US 2032591 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
G. H. PRIDE March 3, 1936.
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DUNNAGING MATERIALS Filed Jan. 15, 1935 Patented '3, 1936 2,032,591
UNITED STATESPATE-NT OFFICE METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DUNNAGING MATERIALS George H. Pride, New York, N. Y. Application January 15, 1935, Serial No. 1,87!
10 Claims. (Cl. 280-179) This invention relates to improvements in the nition is given to the fact that the failure or art of handling materials in transit, and is parprevious attempts along this line may be atticularly directed to the dunnaging of heavy case tributed to the fact that the dunnaging means goods or other heavy articles which are substanused have been subjected to a direct tendency to tially non-deformable. be withdrawn from the floor of the car at the 5 The transportation of such materials presents point where attached; and in providing the presa problem, arising from the tendency of the mav ent new and improved means for achieving the terial to shift its position in the transporting veaforesaid objects, the dunnaging material is so hicle while in transit; the sudden starting and arranged that the nails or screws used as means stopping of. the vehicle, for example, giving rise of attachment to the vehicle floor are subjected, 10 to pronounced tendencies toward vertical and not to a purely vertical pull, but to a pull having horizontal displacement of the material. A vaa component which is substantially horizontal to riety of dunnaging means are available for use the car floor, whereby the dunnaging apparatus in opposing the tendency toward horizontal mowhich is secured by such screws or nails may ordition of the material in the vehicle, but such means narily be freed only where the pull is of sufllcient 1,; alone are entirely inadequate and offer no solution magnitude to effect a shearing of the screws or to the problem. It is of prime importance that nails. Obviously nails or screws of sumcient size dunnaging be provided to directly oppose the and in sufllcientnumber may be provided to withtendency toward vertical motion of the matestand any such shearing action.
rial, for such vertical motion, if unimpeded, rapid- It is recognized that the pull or stress may have 20 ly loosens and completely destroys whatever duna vertical component, but in the practice of my naging has been provided. invention the said horizontal component is sufli- Although the problem has been approached by. cient to minimize the tendency oi the screws or attempting in various ways to fasten the matenails to be pulled out by any vertical component.
rial down to the floor of the vehicle, all such As aresult of this arrangement of my dunnaging 25 efforts have failed of complete fulfillment of their apparatus, it is more securely anchored to the vepurpose. The results of such attempts invariahicle than where, as with previously known facilibly have been that the nails, screws, or other tiesfa purely direct pull is exerted upon the nails means used to secure the material to the vehicle used, all other conditions being equal. It is to floor became loosened and thereby rendered the beunderstood that any reference in this specifica- 30 article insecure and in a state wherein it might tion or in the appended claims to a stress which be damaged and might cause damage to other is horizontal or parallel to the vehicle surface or nearby articles. I substantially so is not to be construed as implying These failures may be attributed to the fact the non-existence of any possible vertical stress. that the stress exerted on the nails, screws, or I achieve the foregoing objects by providing one other means of connection to the floor has been or more bands which may be passed over the a substantially vertical pull stress; and as the material, but which, instead of being directly senails or screws are in a substantially vertical p'ocured to the vehicle floor, are connected toflex- ,sition in the vehicle floor, such vertical pull stress ible floor bands which are disposed at the base 40 exerted on the nails or screws rapidly loosens them of the material, substantially parallel to the floor, 7
v and (renders the -S ineffective- Efl ts with a free space above them to permit them have been made in some instances to secure arto flex when subjected to the stresses encountered ticles to the vehicle floor by the use of bolts, but in holding the material to the vehicle floor. The
' even-these eflorts have been unsuccessful, as in ends of the floor bands are screwed, nailed, or
many such instances the planking'of the floor has otherwise secured to the floor. The bands which 40 been pulled away from the substructure of the are passed over the material are secured to thevehicle. floor band at a point or points intermediate the An important object of the present invention is ends thereof, and thus the tendency toward verto overcome the foregoing diiflculties by providing tical displacement of the material will merely a method and apparatus for dunnaging material cause an increased horizontal tension on the 00 whereby the tendency toward vertical motion of floor bands, and as a result there will be little or the material is effectively restrained, with the no pull exerted which might tend to withdraw resultthat losses from damage to material in the screws'or nails from the vehicle floor.
transit are greatly minimized. My present invention is defined in the append- F Inachieving the objects of this invention recoged claims and is hereinafter described in detail. w
embodiment of my invention as applied to a packing case;
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary view in perspective of a modified application of my invention;
Fig. 3 is a cross-section of a packing case as secured to a vehicle floor in a further modified application of my invention; and
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary cross-section on the line 4-4 of Fig. 1.
