US 2033100 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 3, 1936. G, D, KELLOGG STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLY :s sheets-sheet 1 Filed OCT.. 20, 1932 INVENTOR 649013561). Ke BY llo ATTORNEY n March 3, 1936. G. D. KELLOGG STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLY Filed oct. 2o, 1932 3 sheets-sheet 2 INVENTOR Georje. Kellogg BY ATTORNEY 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 March 3, 1936. G. D. KELLOGG STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLY' Filed oct. 20, 1952 aw V objections.
`Patented Mar. r3, 1936 STRUCTURAL ASSEMBLY George D. Kellogg, Pelham Manor, N. Y., assigner to Johns-Manville Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application 0ctober'20, 1932, Serial No. @38,738
This invention relates to a structural assembly of preformed units and particularly to such an assemblyA of minimized tendency to rattle or" vibrate.
A preferred embodiment of the invention comprises the combination of preformed panels, suitably heavy and relatively non-vibratile, a supporting substructure that is vibration-damped, and antirattling fastening means lsecuring the Apanels to the substructure. The fastening means preferably comprise a spring tightening element and engage .springywalls in slots in an element in the substructure. 'Ihe substructurelmay include studs provided withan extension head 'adapted to be tted' closelyfagainst a transverse support member. The extension .element or head may fit slidably around an end portion of al unionA member while an end of the main", portion of the stud fits similarly around the lother end of the' union member, in such manner tha't the corresponding parts of the head and main portion of the stud lie in the same plane and thus provide a smooth face upon which to secure panels in the assembly.
To lire-resistant Walls made heretofore by assembling preformed panels upon a supporting substructure of metal, there have been certain Usually such assemblies are more or less misfitted or loosely held in certain positions and inclined to rattle o r to vibrate under the influence of incident sound or intermittent mechanical stresses. The studs, if cut to a standard length, may not fit snugly, in every instance, the floor and ceiling head plates, for example. If extension heads are used on the studs, to permit snug lit-ting at the ends, there is commonly a slight offset between the face of the head and the face of the main portion of the stud, and this contributes to the lack of rmness of support of a panel held to such a stud and extending. over the offset in the face. The fasteners which are used,
'if of predetermined dimensions, may not iit tightly in every case. Furthermore, the fasteners may be dimcult to secure adequately to the panel, par. ticularly when the panel is of preferred type such as a stonelike composition consisting essentially of asbestos and Portlandcement.
It is an object of'the invention to overcome the above -rnentioned disadvantages of assembled walls and to provide a structure which may be quickly and conveniently assembled in a building,
use in the present invention and also a finished assembly combining the said various members.
Fig. 1 is a sectional view of the preferred form of fastening means;
Fig. 2 is a sectional view of a modified form of 5 fasteningv means showing the expansion nut thereon, like that shown in Fig. l in the portion below the shoulder, but here expanded into engagement with the sidewalls of a hole in a panel;
Fig. 3 `is a perspective view of the spring tight- 10 ening element which is shown in sectional view in a portion of Fig. 1; n
Fig. 4 is a perspective view showing the expansion nut illustrated in section in a portion of Fig.1;
Fig. 5 is a face view oi' a preferred form of sup- 15 port which, in this embodiment, is a stud with union or extension members in 'engagement with the upper part of the stud;
Fig. 6 is a side View of a portion of the assembly shown in Fig. -5, but with the addition of a short 20 length of stud or extension head engaged over the upper part of the union member;
Fig. 7 is a perspective view of a portion of a stud support of preferred type, showing particularly the shape of the faces and of the slots therein;
Fig. 8 is a crosssectional view, on line 8 8 of Fig. 6, showing particularly the means of engagement of the union members within the stud supv in which a wall structure of preferred type is united at vlts'side edge portion to a permanent side wall of a building or to other firm support; and y Fig. 12 is a vertical sectional view of a wall assembled in accordance with the present in- Vvention.
In the various figures like reference characters denote like parts.
The fastening means illustrated in Fig. 1 comprises a machine bolt with head portion I and a threaded stem portion 2, and an expansion Vnut; 3 engaged on the end of the stem that is 50 remote from the head, a spring tightening element 4, and spacing means including the washer 5.
