their relativ-ely high cellulose content, are tougher, stronger, and more iiexible, are more resistant chemically, are easier to handle, are insoluble in water, have a more limited solubility in caustic soda solutions, that is, they are soluble in dilute solutions and substantially insoluble in concentrated solutions and are practically insoluble in caustic potash solutions. Ethers containing more than 20 per cent ethylene oxide are more or less water soluble, the solubility increasing as the loxide content increases. Contrblled wat-'er solubility may be obtained by mixing definite proportions of the water insoluble and @vater soluble ethers.

The cellulose raw material, hereinafter called cellulose, is mercerized in a caustie alkali solution which is preferably substantially less than 50% caustic soda. After mercerization is complete, excess caustic soda solution eliminated as by pressing, and ethylene oxide is brought' into intimate contact with thellwet alkali cellulose. The reaction is stopped when the desired amount of ethylene oxide, usually about from 7 to 20 per cent, has been absorbed by the alkali cellulose. I prefer to'use about 12% ethylene oxide, based upon the weight ofV cellulose employed.

The product Whieh probably is an impure hydroxy-alphyl ether fof cellulose maybe dissolved in a dilute caustic soda solution. My preferred concentration for a solvent is about 61/2% caustic soda. The preferred ether concentration in the solution is from 6 te 7 per cent, butthis may be varied if desirable. With ethers containing more than aboutf12% added oxide, solution is usually substantialiy complete but if small amounts of insoluble matter are present the solution may be filtered to render it'clear. Because of thefhigh viscosity of the solutions theiiiltering operation is tedious and often unsatisfactory and I prefer to subiect the solutionVV to a freezing operation described in A. W. Schorger Patent 1,941,277, issued December 26, 1933, based on application Serial No. 475251 filed August 14, 1930, to render soluble the insoluble matter. With ethers made with less than about 12% added oxide this freezing operation is usually used because of the increasing amounts of insoluble cellulosie matter that may be present.

The unfrozen or the re-melted frozen solution may be extruded through suitable dies into a coagulating bath similar to that use d in the viscose cellulose art. The material sets into a transparent non-fibrous fiexible'solid body. For the purposes of this invention the film or continuous sheet form of the material is used. The term film is used in the sense which excludes the filamentary form. After leaving the coagulating bath, the film may be run through one or more washing baths. The last washing bath may contain an agent for increasing the flexibility of the film, for instance, about 10 per cent glycerine. There may also be incorporated in the last bath a small proportion of a preservative, for instance. about 1% formaldehyde.

If it is desired that the nlm be opaque, a small proportion'of a powdered pigment may be included in the solution ci the cellulose ether in caustic soda. Pleasing eii'ects may be obtained by incorporatingsmall amounts, as low as a few per cent, of metallic ppwder, such as bronze powder, in the ether solution. If a colored film is desired any agiiline dye which is suitable for dying viscose cellulose may be used.

In the foregoing and in the appended claims I have used the term alphyl as indicating a radical of the aliphatic series inasmuch as the term alky which is sometimes used to make this distinct reference is frequently indicative of both aliphatic ,and aromatic radicals. The term a1- phy isf specific to the aliphatic series in the same manner as aryl is specific to the aromatic series. See Richters Organic Chemistry, Vol. 1, page 43, first English Edition 1916. I