Referring to Figs. '1 land 4, a packing case A is supported on skids a on the vehicle floor '3. Flexible floor bands H are provided which pass under the packing case between the skids with a free space above them to permit them to flex. At a distance from the baseof the packing case the floor bands II have flexible accessory fioor bands l2 connected thereto by links l3 having shanks, I, I4, and I4", around which are passed loops l5, l5, and I5", respectively, formed on the ends of the floor band H, the accessory floor band I2 and an encircling or tying band It. The aforesaid loops are secured against parting by metal binding elements 22 which embrace the ends of the loops, as best shown in Fig. 1. The outer ends of-the' accessory bands i2 are secured to floor plates ll by being passed throughslots l8 therein and then passed completely around the floor plates, by the rotation of the latter, before being secured to the floor, as best shown in Fig. 4. The floor plates are secured to the floor by nails or screws 20 of a suitable size. Thus the floor band ii and the connected accessory fioorbands l2, the outer ends of which are fastened to the floor, form an articulated and flexible floor member having provision thereon at a distance from its fioor anchorage where material encircling or tying bands may be secured. In fastening this.
fioor member to the floor, one of the fioor plates I 1 is nailed or screwed into position, the floor member is then tensioned, and, while under tension, the other floor plate on the opposite end of said member is nailed or screwed to the floor. Under certain conditions the floor member may be fastened to the floor and then tensioned by the tensioning of the encircling ortying bands It about the article.
The encircling bands It are adapted to be passed over the article to holdit down to the vehicle floor. .They are in two parts, l6 and It", the lower ends of which are fastened to the shanks ll" of the links l3 by means of loops IS". The other ends .of the bands l6 and i6" overlap and are connected under tension by metal binding elements 2| which are similar to those used in forming the loops connectingthe several bands to the links II. The bands It and i6" pass over. the article, and when connected together and to the floor member under tension. operate to hold the material securely in place on the vehicle floor.
It will be seen from the foregoing that the encircling bands l6, which directly operate to hold thepacking case to the floor, are not di rectly connected to the floor, but are connected to the floor member, which flexes slightly under the tension of the encircling bands, as best shown in Fig. 4. The floor member is under a tension exerted in a line substantially parallel to the vehicle floor. and as the encircling bands are attached to said floor member at points intermediate the ends thereoi', the eifect of any vibration of the vehicle tending to set up vertical motion circling bands It and I6" cations of the invention the or vertical vibrations in the packing case, only tends to momentarily increase the substantially horizontal tension-on the floor member. This increased tension does not exert any appreciable vertical pull on the "nails or screws 20 used to fasten down the floor plates" and, therefore, the floor member remains effectively secured-to the floor, even under the most extreme conditions whi h might be experienced in transit. The momentary increases in the tension on the floor bands impose an increased horizontal or shearing stress on the nails or screws used to secure the floor plate to the floor, but the nails or screws are of such size and material that they will withstand any such horizontal or shearing stresses which might be encountered. I
The application of my invention illustrated in Fig. 2 differs from that of Fig. 1 in that the en- I lie parallel to the sides of the packing case and are connected to the floor member at points adjacent the juncture of the side and bottom of the packing case; while in the application of the invention shown in Fig-.1, the said encircling bands are angularly disposed with reference to the side of the packing case, being conat a point underneath the packing case. In this modification a single link 23 may be utilized, to which both accessory floor bands l2 and the parts I 6' and it" of the encircling bands may all be connected, as shown. As thus arranged, the link 23 assumes the functions ofthe fioor'band ll of the modification illustrated in Fig. 1.
It will be apparent that the manner of using this invention depends largely upon the space available within the vehicle around the packing case. Aside from this consideration, the applicationsv of my invention, as illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3, might advantageously be used where it is desired to secure additional restraint against horizontal shifting of the case. In both such appli- I encircling or tying bands It and I!" operate directly upon the sides and base, as well as on the top of the article, thus afl'ordingadditional restraint against displacement of the case.
and it" pass at In practicingthis invention the dunnaging apparatus may be provided as units specially manufactured in a variety of sizes adapted to meet the ordinary requirements in this field. The apparatus will preferably be made of steel having properties suitable to the intended functions of the apparatus. The various bands may be made of commercial steel strip or hoop iron", such as is commonly used for baling purposes, or they may be of steel wire of cylindrical cross-section in either case being of suitable thickness andhaving a tensile strength sufllcient to'withstand the most extreme tension which might beencountered in practice.