The expansion nut which is illustrated in perspective in Fig. 4, comprises sharp projecting 55 portions adapted to penetrate the side wall-of a countersunk hole in a unit of structural material such as a panel of asbestos and Portland cement. These projections include the sharp encircling rings 6 and I and the longitudinal knurling 8, consisting of a series of sharp, longitudinal ridges. The nut is provided with grooves 9, which divide the lower part into portions, such as quarters, which are readily expanded or spread apart, as indicated in Fig. 2, when the stem of a bolt is screwed into the nut. `When this is done, the sharp projections on the surface of the nut are forced into the panel. The nut is provided also with a shoulder I0, which., when the lower portion of the nut is inserted into a preformed hole in a. unit of' structural material,
' extends over the rim of the hole and rests upon the said rim, as illustrated. .In the embodiment shown in Figs'. l and 4, the nut is provided also with a sleeve portion II, about which ts the spacing washer or member 5, illustrated in Fig. l. 'I'his washer has a angedl portion I2, in lthe form of a collar extending 4around the sleeve II and towards the shoulder I0. When the bolt is screwed into the nut to the position of nal setting, the flange of the washer rests upon ,the shoulder I0, and defines therewith a space of predetermined width approximately equal to the width of the collar I2. It will be seen later that this space provides a convenient and desirable means to receive the side wall of a. slot in the sheet metal face I6 of a stud support and perf mit its being held firmly but slidably between the washer and the nut.
The spring washer 4 provides spring tightening means in the finished assembly, as Willappear later. i
In the partial assembly illustrated in Fig. 2, the nut is the same as illustrated in Figs. l and 4, with the exception that in Fig. 2 the sleeve portion II is omitted and, as stated, the nut has been expanded into engagement witha panel by turning the stem of the bolt into the nut' farther than shown in Fig. 1. The sharp projections on the outer surface of the nut penetrate into the panel I3, suitably a compressed and then hardened slab consisting essentially of asbestos and' Portland cement. The sharp ridges 6 and 'l prevent slipping -of the nut lengthwise within the hole in the panel while the knurling 8 prevents rotational movement.
Figs. 5-9 show details of stud supports adapted for use in antirattling structures of the present invention. y
The stud I4 is of modified I-shape of cross section, having a web member I5, and faces -I6 consisting each of two flanges extending outwardly, at right angles to the web member. The
- flanges are provided at their edges with narrower flanges or heels I'I, which extend rearwardly, at approximately right angles, from the faces of the stud. The studs are suitably of pressed sheet steel.
In the flanges constituting the faces of the stud there is provided a series of lspaced holes that may be in the form of slots lying wholly within the face portion of the stud and provided with an enlargement I8, to facilitate the insertion into the-slot of the head portion of the selected fastening means, and a. more nar- .wardly with respect to the plane of the face of the stud, as the side wall is followed in a downward direction, that is, away from the enlargement I8. The side wall below the lower extremity of the obliquely extending portionv extends-for a substantial distance, in portion 2I, in a 'direction that is approximately parallel to the plane of the face of the stud.
In order to have an adjustable length of the stud and also to permit extending the stud lengthwise into a recess into which a stud of invariable length could not be inserted conveniently and tightly from a sideward position, there are provided extension or un'ion members 22, which consist of modified channel irons inserted one on each side of theweb member of the I-shaped stud and extensibly and slidably engaged in the approximately channel-shaped space defined between either side of the web' member of i thestud and the anges thereon.l
The anges 23 of the channel iron union members are suitably bent into the lform of secondary or smaller modified channel shapes and define a space 24 between them and the anges of the I-stud. Ihis space is adapted to permit the insertion of the head of a bolt or the lile through a slot in the face of the stud and between the l said face and the base of "the secondary channel 23. The base members of the union ,or extension members and the web of the stud are secured together as by bolt 24, which passes through slot 25 in thestud and slot 26 in the members engaged at their lower ends within the primary element or main portion of the stud and at its upper end within a secondary element or Y extension head 49 constituting a short length of',
stud of y the same dimensions of cross section, angles, and type as the primary element or main portion. The primary and secondary elementsV of the stud are each approximately I-shaped in cross section and include each a web member and flanges on'the opposite .side edges thereof. Within these elements the union member is adjustably and slidably engaged at either end. Since the primary and secondary elemnnta'have the same size`and shape of cross section and are assembled end to end, they may be held in position with the corresponding parts. of the two' elements lying in the same planes. Thus, the faces abut to form a smooth surface over which panels may be applied and held firmly, to give an important advantage as compared with the usual type of extension stud in which the extension Vhead is inserted within or over the main portion of the stud, in such manner the zone of union.