f To utilize the film for the purpose set forth in this application the Wet films which has been washed preferably is wound upon a reel er spool until a roll of sumcient size is obtained, a diameter of 6 to 10 inches being convenient. It is then enclosed in a. water repellant Wrapper or container', or placed in a moisture proof compartment. Here a small amount of water drains from thermaterial. After this excess Water has drained, the operation usually not requiring more than three or four days, the roll may be subdivided into rolls or discs of narrower Widths if that is desirable. This may be do'ne readily by means of any sharp-edged instrument, such as a knife, the material submitting to such cutting more readily when in this Wet compact condition than when dry pr when freshly formed. The reel upon which the material is rolled may be cut as well as the lni so that the out section of the reel may serve as a core to be Vmounted on a shaft for; unwinding. The reels are usually of bre board such as cardboard, which has been renderedVV water-resistant and which readily permits of eutting along with the film material. The rcils may be of any desired Width and. the inoist film material, in continuous sheetor ribnon form, is now ready for use in wrapping articles and container closures. If such operations are not to follow immediately, the rolls should be `placed in moisture-proof inclosures whieh may be in the'form of containers or compartments or moisture-proof paper wrappers and stored until needed. YAll of the water need not be retained but it is essential for satisfactery results that the material should contain at least 30 per cent water at the time it is applied as a wrapper. One of the distinct and novel advantages of my invention lies in the fact,mentioned above, that the wrapping material may be stored and shipped in moist condition within Watergproof Wrappers or containers or compartments as described above and can be preserved indefinitely in such condition. The material, preferably in roll form, may be stored, shipped and marketed as a useful article of commerce, to be applied by the user.

The formation of the material into closure wrappers for containers such as a, bottle 9 in Fig. 1, be described first. A length of the moist ribbon-like product somewhat greater than that required to encircle the top of the container` closure is severed from a roll of the material. The severed strip is then rolled smoothly in lateral cylindrical encircling relation upon the container closure with the end portions overlapping. The top edge portion may extend above the closure and the bottom edge portion may extend .belowthe closure and encircle the adjacent portion of the containen The material is elastic and irregular contours are easily accommodated. The overlapping portions then are pressed together with normal pressure of the thumb or finger or the container may be grasped in the hand and the overlapping portions pressed against a resilient surface, such as a felt pad. The pressure need be only such a medium pressure as lends itself to convenient rapid operation. These operations may, of course, be done automatically.

Fig. 1 represents conditions which obtain immediately after the strip material I0, hereinafter called the wrapper for simplicity, has been applied to the closure II of the container 9. It encircles the closure II substantially in the form of a cylinder with ends overlapping an amount represented by the distance between lines I2 and I3. This may vary within wide limits but it is recommended that the overlap be not less than one-half inch. Of course, for a smaller size the overlap range may be less as the pull from shrinkage will be much less.

It may be desirable to encircle the closure several times. The. top portion of wrapper I extends above the closure II and the bottom portion extends below it and encircles the adjacent portion of the neck I4 of the bottle. The bottle is now placed in a drying atmosphere where it dries and shrinks into final shape within an hour or two. If a current of warm air is directed upon the wrapper, less than minutes is required for drying.

As drying continues the wrapper shrinks and Fig. 2 represents conditions which obtain after it has partially dried. It has lost some of its cylindrical shape and ilts tightly against closure Il, the lower end portion having drawn in so that, instead of being spaced from the neck Il of the bottle it is in' contact therewith except for the tensioned spanning tportion immediately below the flanged rim I5 vof the closure. The upper end portion is drawn inwardly by shrinkage at an angle to the top of the closure. The shrinkage, however, ordinarily does not cause relative movement of the layers at the overlapping portion between lines I2 and I3.

Fig. 3 shows the wrapper after it has become air-dry and the shrinkage is substantially complete. The wrapper usually adheres to the closure and bottle neck and it follows closely the contour thereof. The upper projecting portion of the wrapper has become drawn down tightly against the top of the closure in the form of an annular ring I6 devoid of pleats asv illustrated in Fig. 4. It is, of course, to be understood that the width of the ring I6 may be controlled to conform to the capacity for shrinkage to avoid forming pleats in the ring. 'Ihe overlapping portions of the Wrapper adhere to each other and do not permit of relative movement. The upper portion of the wrapper may be sufficiently large that when folded down upon the top of the closure the latter is completely covered.

It is to be understood that overlapping is not an essential requirement of "the invention. Adhesive may be applied to the container closure or to the moist sheet material before the wrapping operation, in which case it is unnecessary to have portions of the material overlap. The same is true in connection with other articles which are to be wrapped or covered locally.

