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Publication numberUS2031645 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 25, 1936
Filing dateApr 3, 1933
Priority dateApr 6, 1932
Publication numberUS 2031645 A, US 2031645A, US-A-2031645, US2031645 A, US2031645A
InventorsHadaway John B
Original AssigneeUnited Shoe Machinery Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Method of making shoes
US 2031645 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

' Feb. 25, 1936 J. B. HADAWAY 3 METHOD OF MAKING SHOES Filed April 5, 1953 2 Sheets- Sheet 1 v5/\/ 70/? 32a ab,

Feb. 25, 1936. J. B. HAbAwAY 2,031,645

METHOD OF MAKING SHOES v FiledApril s, 1933 y ZSheets-Sheet 2' v Y/NI/E/IVTUF Patented Feb. 25, 1936 PATENT OFFICE ,METHOD OF MAKING SHOES John B. Hadaway, Swampscott,-Mass., assignor to United Shoe Machinery Corporation, Paterson, N. J., a corporation of New Jersey Application April 3, 1933, Serial N0. 664,146

' In Great Britain April 6, 1932 38 Claims.

This invention relates to improved methods of shoemaking and to improvements in shoes and outsoles for shoes and is herein illustrated with reference to a. method of producing so-called close shanks in shoes. While the invention is illustrated herein in its application to welt shoes, it is to be understood that in certain aspects it may be applicable also to the manufacture of other types of shoes.

In Letters Patent of the United States No. 1,920,383, granted Aug. 1, 1933, upon my application, I have disclosed a novel method of securing and permanently maintaining a close fitting shank in a shoe by producing an abnormal bulge in the shank portion of the sole which, after a sole leveling operation is performed, is depressed or flattened out to expand the sole edgewise and thus permit the margins of the sole at the shank to be pressed into close fitting relation to the shoe upper. By expanding the sole in the manner described the margins of the sole may be pressed closely against the shoe bottom without setting up any strains in the intramarginal portions of the sole which would tend subsequently to pull the sole margins away from close fitting relation to the upper. As illustrated in the patent referred to, the bulge in the shank portion of the sole is caused by a non-resilient member in the form of a shank piece which is placed upon the insole of a lasted shoe prior to the attachment of the outsole. The outsole is then placed'on the shoe bottom and pressure isapplied to lay the sole, this pressure. being suflicient to cause the bulge to appear at the shank portion of the sole but being insufiicient to collapse the shank piece and flatten out the bulge. After the sole has been permanently secured to the shoe bottom (the shoe illustrated in the patent referred to being a welt shoe and having the outsole attached to a welt by a row of stitching), the sole is leveled in the usual manner by a leveling roll which presses the sole forcibly against the shoe bottom and forces the margins of the sole into close.

fitting relation to the shoe upper. The pressure applied b'y-the leveling roll causes the shank piece to collapse so that the bulge is flattened out and the sole is expanded. or widened widthwise of theshoe bottom, thereby relieving'any tensions, in the sole that may tend subsequently to pull the sole margins away" from close fitting relation tothe upper.

This widening of the sole by flattening out the bulge in theshank portion also results in stitches which, as pointed out in the patent referred to, usually extend diagonally through the outsole at anacute angle to the outer face of the sole margin in the shank portion of a welt shoe and tend to create a tension between 5 the outsole and welt which resists any attempt to close up the welt crease. After the bulge has been depressed, however, and the sole widened, the stitches assume positions which are more nearly at right angles to the outer sur- 10 face of the sole, thereby relieving any tension which may have been exerted by the stitches tending to pull the sole margins away from close relation to the upper.

Objects of the present invention are to pro- 15 vide still another improved method of producing close fitting shanks in shoes, and to provide improved outsoles which are especially adapted for use in making shoes having close fitting sole margins. I v 20 To the attainment of these objects the presentinvention provides an improved method of making shoes which, in one aspect, consists'in separating an inner layer of a shoe sole from an outer layer to reduce the resistance of the sole to width- 25 wise stretching, attaching the sole to a lasted shoe having a transversely convex bottom, and thereafter pressing the sole margins into close relation to the shoe upper, thereby stretching the outer layer of the sole widthwise to offset any tendency 30 of said outer layer subsequenty to contract and pull the sole margins away from the upper. In stretching the outer layer of the sole widthwise of the shoe bottom as describeddt may be, and preferably is, stretched beyond the limit of its 5 elastic recovery. Thus, the tensions which would ordinarilybe set up in the shank portion of the sole, due to bending the full thickness of the sole to the transversely convex shape of the shoe bottom, will be practically eliminated. There will 40 be no tendency for the material adjacent to the outer surface ofthe sole to contract after the pressure has been relieved, or for the material nearer the inner surface of the sole to expand in .-response to strains which would ordinarily be 45 caused by forcing the sole margins into close relation to the upper of a shoe having a transversely convex bottom. Consequently, the sole margins will tend to remain permanently in close fitting relation to;.the upper afterthe leveling operationhas been performed. MOmQ e W re ch-t,

' ing the 'solewidthv'rise of the, shoe bottom, the

outseam stitches will be straightened to such. an extent that they will ,no longenexert a' tension tending to. displacethe margins of the sole frc-m than half as thick as the sole and is as wide as the shank portion of the sole will permit, while leaving unweakened marginalareas of sufiicient width to permit the sole to be secured to the shoev bottom. In order better to adapt the sole to be utilized in a shoe having a transversely convex bottom which is raised or ridged longitudinally of its shank portion as, for example, in the socalled cottage roo bottom, a groove may, if

desired, be cut lengthwise of the inner layer or tongue of the sole. Such a groove will permit the shank portion of the sole to bend or flex more easily transversely of the shoe bottom, thereby facilitating its attachment to a shoe the shank portion of which is arched or ridged transversely of the shoe bottom.