When the union member unites two stud elements, as illustrated in Fig. 6, the union member may be secured tothe lower element by bolt 24 passing through slots 25 and 26 as described. Likewise, the member may be secured to the upper or extension head by bolt 21 passing through slot 28 in the head and slot 29 in the union member.
The'slots in the end portion of the web member of the stud should be slightly longer than the space between slots in the union members and spaced apart by a lesser distance than the length as to provide an offset in l of the individual slots in the union membersf thus permitting changes in combined length of the stud and union members by infinitesimal amounts.
Fig. 10 shows stone-like panels I3 in position' on the face of the stud.
At the place of union of the side edge. of an assembled wall to a relatively non-vibratile base support, such as a permanent wall of 'a building, that is, a side wall, floor or ceiling, the assembly illustrated in Fig. ll may be used. Thus, a channel iron 3|, provided with flanges bearing spaced slots of the type lillustrated in connection with the I-studs, may be secured to the permanent or base support 32, by means of conventional fastening devices 33, which may be drive-in for toggle bolts inserted through a hole in the web member of the channel and into a hole in the base support. In the slots in the anges in the channel are engaged fasteners 34, of the type illustrated the stud is placed in the assembly. Besides damping vibrations and decreasing rattling, the felt serves also the useful purpose of minimizing the circulation o'f air andthe carrying. of dust through the assembled wall. v
In the wall assembly illustrated in Fig. 12 there are shown a channel sill 35 and a channel ceiling head plate 35 with their basessecured,V respectively, to the floor 31 and to the ceiling 38 of the building. Vibration-damping felts 39 in the form of continuous sheets may be disposed between the bases ofl the channel irons and the said oor or ceiling and held permanently in position, in
contact with the said bases. The method of securing these channels to their supports may involve securing -means such as the drive-in or toggle bolts Il and 48. .In assembling the wall these channel irons are rst secured in position and then there is erected the stud I4, with union members 22, in this case serving as an extension head. The base of the stud which may be cut out in the portion 40, to facilitate the insertion of electric Vconduits and the like, is engaged within the flanges of the channel constituting the sill. The member 22 is then pushed upward into engagement between the flanges of the channel constituting the ceiling head plate.
the shoulder I contacts with the rim of the hole and the knurling 8 is engaged tightly, by penetration of the sharp ridges into the side walls of the hole in such manner that, when the machine bolt is screwed into position in the nut,
Athe nut is held without rotation. The machine bolt, with the spring washer 4, and the spacing washer in position around the stem of the bolt, is then screwed into' position. As the stern of the bolt moves into the nut, the lower portion of the nut, which has initially a tapered, threaded interior, as illustrated, is caused to expand and the sharp projections on the exterior, near the lower end of the nut, are caused to penetrate the side walls of the hole. The machinebolt is turned into the nut until it compresses the spring washer and thereby holds the washer 5, by spring tightening means, with the collar I2 against the shoulder I0 on the nut.
'Ihe panels provided thus with fasteners are now secured to the studs, by inserting the heads and washers on the fasteners through the enlargementor head po'rtion I8 of the slot and then pushing the panel and fastener downward, to
tighten the engagement. In thisengagemnt the washer, 5 and `the shoulder I0 are on opposite sides of the springy walls of the slot and define between them a space which permits ready slipping of the fastener on the side walls of the slot. At the same time, the Vspringy nature of the walls of the slot and also' the spring washer or meansA 4' make possible that the final engagement shall b e tight and antirattling and that the panels and studs are held by spring action in close contact with each other. As the fastener' is pushed downward from the place of rst insertion through the head I8 of the slot, the washer -passes initially overthe inclined portion of the edge o'f the-- slot, which tightens the engagement of the panel A,to the support, and i passes .nally over the straight portion 2|, which makespossible maintaining the tightness of thel engagement, even Cthough there may be a substantial variation in the' position of the fastener n'the. slot, without either loosening the engagement as the position of the fastener is varied slightly, or increasing it 'to a tightness that is impossible of being obtained 2 readily.
When panels have thus been assembled on the studszto an adequate height, a frieze strip assem- 42 provided preferably with a bent or spring portion 43. The frieze strip with the fastener assem;
bly described is then placed in position over the upper edge of the uppermost. panel I3 and is allowed to rest upon said edge, with lthe strip of metal 42 extending downward behind the panel.