There are many other practical applications for Wrappers of ,my moist sheet material. For

instance, where an article has a cover which is to be removed when the article is put into use. as is the case with certain types of dry batteries which have removable covers to protect the terminal leads, a strip of the wet film material may be wound around the article and cover so that.

the end portions overlap. Upon drying the strip holds the cover firmly in place.

It is also the purpose of my invention to enclose objects completely. Figs. 5, 6 and 7 illustrate the manner in which an object, in this case a frame containing honey in the comb, may be enclosed. A rectangular sheet of moist film material, such as has been described heretofore, is wrapped around the case Il so that the two opposite end portions of the longer dimension overlap upon one side of the case, as is shown at I8, with the side portions of the sheet extending beyond the edges of the box or frame sides or ends. These are folded in an ordinary manner for wrapping packages. The narrow projecting portions of the sheet are then brought down flat against one side of the frame, as shown at I9 in Fig. 5. The necessary creases are then pressed into the sheet and the wide projecting portions 2| are next folded at against the side of the frame and the overlapping portions are pressed together. The same operations are repeated at the opposite side of the frame. The material usually is of the same thickness as when used for wrapping container closures.

Under proper conditions the inherent adhesive property of the moist sheet material is sumcient to keep the enclosure in substantially the form and position shown against the forces exerted by its shrinking action. Fig. 7 illustrates the appearance of the article. The honey comb 22 is clearly visible, the shrinking of the film during drying having drawn the latter smooth and taut, making it tight-fitting and imparting an attractive appearance to the ar=icle. As explained heretofore, adherent seals are formed at the seams or joints, and the product is protected against dust, insects, undesirable smells, loss of freshness and flavor, and to some extent against changes in atmospheric humidity conditions.

The illustration of a complete enclosure is merely one of a great many such applications for which my invention is suited. I have enclosed successfully articles such as bottles, containers of all kinds, toys, dolls, balls, such as golf and tennis and other kinds of rubber balls, articles of food, etc. I may use my improved wrappers and enclosures under any circumstances where a closely adherent, smooth transparent or decorative wrapper adds to the attractive qualities of articles of commerce and where. cleanliness, sanitation, freshness and puriy are desirable qualities. An attractive wrapping for angular or spherical objects has been made by winding a ribbon of the material about the object with the edge portion of each succeeding winding touching or overlapping slighily the edge portion of the preceding winding, this being continued until the object is completely covered.

As mentioned heretofore, I may use other iilm materials in addition to cellulose hydroxy-alphyl ether for my improved wrapper. Regenerated cellulose is suited to my purpose, paricularly that regenerated from viscose, although I may also use cuprammonium cellulose and cellulose regenerated from cellulose nitrate and from cellulose acetate. Other film materials, such as cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate, alkyl and other elhers of cellulose may be used but some are considered to be less desirable than those mentioned heretofore, because, when wet with water, they do not possess the same degree of the property of adhering to .themselves or to the article covered. This may be due to the fact that some are insoluble in water or aqueous solutions. It is necessary to apply an adhesive at the overlapping portions, or a small quantity of solvent for the film material may be applied. In one respect they are all similar, in that they contain or may be wetted with a solvent or a liquid which penetrates the material to form an adhesive property.

The invention is not limited to cellulose and its derivatives. Other film-forming material may be used. Gelatin films may also be used and wrappers of this material lhave been made.

The films usually are produced by shaping a viscous solution of the film-forming material into continuous sheet form and then coagulating or hardening the material by passing it through a suitable coagulating bath. Gelatin solutions are hardened or tanned by means of solutions of formaldehyde or chromic salts. The film forming process must, of course, be adapted to the characteristics of the material.