Instead of cutting an inner layer or tongue in the shank portion of the sole, the present invention", regarded in another aspect, contemplates longitudinally of the intramarginal area of the gins are pressed against the shoe upper, the shank weakening the shank portion of a. sole by cutting shank portion a channel or groove of sumclent depth and width materially to reduce the inherent resiliency or cohesion of the sole, thereby permitting the sole to be more easily stretched widthwise when. pressure is applied to force the sole margins into close fitting relation to the upper. As

illustrated, the groove extends from about the heel breast line to the ball line and is more than half as deep as the thickness of the sole. The material cut out to form the groove may, if desired, be replaced in the groove to prevent the formation of a depression or hollow in the shank portion of the finished shoe.

in still another; aspect the invention provides a further improved method of making shoes having close fitting shanks which consists in reducing the resiliency or elasticity of a sole at the shank portion by forming therein a. series of longitudinal slits or cuts which reduce the resistance of the sole to widthwise stretching and thus permit the margins of the sole to be pressed into close fitting relation to the shoe upper. When the sole marportion of the sole will stretch widthwise so that the margins will remain in close fitting relation to the upper after the pressure has been relieved. Preferably, and as illustrated, the slits extend approximately from the heel breast line to the ball line and are positioned side by side across the intram'arginal portion of the sole. The slits are cut perpendicularly to the outer face of the sole for a portion of their depth and then extend laterally of the sole in a plane at right angles to the perpendicular cut in order toweaken' the sole to a greater degree than a perpendicular .cut would weaken it. As illustrated, the depth of the slits is more than half the thickness of the sole in order that the inherent resistance or resiliency of the material at the shank portionof .the sole will be reduced as much as possible to 70 facilitate stretching the sole widthwise without "weakening the-remaining unsevered portion to such an "extent that it might break apart during subsequent operations on theshoe.

In 'its article or outsoleaspect, the invention 75 provides an improved outsole having separated inner and outer layers in its shank portion whereby the latter is weakened so that the outer layer will stretch widthwise when pressure is applied to force the shank portion into close fitting relation to a shoe bottom. As herein shown, a single inner layer in the form of a tongue may extend from about the heel breast line to the ball line in the intramarginal portion only of the sole, the tongue extending into the material of the sole a distance which is more than half the thickness of the sole and occupying an area laterally of the sole which is as" wide as the intramarginal area of the shank portion will permit without weakening the sole margins. Alternatively, a plurality of inner layers may be produced as a result of cutting parallel slits of the type above referred to, the layers being separated from each other widthwise of the sole and weakening the sole so that the outer layer will stretch widthwise when the sole margins are pressed into close fitting relation to the shoe upper.

The above and other aspects of the invention will appear more'fuily from the following detailed description when read in connection with the accompanying drawings and will be pointed out in the appended claims.

In the drawings, a

Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a sole blank having the margins at the shank portion reduced and having an inner layer or tongue formed. therein midway between the reduced margins from about the heel breast line to the ball line;

Fig. 2 is a perspective view of an outsole which has been cut from the sole blank shown in Fig. 1;

Fig; 3 is a perspective viewof the outsole inverted to show the marginal channel which has been cut on the grain side thereof, the channel fiap being raised and turned back against the grain surface of the sole; 7

Fig. 4 is a perspective view of a portion of an outsole similar to the outsole shown in Fig. 2 except that the margins are not reduced at the shank portion, and the tongue of the outsole has a longitudinal groove formed therein;

Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional view of the outsole shown in Fig. 2, the section being taken through the shank portion to show how the sole will appear after the tongue arid channel have been cut therein and the channel flap turned back against the surface of the sole;

Fig. 6 is a cross-sectional view of a welt shoe with the outsole shown in Fig. 2 attached to the bottom thereof, the view illustrating how the shoe will appear before the leveling operation is performed;

Fig. '1 is a cross-sectional view similar to Fig. 6 showing the welt and margins of the outsole pressed firmly against the shoe upper by a sole .leveling roll;