It will be apparent from the foregoing that my v vehicle, passing a tie member about the article and securing said tie member to the anchorage member at points intermediate the points of connection thereof to the vehicle and tensioning said tie member to an extent sumcient to impose a tension on the anchorage member and to hold the article in contact with the vehicle.
2. The method of dunnaging an article in a vehicle, which comprises connecting the effective ends of a flexible anchorage member to a portion of the vehicle adjacent the article, tensioning said member, passing a tie member about the article a and securing said tie member under tension to the anchorage member intermediate the points of connection thereof to the vehicle whereby the stress present at said points of connection in holding the article in intimate contact with the vehicle is in' a direction substantially parallel to the portion of the vehicle to which the anchorage member is connected.
3. The method of dunnaging an article resting in the floor of a vehicle. which comprises encircling the article with a band and connecting the said band under tension to a tensioned flexible floor member the effective ends of which are secured to the vehicle floor, the said band being connected tothe floor member intermediate the points of connection thereof to the vehicle floor whereby the directions of the stresses at said floor connectionsare such that the tendency of such connections to loosen or pull apart is reducedto aminimum.
4. The method according to claim 3, which includes mounting the article on skids and connecting. the band to the floor member at a' point between the bottom of the article and the vehicle floor.
, 5. Apparatus for dunnaging an article in a vehicle, comprising a flexible anchorage member fixedly connected at a plurality of points to a portion of the vehicle, and a restraining member connected to said anchorage member intermediate" the points of connection thereof to the vehicle adapted to engage the article to prevent excessive movement thereof, the restraining member and the anchorage member being disposedin substantially the same plane.
6. Apparatus for dunnaging material in a vehicle, comprising a flexible anchorage member connected at its effective ends to a portion of the vehicle, and material restraining means connected to the anchorage member intermediate the points of connection thereof to the vehicle,
- the anchorage member being disposed substantially along the shortest line between the said points of connection and being so disposed relatively to the material that flexing of the anchorage member will be substantially unobstructed by any part of the material.
7. Apparatus for dunnaging material in a vehicle, comprising an articulated anchorage member connected at its effective ends to a portion of the vehicle, and material restraining means connected to the anchorage member intermediate the points of connection thereof to the vehicle, the anchorage member being disposed substantially along the shortest line between the said points of connection and being so disposed relatively to the material that flexing of the anchorage member will be substantially unobstructed by any part of the material.
8. Apparatus for dunnaging material in a vehicle, comprising a flexible anchorage member connected at a plurality of points to a portion of a vehicle,'and material restraining means connected to the anchorage member intermediate the points of connection thereof to the vehicle, the anchorage member being disposed substantially along the shortest lines between said points of connection and being. adapted to flexzin a direction substantially perpendicular to said vehicle portion, said anchorage member also being so disposed relatively to the material that such flexing will be substantially unobstructed by any part of the material.
9. Apparatus for dunnaging material in 9. vehicle, comprising an articulated anchorage member connected at its efiective ends to a' portion of a vehicle, and material restraining means connected to the anchorage member intermediate the points of connection thereof to the vehicle,
the anchorage member being disposed substantially along the shortest line between said points of connection and being adapted to flex in a direction substantially perpendicular to said vehicle portion, said anchorage member also being so disposed relatively to the material that such flexing will be substantially unobstructed by any part of the material.
10. The method of dunnaging material in a transporting vehicle, which comprises connecting a flexible anchorage member at its effective ends to a portion of the vehicle with said-member disposed substantially along the shortest line between the points of connection thereof to the vehicle, connecting a material restraining member intermediate the said ends of the anchorage member and bringingsaid restraining member into restraining relationship with the material.
GEORGE H. PRIDE.
4 "CERTIFICATE 0F CORRECTION.
Patent No. 2,032,591. March s, 1936.
GEORGE H. PRIDE.
It .is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 5', first column, line 23, claim 3, ,for the word "in" read on; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.
Signed and sealed this 14th day of April, A. D. 1936.
Leslie Frazer al) Acting Commissioner of Patents.