The coagulated films are in the form of gels and contain large and rather definite quantities of water, depending upon the kind of material and method of manufacture. This water may properly be designated water of gelation. The loss of this water is attended by pronounced shrinkage. When the dry films are soaked in water they absorb smaller quantities of water than they originally retained and lost on drying, and they do not swell to their original dimensions. Upon subsequent drying, shrinkage is correspondingly less. It is therefore, important for the best results that such materials be initially undried.

For instance, cellulose hydroxy-alphy1 ether prepared as heretofore described, when freshly coagulated, contains about 88 per cent water. When the film is dried and allowed to shrink freely it shrinks as much as 35 per cent in length. When soaked in water the dry film absorbs at the very most only about 75 per cent water. This actually is only about 40 per cent of the water which was contained in the freshly coagulated film. The swelling of the film is correspondingly less as is also the shrinkage which accompanies subsequent drying. The other film materials act similarly but in varying degrees. With cellulose regenerated from viscose the proportion of water absorbed by the dry material is considerably less. A portion, therefore, of the water which was originally contained in the freshly coagulated film does not re-enter the lm after the latter has become Adry and is subsequently soaked in water. This portion of the originally contained water may be called non-reentrant water of gelation.

All of the film materials herein named except cellulose hydroxy-alphyl ether are well known in the film making art and the methods for forming the moist films from solutions of the base `materials are known and need not be described herein. The usual procedure in the manufacture of lms from such materials includes a drying operation which follows immediately and continuously after the coagulating operation. Inthe preferred process of my invention the drying operation is dispensed with and the newly-formed lm, containing non-reentrant water of gelation, is rolled upon suitable spools, the spools cut into narrowed widths if desired and the resulting narrower rolls preserved in a sufficiently moist condition, preferably without substantial loss of water, until it is desired to apply the film as a wrapper to an article. Methods for securing increased hardness or flexibility of films to best suit them for their functions are well known for each material. Methods of ornamentation are also known and need not be described herein.

Of the film materials mentioned heretofore those which I prefer to use are cellulose hydroxyalphyl ether and cellulose regenerated from viscose. The properties of films of these materials are in general similar. When they contain the water from the forming operation they are distended, limp and tender and possess the property of adhering to themselves and to the surfaces of objects. Upon drying they shrink and gain strength and stiffness. They do not possess these properties in equal degree but the differences are not suiciently pronounced to require substantial variation in the conditions under which they may be applied successfully as wrappers.

The coagulated films usually contain 80 per cent or more of water. For instance, a cellulose hydroxy-alphyl ether hlm produced as described heretofore contains about 85 to 90 per cent water after the draining operation. A film of cellulose coagulated from a solution of viscose containing about 5 per cent cellulose contains 85 per cent water or somewhat less. 'I'he water content is affected somewhat by the' concentration of lmforming material in the solution from which the film is coagulated and also by the incorporation of glycerine to increase flexibility. The optimum water content usually is considered to be that of the coagulated film which has not been allowed to dry to any appreciable extent because of the superior adhesion and shrinkage obtained under such circumstances. tained for 'most applications, however, with films containing as low as '75 per cent water. In the case of lms which originally contained 85 to 90 per cent water this represents an actual decrease of from about 50 to 65 per cent of the original Water.

With cellulose hydroxy-alphyl ether lms it has been found that better adherence is obtained if the film possesses slight water solubility. For this reason it may be desirable to mix a small quantity of water soluble ether with'the water insoluble ether in the caustic soda solution.

For satisfactory results, the films for my improved wrappers should not exceed a maximum thickness. The maximum thickness is determined by the dimculty encountered in securing satisfactory adherence at the overlapping portions with thick films without the use of excessive and inconvenient pressure. Of course, adhesives may be used if desired but this is not the preferred method of applicationA because of the inconvenience introduced by the added operation of applying the adhesive. When films are used which are too thick there may be total failure of adherence with resulting separation at the joint, or the edges of the top overlapping portion may curl away from the bottom portion, producing an objectionable appearance. Another undesirable resuit is that the overlapping layers may be separated easily and the wrapper removed intact from the article and returned if desired with resulting loss of the tamper proof qualities of the wrapper. This feature will be discussed more fully hereinafter. With cellulose hydroxy alphyl ether lms the maximum practical thickness is about .020 inch and with cellulose regenerated from viscose it is substantially the same or slightly less because oi the slightly increased stiffness Satisfactory results are ob-y of this material. The foregoing gures are given for material which contains substantially all of the water of gelation from'the forming operation. Maximum allowable thickness is less if the water content is appreciably reduced or if tamper proofness is a primary consideration.