In practicing the method of the present in- I vention, as herein illustrated, a leather outsole blank ll, having an outline ll of the outsole which is to be cut from the blank indicated on one side thereof (shown dotted in Fig. 1),

is reduced or scarred at opposite marginsof its flesh 'side throughout areas whichcoinside substantially with the portions of 'shaped sections thereby leaving inclined upper surfaces at the margins of the blank which taper downwardly from the central or intramarginal portion to form relatively thin edges along the shank portion of the sole. After the sole blank ID has been reduced at the shank portion as described, its normal resiliency or elasticity at this portion is substantially decreased, in order to reduceits inherent resistance to widthwise stretching, by separating an inner layer of material from an outer layer lengthwise of the shank portion of the blank to form a tongue Ill. The out which forms the inner layer or tongue l8,

.' and which may be made by a gouging tool of any well-known type, enters the material of the sole blank on the flesh side close to the heel breast line, this position being indicated in the drawings by the reference numeral 20. The cut passes downwardly into the sole blank at such an angle to the plane of the upper surface thereof that the maximum depth. of the out, which is somewhat greater than half the thickness of the sole, is reached when the gouging tool has passed about threequarters of an inch toward the toe end of the blank. From this position the cut extends forwardly in a plane parallel to the upper and lower surfaces of the blank until it reaches a point located substantially at the ball line, indicated in Figs. 1 and 2 by the numeral 22, thereby-separating the shank portion of the blank into an inner layer and an outer layer. The cutting op eration is then discontinued and the gouging tool is withdrawn to leave the inner layer or tongue l8 joined to the sole blank along the line 22.

The width of the inner layer or tongue I8 is approximately equal to half the width of the shank portion of the outline .ll of the outsole which is indicated by dotted lines in Fig. 1. The tongue is located centrally of the intramarginal portion of the outsole so that the lateral edges of the tongue will not extend into the marginal areas through which the sole is subsequently to be stitched or otherwise permanently attached to the bottom of a shoe. The term intramarginal portion as used herein is intended to indicate the lateral area of the outsole which extends between but not into those marginal portions which are located at each side of the outsole to receive the sole-attaching stitches or other securing means by which the outsole is to be subsequently attached to a shoe bottom. It will be clear that after the tongue I8 has been cut in the inner or flesh side of the outsole as described, the material ad jacent to the tongue which forms the outer layer of the outsole at the shank portion thereof, and which is indictaed at 23 in Fig. '5, is materially weakened so that its resistance to stretching widthwise or laterally of the sole is considerably reduced.

The outsole blank is now out to the shape of a sole by a customary sole rounding operation to produce the outsole I2 shown in Fig. 2. As illustrated herein, the outsole I2 is adapted for use in the manufacture of Goodyear welt shoes and has a peripheral channel 24' out on its grain side, as shown in Fig. 3, to receive the sole-attaching stitches which secure the outsole to the welt. It is to be understood, however, that the illustrated method is not limited to outsoles for use in this particular type of shoe and, accordingly, the peripheral channel may be cut differently from that disclosed herein or it may be dispensed with entirely if the sole is to be used in a type of shoe which requires no stitch-receiving channel for attaching the sole to the shoe bottom. Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional view of the sole shown in Figs. 2

and 3 with the sole inverted to illustrate how the sole will appear at the shank portion after the tongue l8 and the channel 24 have been cut and a channel flap 26 has been laid back against the outer or grain surface of the outsole.

The outsole I2 is now ready to be permanently attached to a shoe bottom and, accordingly, it is laid on the bottom of a shoe A in which the upper materials have been pulled over and lasted as shown in Fig. 6. The shoe illustrated in Fig. 6 is a welt shoe in which the upper materials 28, in-

eluding a lining, have been pulled over a last 39 and secured in lasted relation to the upstanding rib ofan insole 32'by a row of stitching 34 constituting the inseam, this stitching passing through a welt 36 and securing the welt to the overlasted margin of the upper 28. The illustrated insole 32 is reinforced at its central portion and on the inner surfaces of the upstanding ribs by fabric material such as canvas, indicated at 31, and a shank piece 38 is secured in the usual manner to the upper face of the insole between the ribs at the shank portion of the shoe. The outsole I2 is first placed upon the shoe bottom with the tongue [8 in contact with the shank piece 38, as shown in Fig. 6. The outsole is then laid by the usual sole laying operation and is secured to the shoe bottom by outseam stitches 40 which are located at the inner edge of the channel 24 and pass though the welt 3B. As shown in Fig. 6,

the stitches are located diagonally or at an angle relatively tothe upper surface of the sole margin and the under side of the welt, this being the usual position of the stitches in the shank portion of a welt shoe. It will also be noted in Fig. 6

that the outer marginal surfaces of the welt and outsole are spaced a considerable distance from the overlasted marginal portion of the upper after the outsole has been stitched to the welt.

