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Publication numberUS2034726 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMar 24, 1936
Filing dateMay 16, 1927
Priority dateNov 30, 1925
Publication numberUS 2034726 A, US 2034726A, US-A-2034726, US2034726 A, US2034726A
InventorsWilliam Menninger Elmore
Original AssigneeMargaret Domers
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Reenforcement foundation
US 2034726 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

March 24, 1936. MENMNGER 2,034,726

REENFORCEMENT FOUNDATION Filed May 16, 1927 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 a/rag A TTORNEYS.

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March 24, 1936. E. w. MENNINGER 2,034,726

REENFORCEMENI FOUNDATION 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed May 16. 1927.

INVENTOR, f/mo/"e W/Y/fd/W Mann/7276A ATTORNEYS.

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4 Sheets-Sheet 4 E. W. MENNINGER REENFORCEMENT FOUNDATION Filed May 16, 1927 fienn/hye/r w ATTORNEYS.

' 'E/mora [MY/[0m Patented Mar. 24, 1936 Wire STATES rare GFiCE REENFORCEMENT FOUNDATION Application May 16, 1927, Serial No. 191,886 In Canada November 30, 1925 42 Claims. (Cl. 72--11) My invention relates to reenforcement foundations of the character embodying a. reticulated element and furring element and sometimes incorporating a backing material, .as employed in structures of cementitious material to increase the strength of the structure while at the same time securing the cementitious material in position. It is related especially to a character of reenforcement foundations wherein the aforesaid members are connected together and which may permit of enclosing the reticulated element within the cementitious material; and particularly to a character of reenforcement foundations adapted to complete assembly at the factory ready for placing.

My invention has as an object the inexpensive yet effective strengthening of structures employing cementitious material such, for example, as concrete floor and roof slabs employing reenforcement foundations, the construction of which is understood by those skilled in these arts.

Another object of the invention is the .avoiding of deterioration in structures employing cementitious material such, for example, as plastering and stuccoing employing reenforcement foundations which are first installed and the cementitious material then applied thereto as, for example, in facing metalor wood-framed buildlllgS.

Another object is to provide a construction enabling reenforcement foundations to be made as unitary products at the factory with said products having: in some instances, a reticulated element and furring element for spacing the reticulated element from a support; inother instances,

a reticulated element and furring element, incorporating a backing material, the construction sometimes providing for connecting thebacking material or certain members thereof with the furring element as well as admitting of enclosing the reticulated element within cementitious material; and, in further instances, a reticulated element comprising oppositely disposed sections, a

furrihg element holding the oppositely disposed sections of the reticulated element in spaced relation to each other, and sometimes a backing material, the construction sometimes providing for connecting the backing material or certain members thereof with the furring element as well 5 as admitting of enclosing the reticulated element within cementitious material.

Another object is to provide a construction admitting of expeditious installation in structures employing reenforcement foundations.

55 Another object is to provide a construction readily applicable in fabrications employing cementitious material such, for example, as panels and pipes and posts.

Another object is in making provision for positively and permanently maintaining substantially the previously determined spacing of the members forming the reenforcement foundations.

A further object is in making provision for increasing the facility of securing reenforcement foundations to position adjacent different mate- 10 rials of construction.

In structures employing cementitious material and employing prior known reenforcement foundations, it is impossible to effect a complete closure of the reticulated element within the ce- 15 mentitious material, without having extending from the rear-face of the cementitious material in direct contact with the reticulated element large areas of the furring element, particularly at points where fasteners are employed for secur- 20 ing the reenforcement foundations in position. Therefore, those portions of the reenforcement foundations remainingexposed at points in direct contact with the reticulated element are readily attacked by the elements, inducing or 25 promoting consequent oxidation within the reticulated element and subsequent damage to the structures employing such reenforcement foundations.

In my invention reenforcement foundations 30 may comprise a construction, employing in the reticulated element a partially or wholly metallic material at least in part possessing oxidizable characteristics, that will permit of effectively positioning the reticulated element adjacent a sup- 35 port and moreover adjacent a support comprising differently spaced members, as well as permit of totally embedding or encasing the reticulated element within the cementitious material employed in the structures incorporating reen- 40 forcement foundations, without producing ill effects in the cementitious material wherewith it is employed.

Another provision of my invention, enabling structures incorporating reenforcement foundations to employ cementitious material either acid reaction occurs, for example, as in magnesia cement aggregations, that the reenforcement foundations may employ in the reticulated element a partially or wholly metallic material at least in part possessing corrosion-resistant characteristics and in the furring element a partially or wholly metallic material at least in part possessing oxidizable characteristics, thereby eifecting an inexpensive construction of reenforcement' foundations insuring the permanent continuity of the cementitious material.