It is advantageous to keep the fllm material thin because this permits conservation of material, reduction of time and expense of drying and results in improved adherence between layers. However, as the moist films become thinner they become weaker, more limp and tacky and are dimcult to handle. The most suitable thickness, therefore, is that which combines economy with good handling properties and about .006 to .015 inch has been found to be a satisfactory thickness range for most materials. With cellulose hydroxy-alphyl ether and cellulose regenerated from viscose moist films of .008 inch thickness have been used with very good results.

When the proper thickness is used a good jointV is secured at the overlapping portions by the use of normal pressure as heretofore described and the two layers adhere together sufiiciently so that it is difficult to separate them without tearing the material of the layers. In the case of wrappers for container closures the material usually adheres sufficiently to the closure and the container so that it becomes torn in the removal operation. The wrapper, coming to the user "in intact condition, is assurance to him that it has not been removed since it was applied and provides a convenient means for tamper-proofing containers and other articles.

The minimum thickness at which the moist films can be handled successfully is slightly less than the foregoing figures for the preferred thickness. For present day materials a thickness of about .005 inch is a practical minimum for successful wrappers. However, methods for making the moist `materials tougher or stiifermay be developed in the future, in which case thinner films may be used.

With cellulose hydroxy-alphyl ether films it has been found that when applied as heretofore described, a moist lm .008 inch thick shrinks to a thickness of about .001 inch at those points Where shrinkage in area is substantially prevented. The drawings and description of the application of the Wrappers to articles show that shrinkage in area usually is substantially prevented. For instance, in Fig. 1 the upper projecting portion of the closure wrapper is all that shrinks in area to any substantial amount. Where dry thickness `is referred to in the description what is meant is the thickness at those points Where the shrinkage in area is substantially prevented. 'I'he shrinkage of lms of ce1- lulcse regenerated from viscose is less than that of cellulose hydroxy-alphyl ether lms. Freshly prepared lms, containing non-reentrant water of gelation, and being .008 inch thick resulted in a dry wrapper about .002 inch thick or slightly less. It has been found that the maximum dry thickness for satisfactory commercial production is about .0035 inch although wrappers can be made having a dry thickness of as much as about .005 inch.

In some cases dry lms are suitable for starting material and will absorb enough moisture upon being soaked in water to produce the desired adhesion and shrinkage. This is the more satisfactory method for using gelatin lms because of the greatly increased strength which is developed upon drying the tanned films. On

the other hand, those materials which are soluble in organic solvents such as cellulose acetate and some of the aryl and alkyl ethers of cellulose, absorb but little water after they have become dry and dry films are considered to be unsuitable for starting material. The conditions of application usually determine the suitability of moistened films. Where relatively less shrinkage is required they may be used. For instance, they may be used to wrap a frame of honey as shown in Figs. 5, 6 and 'I and also where it is desired to encircle an article with a band or tape or to hold a cover upon an article as described heretofore in connection with a dry battery. They may also be used for wrappers for container closures in many cases. For instance, the upper projecting portion of the wrapper as shcwn in' Fig. 1 may be very small or may be omitted. In such cases reduced shrinkage is entirely sufficient to produce the desired close tting relation between the wrapper and the closure and upper portion of the container. Where reduced shrinkage is suiiicient freshly formed lm material may be given a preliminary drying operation with results comparable to those obtained when dry films are moistened. It is considered that films containing less than 30 per cent Water are unsuitable because they are deficient in the inherent adhesive power for use as a Wrapper and require the application of adhesives.