In the finished-assembly this metal strip, with'its spring portion, gives `a spring engagement which r contributes to the elimination of rattling and vibration of the wall. ,The top portion of the frieze strip is pushed against a downwardly extending flange of the ceiling head plate 36 and is secured posed extension member by suitable means, as,
screw lill.- Under the head'of this screw and held 'thereto and to a ange of the rearwardly dis-v tightly thereby against the outsideof the frieze strip may be a metal molding clip 45; over which,
is engaged, finally, a metal molding strip 65. ^At
the lower portion of the )wall there may be attached baseboard by means of self-tapping and threading screws 5I inserted through the .baseboard and panel I3 andthe face of the stud It will be seen that the various features of the invention acting in combination contribute mutually to the whole and produce an assembled wallof outstanding utility.
While the invention has been described particularly withreference to the construction of a partition, it is to be understood thatother boundaries of an enclosure may be constructedin accordance with the invention andthat also matelrials of construction other than those described '1. A structural assembly comprising in comwith slots with springy side walls that engage the fastening means and that extend at their back for a substantial distance obliquely with respect to the face of the support 'and then for a substantial distance parallel thereto.
. 2. A structural assembly comprising in combination supports, panels, fastening `means securing the panels to the supports, and a spring tightening element in the said fastening means, the said supports being provided each with slots with side walls that engage the fastening means land that extend at their back for a substantial distance obliquely with respect to the face of the support and then for a substantial distance parallel thereto.
3. A structural assembly comprising in combination a substructure including supports provided with openings, panels, and fastening means securing the panels to the supports, the said fastening -means comprising a .bolt including a threaded stem portion, a head engaging one of the said supports and extending through one of the openings therein, and an expansion nut engagingfrin the inside, the threaded portion of the bolt and engaging, on the outside, one oi' the said panels. f4. A structural assembly comprising in combination a substructure including supports pro-l vided with slots, panels, and fastening means securing the panels to the supports; Vthe said fastening means comprising a bolt including a threaded stem portion, a head engaging a slot in one of the said supports, and an expansion nut engaging, inthe inside, the threaded portion of the bolt and provided,'on the outside, with sharp,v projecting portions penetrating into the side walls of a hole in one of the said panels and thereby preventing lengthwise and rotational movement of the nut within the panel.
5. A structural assembly comprising in combination a. substructureincluding supports pro.
vided with slots, panels, and fastening meansv securing `the panels tothe supports, the said fastening means comprising an element with a head portion engagedin one of the'said slots and with a,stem portion attached at one end to the said head portion and at the other end to apanel and comprising also members extending 'transversely with respect to the ,stem portion and defining between them a space adapted to receive the side walls of one of the said slots and permit slidable engagement thereof by the fastening means. y
7. A structural assembly comprising," in combination, a substructure including supports of the type of studs, panels ofv facing material, fastening means engaging at one end the panels and at the other end engaging the supports, and spring tightening elements, constituting a part of the said -`each other.. y
8. A structural assembly comprising, in `com-v bination, panels of facing material, supports of the type of studs provided on their face portions with a plurality of slots lying wholly within the said face portions,` springy side walls of the said slots, and fastening means at one end engaging the panels and at the other end engaging the said springy side walls, whereby the panels are held by spring action upon the supports.
9. A structural assembly comprising in combination a permanent wall of a building, a supporting substructure adjoining at an edge the said permanent wall, preformed panels of i'acing material, means supporting the said panels upon the substructure and securing the panels tightly thereto in antirattling manner, and sealing` and vibration-damping material, of the type of a sheet of felt, disposed continuously between the said edge of the substructure and the permanent wall, closing the `ioint therebetween, minimizing thecirculation of air through the ljoint, and minimizing the transmission of vibration ybetween the said substructure and permanent wall.
"10. A structural assembly comprising in combination supports of the type of studs, preformed rigid panels, fastening means securing the panels to the supports and spring tightening elements coacting with the fastening means and holding the panels against the supports.
11. A structural assembly comprising in combination supports provided 'with openings therein, panels provided with countersunk holes registering with the said openings and bolt assemblies securing the panels to the supports, the bolt assemblies comprising each a head of a bolt engaging one of the supports, a stem of the bolt threadedv at its end portion and extending through-one of the said openings,an expansion nutengaging, on the inside, the threaded portion of the stem offthe bolt, sharp portions projecting outwardly from the nut and engaged in the wall of one of the said countersunk holes and a shoulder offthe nut extending over and resting upon the rim of the countersunk hole.
12.A structural assembly comprising in combination supports provided with openings therein, panels provided with countersunk holes registering with the said openings and bolt assembliessecuring the panels to the supports, the bolt assemblies comprising each a head of a bolt engaging one of the supports, a stem of the bolt 'threaded at its end portion and extending