The next step in the method of making shoes disclosed herein consists in subjecting the outsole l2 to a sole leveling operation in order to press the shank portion of the sole into conformity with the shoe bottom and to force the marginal portions'of the outsole and welt'into close fitting relation to the shoe upper. This leveling operation is performed by a leveling roll 42 which applies a downward pressure against the outsole sufficient to cause the welt and margins of the sole to be pressed firmly against the shoe upper at the shank portion of the shoe, asshown in Fig. '7. It will be clear that in order for the margins of the outsole and welt to be forced from their original outwardly extending and substantially horizontal positions as shown in Fig. 6, to the downwardly inclined, upper embracing positions indicated in Fig. '7 in such a manner that they will remain permanently in these positions, the shank portion of the outsole between these margins must be stretched widthwise of the sole beyond the limit of its elastic recovery or, when the pressure is relieved, the natural resiliency of the material of the sole will cause the latter to contract and pull the sole margins away from close relation to the shoe upper. The weakening of the material at the shank portion of the sole by cutting an inner the shoe bottom under the pressure of the leveling roll since the remaining material or outer layer of the sole adjacent to the tongue is now less than half the thickness of the sole at other portions thereof. By stretching the sole in the manner described, the sole margins at the shank portion of the shoe are pressed into close fitting relation to the shoe upper and are held permanently in this relation, since any tendency of the shank portion of the sole to contract .to its original width, after the pressure is relieved, has been eliminated.

Another important result of stretching the shank portion of the sole laterally or widthwise of the shoe bottom is that the outseam stiches 40, which originally slant inwardly from the exposed surface of the welt to the outer face of the outsole at the shank portion of the shoe, and which, as stated, create a tension between the sole and'the welt which tends to resist any attempt to close up the crease between the upper and welt, are straightened into a position which is more nearly at right angles to the outer surface of the outsole. After being thus straightened the stitches will no longer exert a tension which tends to pull the margins of the sole and welt awayfrom close engagement with the shoe upper.

A modification of the method ofweakening outsoles is illustrated in Fig. 4, in which is shown an outsole l9 the shank portion of which is divided into an inner layer or tongue 2i and an outer layer located below the tongue. The tongue 2| has a slit or groove 25 cut in the central portion thereof, the slit extending lengthwise of the tongue from about the heel breast line to the ball line of the outsole. The outsole illustrated in Fig. 4 may be utilized on a shoe having what is known as a cottage roof bottom, that is, a bottom which is sharply arched transversely or widthwise of the shoe to form a substantial ridgelongitudinally of the shank portion of the shoe. The slit 25 facilitates bending the shank portion of the outsole transversely of the shoe bottom so that the outsole will conform more readily to the transverse convexity of the shoe bottom to produce a ridge in the shank portion thereof.

Instead of weakening an outsole by forming a tongue longitudinally of the shank portion, as

illustrated in Figs. 1 to 'I, inclusive, this portion may, if desired, be weakened by cutting a groove longitudinally thereof which is substantially the same width and. depth as the tongue l8. If the sole is weakened by cutting a groove longitudinally of its shank portion, the piece removed from the groove should be replaced before the sole is applied to the shoe bottom, thus preventing the formation of a hollow or depression in the sole of the finished shoe. After the piece has been positioned loosely in the groove and the sole has been laid on a transversely convex shoe bottom with the grooved side adjacent to the inso1e,

the sole is attached to the shoe bottom by stitching it to the welt in the usual manner and the sole leveling operation is then performed to press the sole into close engagement with the shoe bottom and to force the margins of the sole into close fitting relation to the shoe upper. Since the shank portion of the sole has been materially weakened by the formation of a groove which extends longitudinally thereof from about the breast line to the ball line, this portion will now be able to stretch or expand widthwise of the transversely convex shoe bottom to maintain the margins of the sole permanently in close fitting relation to the shoe upper.

In both methods of weakening the outsole described above, the tongue or the groove, as the case may be, should be made as deep as the body of the sole at the shank portion will permit, while leaving the outer layer of the sole, adjacent to the tongue or groove, strong enough to prevent its separating or breaking apart during subsequent operations on the shoe, for example, during the sole leveling operation. As illustrated in the drawings, the tongue or groove may in some cases (depending upon the quality of leather in the outsole) be nearly two-thirds the thickness of the sole, since the thinner the material of the outer layer can be made without weakening it too much, the more easily the sole can be stretched and the more the inherent resiliency of the sole will be reduced. The tongue or groove should also be aswide as possible in order that the resiliency of the sole at the shank portion may be reduced sufiiciently to permit the desired results to be obtained. Since the stitches which unite the outsole to the welt are positioned at the inner edge of the marginal channel at the shank portion of the shoe, and since these stitches should pass through wn unweakened portion of the sole, the lateral edges of the tongue or groove must be located inwardly of the outseam stitches or, in other words, at the intramarginal portion of the outsole.

A further modification of the method of weakening the sole, which may be used in place of cutting either a tongue or a groove therein, is illustrated in Figs. 8 and 9 of the drawings. As illustrated, this modification consists in cutting a series of slits 44 (herein shown as five) in the shank portion of a sole blank 46, these slits extending side by side longitudinally of the sole from about the heel breast line to the ball line. The slits 44 are made in the flesh side of the sole by using a' knife which has a turned-out bottom portion arranged to produce a right-angle cut in the material of the sole, as shown in Fig. 9. In making these slits the knife'enters the sole blank at'such an angle to the plane of the flesh surface thereof that after it-has passed forwardly for about three-quarters of an inch the knife reaches its maximum depth (which is somewhat greater than half the thickness of the sole) and then moves forwardly toward the toe end of the sole blank in a plane substantially parallel to the surface of the blank. The knife is withdrawn gradually from the material of the sole blank at a point which coincides substantially with the ball line thereof, thereby forming a longitudinal slit in the shank portion of the sole which extends from about the heel breast line to the ball line. As shown in Fig. 8, the slits 44 are spaced equidistantly apart across a substantial portion of the width of the blank, the outer slits, which are adjacent to the margins on each side of the blank being, spaced somewhat inwardly of the positions which the sole-attaching stitches will occupy. After the slits have been made in the shank portion of the sole blank 46, the operation of cutting a sole from the blank 46 is carried out on a sole rounding machine in the manner previously indicated.