In general, the properties of the moist lms are affected by manufacturing conditions and other treatments. For instance, glycerine lowers shrinkage and impairs the adhesive power of the films. 'I'he figures given heretofore are for films which have been found to contain suitable proportions of glycerine, these proportions being from about l5 to 30 per cent in the dried lm.

The concentration of film-forming material in the solution from which the lm is coagulated or hardened also affects the properties of the resulting lm. The same is true with respect to the incorporation of materials for imparting opacity, color, ornamental effects, etc. While these effects inuence somewhat the optimum thickness and other conditions of application of the films the information set forth heretofore gives a fairly accurate indication of those conditions under which satisfactory practical results are realized in most cases. However, the information is given to indicate the nature of the invention rather than to limit its scope.

While it is considered that cellulose regenerated from viscose and cellulose hydroxy-alphyl ethers are the most suitable and important lm materials for my Wrappers, the invention is broadly the application to articles or objects of moist film in the form of ribbons, bands, or sheets capable of shrinking into tight fitting relation with the article or object and capable of being caused to adhere readily to itself or to the article or object and any lm material which may possess such properties is included within the scope of my invention.

My improved wrappers for container closures possess advantages over those which are known. The present practice with bottle caps made from cellulose regenerated from viscose is to mold them in thimble-like or ring-like forms. When freshly formed the material is about 0.030 inch in thickness and it shrinks upon drying to about .007 inch thickness. As pointed out, heretofore, the preferred thickness of my moist lm material is not more than about .015 inch and the material shrinks to about .0035 inch or less in thickness Water until used; Such Y'method of handling is 1' less convenient than that employed in connection withV my improved Wrapper which. is merely rolled up in moist condition, eitherwith or e without the non-reentrant water of gelation, and

then unrelled bythe user and cut into suitable and is easy to handle. g

VI claim: f 1. The Vprocess for forming a YWrappe; under tension upon an article which comprises wrapping upon at least a portion of said aeticle a sheet of thin, limp, wet material having film-forming properties, said sheet being capable of shrinking substantially upon drying, arranging portions of said sheet in overlapping relation, pressing said overlapping portions together to cause adherence of the sheet portions, and drying said wrapper, the inherent adhesive properties of said wet sheet being sufficient to hold the overlapping portions together against'the shrinking forces exerted by the shrinking action of the sheet.

2. 'Ihe process? for forming a wrapper under tension upon anarticle which comprises wrapping upon at least a portion of said article a thin, limp, Wet sheet formed from material having:

film-forming properties, said sheet containing? non-reentrant water of gelation and being capa-* ble of shrinking substantially upon drying, a ranging portions of said sheet in overlapping rei lation, pressing said overlapping portions together te cause adherence of the sheet portions, i

and drying said sheet, the inherent adhesive properties of said wet sheet being sufficient to hold the everlapping portions together against the shrinking forces exerted by the shrinking action of the sheet. il i 3. 'Ihe'process for forming a tight-tting wrapper upon an article which comprises wrapping upon at least a portion of said article a sheet of thin, limp, wet cellulose hydroxy-alphyl ether film containing non-reentrant water of gelation and being capable of shrinking substantially upon drying, arranging portions of said. sheet in overlapping relation, pressing said overlapping portions together te cause adherence lof the sheet portions, and drying said sheet, the inherent adhesive property of said wet sheet being suicient to hold the overlapping portions together against the shrinking forces exerted by the shrinking action of the sheet? 4. The process for forming a tight-fitting wrapper upon an article which comprises wrapping upon at least a portion of said article a sheet of thin, limp, wetYY cellulose hydroxy-alphyl ethere film which is capable of shrinking substantially; upon drying, said sheet being not more than .026,2 inch in thickness, arranging portions of said fllnk Yin overlapping relation, pressing said overlapping;

portionstogether' to cause adherence of the sheet portions, and drying said wrapper, the inherent adhesive property of said wet sheet being sufficient to hold the overlapping portions together against the shrinking forces exerted by the "shrinking actien of the sheet.