My invention is further expedient in that it provides reenforcement foundations having a construction admitting of lending the same to bending, Whenever desired, that will permit of packaging in roll form for handling and unrolling to fiat form for installation, as well as permit of forming to angular or curved shapes, without substantially affecting therein the previously determined spacing of the reticulated element and the furring element.

My invention of reenforcement foundations, incorporating a backing material, may employ a construction connecting the backing with the furring element in advance of the application of the cementitious material used in the structures employing the invention, that will provide for spacing the backing from the reticulated element, thereby aiding the application of the cementitious material, especially in overhead construction.

The backing material or, whenever the backing material is comprised of several members, certain members thereof may be constructed obtaining the following qualities: properties repelling vermin and/or properties resisting flammability and/or properties retarding moisture penetration therethrough because of capillarity or otherwise,

, as, for example, by treating with zinc chloride and/or sodium borate and/or bituminous material, respectively; and/or, absorptiveness, enabling the cementitious material to better adhere thereto and stiffen before chemically setting and thus minimize liability to loosening and to checking and crazing, as, for example, by providing a rough, porous surface in contact with the cementitious material; and/or, increased strength, increasing the resistance thereof, particularly to tearing in handling, as, for example, by integrally incorporating, preferably, at crisscross intervals, for example, abaca fibers, either as an element thereof or, whenever the backing material is comprised of several members, between members or otherwise; and/or, increased rigidity, limiting bulging during the application of the cementitious material besides increasing the strength and durability, as, for example, by employing at intervals, metallic stifieners, as a component thereof; and/or, sound and/or thermal insulating properties, as, for example, by providing a structure composed of uncompressed fibrous material.

The fasteners herein provided for securing reenforcement foundations to position, or certain portions thereof, may be treated as hereinafter particularly described, that will make more tenacious the engagement of the fasteners with the reticulated element and/or the engagement of the fasteners with the support and/or prevent or limit the conduction of sound waves ordinarily transmitted by fasteners and/or minimize liability of the fasteners to attack by the elements and insure against disintegration in the cementitious material and/or prevent the deleterious infiuences of metallic contact with materials possessing dissimilar characteristics thereto.

Complementary to the treatment above mentioned, the fasteners may employ a construction providing a metallic material possessing non-oxidizable characteristics in at least the portions thereof to be engaged with the reticulated element, which metallic material may comprise in some instances high-alloy-steel and in some instances zinc coated iron or steel, and thus, insure a permanent fastening, without deleterious influences, for structures employing cementitious material.

My within invention includes the elements of invention described and illustrated in my application for Letters Patent, filed May 8, 1923, Serial No. 637,537, and, in so far as the subject matter of this application and that of said prior application are in common, this application is a substitute therefor.

This application also includes the elements of invention described and illustrated but not claimed in my Letters Patent, No. 1,816,387, dated July 28, 1931, and, therefore, this application is a continuation in part thereof.

The fasteners described and illustrated herein are not specifically claimed as they form the subject matter of my Letters Patent, Nos. 1,816,387 and 1,832,231, dated July 28, 1931 and November 17, 1931, respectively.

My invention is illustrated in the accompanying drawings wherein: Figure 1 is an edge view of a construction of a reenforcement foundation, as fabricated at the factory, in accordance with provisions of the invention, showing a backing material loosely secured between the reticulated element and portions of the furring element.

Figure 2 is an enlarged face view in detail of a. portion of the reenforcement foundation illustrated in Figure 1, connected to a support, a portion of the reticulated element being embedded or encased in cementitious material. Figure 3 is a sectional view onthe line indicated by 3-3, Figure 2, so as to show the fastener.

Figure 4 is an enlarged view of the fastener illustrated in Figures 2 and 3, in section on the line indicated by 4-4, Figure 3, and shows the coating in detail.

Figure 5 is a face view of a reenforcement foundation similar to that illustrated in Figures 2 and 3, slightly modified so as to incorporate further provisions of the invention, especially by making provision for lending the construction to bending and for connecting the backing material with the furring element. Figure 6 is a sectional view on the line indicated by 6-6, Figure 5.

Figure 7 'is a face view of another modification of the reenforcement foundation similar to that illustrated in Figure 1, showing a coating in detail over a portion of the reticulated element. Figure 8 is a sectional view on the line indicated by 8-8, Figure 7, to show the furring element. Figure 9 illustrates the staple employed in Figures 7 and 8 connecting the backing material and furring element, said furring element and a portion of the backing being shown in section.