The shank portion of a sole having a plurality of slits formed longitudinally thereof is thus rendered capable of stretching widthwise of the sole under the pressure applied by the sole leveling roll, since the lateral extensibility of the shank portion of the sole has now been materially increased and its resiliency proportionately decreased. When the leveling operation. is performed to press the sole against the transversely convex bottom of the shoe, the shank portion of the sole will stretch or expand widthwise of the shoe and by so doing will tend to hold the margins of the sole permanently in close fitting relation to the shoe upper.

Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:

1. That improvement in methods of making shoes having close fitting sole margins which consists in separating a sole into an inner layer and an outer layer in a plane substantially parallel to the outer surface of the sole, thereby reducing theresistance of the sole to widthwise stretching without reducing the thickness 'of the sole, attaching the sole to a lasted shoe having a transversely' convex bottom, and pressing the sole margins into close relation to the shoe upper, thereby stretching said outer layer widthwise to offset any tendency of the sole margins subsequently to pull away from the upper.

2. That improvement in methods of makin shoes having close fitting sole margins which consists in separating an inner layer of a sole from an outer layer at the intramarginal portion only of the sole, thereby reducing the resistance of said portion to widthwise stretching, attaching the sole to a lasted shoe having a transversely convex bottom, and pressing the sole margins into close relation to the shoe upper, therebystretching said outer layer widthwise to offset any tendency of the sole margins subsequently to pull away from the upper.

3. That improvement in methods of making shoes having close fitting sole margins which consists in separating a sole into an inner layer and an outer layer between the margins of the shank portion of the sole, thereby reducing the resistance of 'saidshank portion to widthwise stretching, attaching the sole to a lasted shoe having a transversely convex bottom, and pressing the sole margins into close relation to the shoe upper, thereby stretching said outer layer widthwise to, overcome any tendency of the sole margins subsequently to pull away from the shoe upper.

4,-That improvement in methods of making welt shoes having close fitting sole margins which consists in separating an inner layer of a sole from an outer layer, said inner layer being joined to the sole only in the vicinity of the ball line, thereby reducing the resistance of the sole to widthwise stretching, attaching the sole to a shoe on a last having a transversely convex bottom, and pressing the sole margins into close relation to the shoe upper, thereby stretching said outer layer beyond its limit of elastic recovery to offset any tendency of said margins subsequently to pull away from the shoe upper.

5. That improvement in methods of making welt shoes which consists in separating an inner layer from an outer layer in the intramarginal shank portion of an outsole, thereby reducing the resistance of said shank portion to widthwise stretching, laying the sole on the bottom of a lasted shoe having an attached welt and a trans,- versely convex shank portion, applying leveling pressure to the sole, thereby pressing the welt into close relation to the upper, and stretching said outer layer of the outsole to offset any tendency of the sole to react to pull the welt away from the upper in the shank portion of the shoe.v

6. That improvement in methods of making shoes having close fitting shanks whichconsists in weakening a sole by separating a strip of maportion of the sole, thereby increasing the lateral extensibility of said portion, securing the sole to a lasted shoe having a transversely convex bottom, applying leveling pressure to the shank portion of the sole thereby causing the margins thereof'to conform to the shape of the shoe bottom, and stretching the shank portion of the sole laterally of the shoe bottom so that the sole margins will remain in close relation to the shoe upper after the pressure has been relieved.

7. That improvement in methods of making welt shoes having close fitting shanks which consists in cutting a tongue from the flesh side of a leather sole at the shank portion only, thereby weakening said portion, said tongue extending longitudinally of the sole and being spaced equal distances from the edges thereof, laying the, sole ona transversely convex shoe bottom and securing it thereto by stitches, and performing a leveling operation on the shank portion of the sole, thereby forcing the sole margins into close fitting relation to the shoe upper and stretching the shank portion of the sole laterally of the shoe bottom so that the sole margins will have less tendency to pull away from the upper after the leveling operation has been performed.

8. That improvement in methods of making shoes having close fitting .sh-anks which consists in cutting a tongue longitudinally of the shank portion of a leather sole midway between the edges thereof, said tongue extending substantially from the heel breast line to the ball line on the flesh side of the sole and being joined to the sole at the ball line, attaching the sole to a shoe having a transversely convex bottom, and pressing the shank portion of the sole into close engagement with said shoe bottom, thereby bringing the sole margins into close fitting relation to the upper and-extending. the shank portion of the sole laterally of the shoe bottom to assist in holding the margins of the sole against'the upper.