5. The process for forming in situ a closure wrapper for containers which comprises winding about the adjaeent exterior portions of the closure and container Ya strip formed from material hail'- ing rden-forming properties which strip contains at least 30 per cent water and is capable of shrinking substantially upon drying, arranging portions of said strip in overlapping relation, pressing said overlapping portions together to cause adherence of the Vstrip portions, and drying said wrapper, the inherent adhesive property of said wet sheet being sufllcient to hold the overlapping portions together against the shrinking forces exerted by the shrinking action of the strip. lengths as needed. Due to the manner in which f* the Water is held, the material is not unpleas- Y. antly wet to thel touch but merely feels moist 6. The process for forming-in situ a closure wrapper for containers which eomprises enveloping the adjacent exterior portions of the closure and container in a strip of cellulose'hydroxyalphyl ether sheet material, which strip contains non-reentrant water ef gelatipn and is capable of shrinking substantially upon drying, arranging portions of said strip in overlapping relation pressing said overlapping portions together to flexibie sheet material not exceeding .020 inch thickness and containing at least 30 per cent watergipressing said overlapping sections together to canse adherence of the sheet portions, and drying said sheet material the inherent adhesive property of said wet strip being suicient to hold the overlapping portions together against the shrinking forces exerted by the shrinking action of the strip. 1

8. In the process of making a tight-fitting wrapper upon an article, the-.steps which comprise placing in overlapping relation portions of sheet cellulosic material not exceeding .020 inch in thickness and containing non-reentrant water of gelation, pressing saidv overlapping portions together to cause adherence of the sheet portions, and drying said sheetimaterial, the inherent adhesive property of said wet strip being sufilcient to hold the overlapping portions together against the shrinking forces exerted by the shrinking action of the strip.

9. The process of forming a tight-tting wrapper upon an article which comprises wrapping a thin, limp, wet stripof material having iilmforming properties upon said article, said materiai being eapable of shrinking substantially uponzdryingfarranging portions of said strip in overlapping relation, pressing said overlapping portions together to cause adherence of the strip portiens and drying said strip, the inherent adhesive property of said wet strip being suflicient to hoed the overlapping portions together against the shrinking forces exerted by the shrinking action of the strip. i

l0. The process for forming in situa tight-fitting closure wrapper upon acontainer having a closure provided with a skirt portion, which comprises winding in overlapping relationship about the skirt portion of said closure and the adjacent portion of said container awe?J strip formed from material having film-forming properties, arranging a portion of said strip to extend' above the top of said closure, said strip containing nonreentrant water of gelation and being capable of shrinking into tight contact with the skirt and top portions `of said closure upon drying, pressing said overlapping portions together to cause adherence of the strip portions, and drying said strip, the inherent adhesive property of said wet strip being suicient to hold the overlapping portions together against the shrinking forces exerted by the shrinking action of the strip.

11. A wrapped article comprising an article, a sheet of material having transparent ilm-forrning properties Wrapped upon said article and shrunk in tight-fitting Contact therewith, said sheet being not more than ,005 inch in thickness and having portions thereof in mutually overlapping relation, the inherent adhesive property of said sheet being sucient to hold the overlapping portions together against the shrinking forces exerted by the shrinking action of the sheet.

12. A wrapped article comprising an article, a sheet or band of cellulose hydroxy-alphyl ether lm material Wrapped upon said article and shrunk into tight-fitting relation therewith, said sheet or band having portions thereof in mutually overlapping relation, the inherent adhesive propcrty of said sheet being suicient to hold the overlapping portions together against the shrinking forces exerted by the shrinking action of the sheet. Y

13. In combination, a container, a closure therefor, and a ribbon of material having film-forming properties wound upon adjacent portions of said container and said closure and shrunk in tight fitting relation to said container and closure, said ribbon having portions in mutually overlapping relation, the inherent adhesive properties of said ribbon being sufficient to hold the overlapping portions together against the shrinking forces exerted by the shrinking action of the material.