9. That improvement in methods of making shoes having close fitting shanks which consists in removing a piece of material from between the lateral margins in the shank portion of a sole to weaken said shank portion and to facilitate stretching it widthwise, attaching the sole to a transversely convex shoe bottom, and pressing the shank portion of the sole forcibly against said shoe bottom, thereby forcing the marginal portions of the sole into close relation to the shoe upper and stretching the weakened portion of the sole laterally of the shoe bottom to maintain permanently the close relation between the sole margins and the upper.

10. That improvement in methods of making welt shoes having close fitting shanks which consists in weakening a sole by severing a strip of material from the shank portion thereof to form a groove which extends substantially from the heel breast line to the ball line of the sole, said groove being more than half as deep as the thickness of the sole and about half as wide as the shank portion thereof, placing the severed strip back in the groove, laying the sole and attaching it by stitches to a shoe having a transversely convex bottom, and applying leveling pressure to the shank portion of the sole to conform it to the shape of the shoe bottom and to force the margins of the sole into close fitting relation to the shoe upper, said pressure expanding the grooved portion of the sole widthwise of the shoe bottom so that the sole margins will remain in close fit ting relation to the upper after the pressure has been relieved.

11. That improvement in methods of making shoes having close fitting sole margins which consistsin separating an inner layer of a sole from an outer layer in the shank portion of the sole, thereby reducing the resistance of the sole to widthwise stretching, cutting a groove lengthwise of the sole in the inner layer to facilitate bending the sole widthwise, attaching the sole to a shoe the bottom of which has a ridge extending longitudinally of its shank portion, and pressing the shank portion of the sole into close engagement with said shoe bottom, thereby bending the sole widthwise to form a ridge longitudinally of the outer'layer and bringing the margins of the sole into close fitting relation to the upper at each side of the shoe, said pressure also stretch ing the outer layerwidthwise to eliminate any tendency of the sole margins subsequently to pull away from said upper.

12. That improvement in methods of making shoes having close fitting shanks which consists in increasing the lateral extensibility of the shank portion of a leather sole by forming a tongue in said portion on the flesh side of the sole, said tongue being more than half as thick as the sole and terminating substantially at the ball line, cutting a groove lengthwise of said tongue to render the shank portion of the sole more flexible widthwise, attaching the sole to a shoe the bottom of which is transversely convex, and leveling the shank portion of the sole into close engagement with the shoe bottom, said leveling operation bending the sole widthwise over the convex shoe bottom and bringing the margins of the sole at the shank portion into close fitting relation to the shoe upper, thereby causing that portion of the sole adjacent to the tongue to expand widthwise to maintain said sole margins permanently in close fitting relation to the shoe upper.

13. That improvement in methods of making shoes having close fitting shanks which consists in cutting a tongue of substantial width longitudinally of a leather sole in the flesh side from about the heel breast line to the ball line, thereby increasing the lateral extensibility of the shank portion of the sole, said tongue being more than half as thick as the sole and being joined to the sole at the ball line, cutting a longitudinal groove in the central portion of said tongue to increase the flexibility of the sole widthwise, attaching the sole flesh side down to a shoe on a last having a transversely convex bottom, and applying pressure to the shank portion ofthe sole to bend it to the transverse curvature of the shoe bottom and to force the margins of the sole into close fitting relation to the shoe upper, said pressure also-extending the portion of the sole which is adjacent'to the tongue widthwise of the shoe bottom so that said portion will have no tendency thereafter to contract and pull the margins of the sole away from close fitting relation to the shoe upper.

14. That improvement in methods of making shoes having close fitting shanks which consists in weakening an outsole by cuttiing a tongue of substantial width in the intramarginal portion thereof, said tongue extending lengthwise of the -sole' from about the heel breast line to the ball line and being more than half as thick as the outsole, laying the outsole on a shoe the bottom of which is transversely convex attaching the sole by stitches to said convex shoe bottom, and applying leveling pressure to the outer face of the outsole to force it against the shoe bottom, thereby causing the margins of the outsole to be pressed into close fitting relation to the shoe upper, said pressure acting to stretch the intramarginal portion of the outsole above the tongue widthwise of the shoe bottom so that the margins of the sole will remain permanently in close fitting relation to the upper at the shank portion of the shoe.

15. That improvement in methods of making shoes having close fitting shanks which consists in reducing the margins of an outsole at the shank portion, cutting a tongue lengthwise of the outsole at said shank portion, said tongue extending midway between the reduced margins to increase the extensibility of the outsole widthwise. attaching the outsole to a shoe having a convex bottom, and pressing the shank portion of the outsole into close engagement with the shoe bottom, thereby bringing the reduced margins of the outsole into close fitting relation to the shoe upper, said pressing operation acting also to extend the centralportion of the outsole adjacent to said tongue widthwise of the convex shoe bottom so that said portion will not subsequently contract to pull the sole margins away from the upper.

. 16. That improvement in methods of making shoes which consists in reducing the resiliency of a sole by slitting the shank portion of the sole lengthwise to form an innerlayer and an outer layer, thereby reducing the resistance of the sole to widthwise stretching without reducing the original thickness of the sole, attaching the sole to a lasted shoe having a transversely convex bottom, and pressing the sole into close relation to the shoe bottom, said pressure forcing the margins at the shank portion of the sole into close fitting relation to the upper and also stretching the slitted portion of the sole widthwise so that said margins will tend to remain permanently in close fitting relation to the upper.

17. That improvement in methods of making shoes which consists in increasing the lateral extensibility of a sole at the shank portion only by cutting a plurality of slits longitudinally of said portion, said slits extending from about the heel breast line to the ball line and being more than half as deep as the thickness of the sole, securing the sole to a shoe having a transversely convex bottom, and pressing the shank portion of the sole into close relation to said shoe bottom by pressure applied to the upper surface of the sole, said pressure acting to stretch the shank portion of the sole laterally of the shoe, thereby permitting the sole margins to remain permanently in close relation to the shoe bottom.

18. That improvement in methods of making shoes having close fitting shanks which consists in weakening a leather outsole at the shank portion by forming a series of slits in the flesh side thereof, said slits being located side by side across the width of the sole and extending lengthwise of the sole from about the heel breast line to the ball line, thereby reducing the resistance of the shank portion of the sole to widthwise stretching, attaching the sole to a shoe on a last having a transversely convex bottom, and forcing the shank portion of the sole into close relation'to the shoe bottom, thereby bringing the sole margins into close fitting relation to the shoe upper and stretching the shank portion of the sole widthwise so that there will be-no tendency thereafter for the sole to contract and pull the margins away from the upper.

19. That improvement in methods of making shoes having close fitting shanks which consists in reducing the elasticity of a sole at the shank portion to facilitate widthwise stretching-by cutting a plurality of grooves longitudinally of the sole from the heel breast line substantially to the ball line, said grooves being spaced equidistantly from each other widthwise of the sole across the greater portion of the width thereof, attaching the sole to a shoe having a transversely convex bottom, and leveling the shank portion of the sole against the shoe bottom, said leveling operation acting to force the margins of the sole into close fitting relation to the upper at the shank portion of the shoe and acting also to stretch the sole widthwise so that the margins will remain in said relation to the upper.

20. That improvement in methods of making shoes having close fitting shanks which consists in cutting a plurality of slits in the shank portion of asole to permit the sole to stretch more easily widthwise, said slits extending vertically into the sole for a distance which is somewhat greater than half the thickness of the sole and then extending horizontally to form a series of right angle cuts spaced equidistantly from each other, attaching the sole to a shoe having a transversely convex bottom, and applying leveling pressure to the shank portion of the sole to press said portion against the shoe bottom and to force the sole margins into close fitting relation to the shoe upper, said pressure acting also to stretch the shank portion of the sole laterally of the shoe bottom and thereby cause said margins to be maintained in close fitting relation to the upper after the leveling pressure has been relieved.

21. That improvement in methods of making shoes having close fitting shanks which consists in reducing the resistance of the shank portion of a sole by cutting a plurality of right-angle slits longitudinally of the sole from about the heel breast line to the ball line, said slits extending through more than half the thickness of the sole and being spaced equidistantly from each other laterally of the sole, placing the sole on a transversely convex shoe bottom and securing it thereto by stitches, and leveling the shank portion of the sole by pressure applied downwardly against the outer face thereof, thereby bringing the marginal portions of the sole into close fitting relation to the shoe upper, said leveling pressure acting also to stretch the slitted portion of the sole widthwise of the shoe bottom to prevent said portion from returning to its'original width after the pressure is relieved, thus eliminating any tendency of said portion to contract and pull the margins of the sole away from close fitting relation to the shoe upper.

22. That improvement in.methods of making 1 outsoles for use in the manufacture of shoes which consists in'separating an inner layer of an outsole from an outer layer from about the heel breast line to the ball line of the outsole, thereby reducing the resistance of the outsole to widthwise stretching, said inner layer being separated in a plane substantially parallel to the outer face of the outsole and being thicker than said outer layer.

23. That improvement in methods of making outsoles for use in the manufacture of shoes which consists in cutting a relatively wide tongue longitudinally of the shank portion of an outsole, thereby reducing the resistance of saidportion to widthwise stretching, said tongue being located at the intramarginal portion of the outsole and being joined to the outsole substantially at the ball line.

24. That improvement in methods of making consists in cutting a plurality of slits longitudinally of the intramarginal portion of an outsole while leaving a marginal portion of substantial width at each side of the slitted portion of the outsole in its normal condition, thereby reducing the resistance of said intramarginal portion to widthwise stretching but maintaining the original resistance of said marginal portions.

25. That improvement in methods of making outsoles for use in the manufacture of shoes 10 which consists in weakening the shank portion of an outsole to facilitate widthwise stretching by cutting a plurality of slits side by side across the intramarginal area of said shank portion, said slits extending perpendicularly into the ma- 1:, terial of the sole for more than half its thickness and then extending laterally of the outsole in a plane at right, angles to the perpendicular slits.