14. In combination, container, a closure therefor, said closure having a skirt portion and a. top portion at substantially right angles to said skirt portion, and a ribbon of material having nlm forming properties wound upon the skirt portion of said closure and the adjacent portion of said container, overlying the top portion of said closure and being shrunk in tight fitting relation to the surfaces of said container and closure, said ribbon having portions in mutually overlapping relation, the inherent adhesive properties of said ribbon being sumcient to hold the overlapping portions together against the shrinking forces exerted by the shrinking action of the material.

15. The process oi forming a tight-tting wrapper upon an article which comprises wrapping at least a portion of said article in a thin, limp, wet sheet of material having film-forming properties and a thickness varying between .O to .015 of an inch, said sheet being capable of shrinking substantially upon drying, arranging portions of said sheet in overlapping relation, pressing said overlapping portions together to cause adherence of the sheet portions, and drying said sheet, the inherent adhesive properties of said sheet being sufficient to hold the overlapping portions together against the shrinking forces exerted by the shrinking action of the sheet.

16. The process of forming a tight-fitting wrapper upon an article which comprises wrapping at least a portion of said article in a thin, limp, wet sheet of material, portions of said sheet being arranged in overlapping relationship, said sheet of material being of such thickness that when it dries the adhesive properties of the material are sufiicient to hold the overlapping portions together against the shrinking forces exerted by the shrinkage action of the material, pressing said overlapping portions together to cause adherence of the sheet portions, and drying said sheet.

MILTON J. SHOEMAKER.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2419745 *Mar 1, 1943Apr 29, 1947Celon CompanyDisplay package
US2581561 *Jun 24, 1947Jan 8, 1952Shaw GilbertFilament package and method of producing same
US2630238 *May 9, 1949Mar 3, 1953Pm Ind IncTear out closure
US2668403 *Feb 17, 1951Feb 9, 1954Rumsey Jr HerbertMethod of making heat-sealed and heat-shrunk package
US2711346 *Apr 17, 1950Jun 21, 1955Irwin Elise VShrunk sleeve package
US2790286 *May 11, 1953Apr 30, 1957Goodyear Tire & RubberSecondary closures
US3159274 *Dec 6, 1962Dec 1, 1964Procter & GambleRigid package structure
US3873018 *Feb 20, 1973Mar 25, 1975Minnesota Mining & MfgEasily rupturable band of tape
US3906070 *Oct 6, 1972Sep 16, 1975Colgate Palmolive CoMethod of protectively covering metal threads
US3923062 *Mar 7, 1973Dec 2, 1975American Hospital Supply CorpThreaded closure system for medical liquid container
US3967995 *Aug 1, 1974Jul 6, 1976Liberty Glass CompanyJacketed bottle and methods of making same
US4013496 *Nov 22, 1974Mar 22, 1977Owens-Illinois, Inc.Method for producing shrunken pilfer-proof neck labels on containers
US6048423 *May 28, 1997Apr 11, 2000The Coca-Cola CompanyLabeling process and apparatus
US20100183776 *Jan 17, 2009Jul 22, 2010Eric William GruenwaldWater bottle with dosage in a blister pack
US20110240588 *Mar 22, 2011Oct 6, 2011Soremartec S.A.Method for making containers, and corresponding container
WO1999011539A1 *Sep 4, 1998Mar 11, 1999Philippe LucasGlass pre-packed in plastic film
Classifications
U.S. Classification215/232, 206/497, 156/86, 264/342.00R, 53/49, 156/308.8, 156/213, 53/441, 53/461, 264/DIG.710, 53/488, 215/246
International ClassificationB65D75/00, B65B53/00
Cooperative ClassificationB65D75/002, Y10S264/71, B65B53/00
European ClassificationB65D75/00B, B65B53/00