26. A'sole for use in the manufacture of shoes having a relatively wide tongue formed longitu- 2f) dinally of the sole between the margins of its shank portion, said tongue starting at the heel breast line and joining the body of the sole at the ball line so that the material in said shank portion adjacent to the tongue will stretch width- :3 Wise of a transversely convex shoe bottom without any substantial stretching of the sole margins at said portion when leveling pressure is applied to force said margins into close fitting relation to the shoe upper. :12)

27. A sole for use in the manufacture of shoes having a single tongue out from about the heel breast line to the ball line to facilitate stretching the sole widthwise of its shank portion, the thickness of the material at the forepart and heel 1;.) portion of the sole remaining unchanged.

28. An outsole for use in the manufacture of shoes having a relatively wide tongue formed between the margins of itsinner face so that the material of the sole adjacent to the tongue will 40 stretch more easily widthwise, said tongue extending from about the heel breast line to the ball line and being joined to the outsole at the ball line, the forepart and heel portion of the sole and the margins of the shank portion remaining in their original condition.

29. An outsole for use in the manufacture of welt shoes having a single tongue out longitudinally of the intramarginal portion of its inner face from about the heel breast line to the ball line so that the layer of material adjacent to the tongue at the shank portion of the outsole may be more easily stretched laterally of the sole by leveling pressure applied to press the sole margins into close fitting relation to the upper of a shoe having a transversely convex bottom, said tongue being more than half the thickness of the outsole and being joined thereto substantially at the ball line the sole margins at said shank portion remaining in their originalunweakened condition.

, 30. A-shoe sole having an incision extending substantially throughout the length of its shank portion on the inner face of the sole to facilitate widthwise stretching, said incision being about 6 half as wide as, the shank portion of the sole and being more than half as deep as the thickness of the sole.

31. A shoe sole having a relatively wide tongue formed lengthwise of its shank portion to facili- 7 tate stretching the portion adjacent to said tongue widthwise and having a groove cut longitudinally of the tongue to facilitate bending the adjacent portion transversely of said shank portion.

32. A sole for use in the manufacture of shoes having a plurality of non-parallel slits formed in its shank portion to weaken said portion and permit it to be stretched more easily widthwise, all of said slits extending from about the heel breast line to the ball line and being located in the intra-margin'al portion of the sole to leave a marginal portion of substantial width at each side of the sole in its normal condition, said slits being somewhat deeper than half the thickness of the sole.

33. A leather sole for use in the manufacture of shoes having a plurality of incisions cut lengthwise of its shank portion on the flesh side to increase the lateral extensibility of said shank portion, said incisions being cut perpendicularly to the outer face of the sole and at their maximum depth extending laterally of the sole in a plane parallel to said outer face.

34. A leather sole for use in the manufacture of shoes, said sole having a plurality of angular slits formed in the shank portion of its flesh side to weaken the resistance of said portion against twidthwise stretching, said slits being spaced equidistantly from each other across the intramarginal portion of the sole and extending more than halfway into the sole.

35. A shoe comprising an upper and an outsole the lateral margins of which lie close to the upper, the outsole having separated inner and outer layers in its shank portion only of which the outer layer has been stretched widthwise of the sole to eliminate any tendency of the sole margins to pull away from said upper, the inner layerremaining in substantially its original unstretched condition.

36. A shoe comprising an upper and an outsole the lateral margins of which lie close to the upper in the shank portion of the shoe, the outsole having separated inner and outer layers in its intramarginal portion of which the outer layer only has been expanded widthwise of the sole beyond-its limit of elastic recovery to eliminate any tendency of the sole margins to pull away from close fitting relation to the shoe upper.

3'7. A shoe having an upper, a welt, an insole and an outsole, the welt being secured to the upper and insole and having its upper surface lying close to the shoe upper, the outsole being secured to the welt and having a tongue of less thickness than the sole separated from its inner intramarginal shank portion, the side edges of the tongue being spaced from the adjacent surfaces of the sole and the outer intramarginal portion of the sole being permanently extended laterally to cause the welt to remain permanently in close relation to the upper.

38. A shoe comprising an upper and insole, a welt secured to said upper and insole, and an outsole stitched to said welt, the welt and marginal portions of the outsole being positioned in close relation to the upper at the shank portion of the shoe, said outsole having a tongue of substantial thickness formed on the inner side of its shank portion midway between the margins thereof, the lateral edges of said tongue being spaced from the adjoining surfaces of the outsole, and the outer material of the outsole adjacent to said tongue being permanently stretched widthwise to maintain the welt and marginal portions of the outsole in close fitting relation to the shoe upper.

J OHN B. HADAWAY.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2711034 *May 27, 1952Jun 21, 1955Beckerman & Sons Inc MSling type shoe
DE1485804B *Mar 18, 1963Apr 30, 1970Johannes SchallerSohle fuer Schuhwerk
Classifications
U.S. Classification36/17.00R, 12/146.00M, 36/25.00R, 36/22.00R, 12/142.00D, 36/169
International ClassificationA43B13/14
Cooperative ClassificationA43B13/141
European ClassificationA43B13/14F