Figure 10 is a face view of another modification of the reenforcement foundation, employing sheet metal for the reticulated element and flat wire or metal ribbon for the furring element and employing a laminated backing material, and incorporating still other provisions of the invention. Figure 11 is a sectional view on the line indicated by Il-l I, Figure 10.

Figure 12 is a face view of another modification 'tion members.

material embraces portions of the furring element. Portions of the reticulated element and backing material are shown broken away. Figure 13 is a sectional view on the line indicated by |3|3, Figure 12.

Figure 14 is a face view of another modification of the reenforcement foundation, wherein the furring element comprises individual projec- Port-ions of the reticulated element and backing material are shown broken away. Figure 15 is a sectional view on the line indicated by |5-|5, Figure 14. Figure 16 is a sectional view showing a preferred construction of the marginal portions of the reenforcement foundation illustrated in Figures 14 and 15, lengthwise of the furring element. 3

Figure 17 is a perspective view of a second form of fastener for securing the reenforcement foundations in position, a fragment of the support in which it is anchored also being shown. Figure 18 is an enlarged sectional view on the line indicated by |8|8, Figure 17, and shows the coating in detail.

Figures 19 and 20 illustrate in fragmental perspectives still other forms of the reenforcement foundation similar to that illustrated in Figure 1, the furring elements being of a construction similar to the embodiment illustrated in Figures 14 and 15, the views showing the furring elements.

Figure 21 illustrates in fragmental perspective a further modification of the reenforcement foundation.

Figure 22 is a sectional view of a reenforcement foundation similar to that illustrated in Figure 1, crosswise of the furring element and slightly modified by employing an adaptation of the backing material illustrated in Figures 7 and 8, and shaped to effect a cylinder adaptable in the manufacture of tubular structures employing cementitious material, Figure 23 is an enlarged fragmental sectional view on the line indicated by 2323, Figure 22.

Figure 24 illustrates in fragmental perspective a third form of fastener for securing reenforcement foundations in position. Figure 25 is an enlarged sectional view on the line indicated by 25-25, Figure 24, and shows the coating in detail.

Figure 26 is a longitudinal view of a form of peg or pin especially useful with'the fasteners illustrated in Figures 17 and 24.

Figure 27 illustrates in fragmental perspective a fourth form of fastener for securing reenforcement foundations in position, the locking member detachably engaging the anchoring member. Figure 28 is an enlarged sectional View on the line indicated byv 28-28, Figure 27, and shows the coating in detail.

Describing the invention, referring first particularly to. the reenforcement foundation illustrated in Figures 1, and 2 and 3, there is provided a suitably constructed reticulated element 3|, which in this instance is formed of strand wires and stay wires 32 and 33, sometimes characterized as metal fabric, connected together at their crossing junctions by fusing or welding and fully tcnsioned or straight, between crossing junctions.

The reticulated element 3| in Figures 1 to 3 may pcssess oxidizable characteristics, since the invention permits of totally embedding or encasing the reticulated element 3| within the cementitious material, as exemplified at X, in Figures 2 and 3, when this is applied to complete the structure employing the reenforcement foundation; therefore, utilizing an inexpensive construction for the reticulated element, without producing ill effects in the cementitious material.

Spacing the reticulated element 3| from the member fragmentally illustrated at S, in Figures 2 and 3, or other support adjacent which the reenforcement foundation may be installed, is a furring element, sometimes characterized as retaining members, formed of" suitably constructed units, preferably comprising metallic material, such, for example, as indicated at 34, in Figure 1, where one unit only is in view. The furring element 34, as illustrated, in Figures 1 to 3, is coextensive with the reticulated element 3| and extends mainly in a plane that is spaced from the reticulated element and parallel therewith, forming projections 35 and extensions 36.

Projections 35, in this instance in the form of bows or offset bends 35|, connect with the reticulated element 3| as, for example, by being fused or welded thereto, in this instance at points on wires 32 beneath where wires 33 cross them, as indicated at 31. Extensions 36 being spaced by projections 35, to which they are joined, from the reticulated element 3|, in Figures 2 and 3 space the reticulated element 3| from the support S, whose members the extensions 36 engage and to which the reticulated element 3| is shown connected, so that when the cementitious material is being applied to complete the structure it will flow entirely around the reticulated element 3| and totally embed or encase the same, as exemplified at X, in Figures 2 and 3. It is to be noted in my construction that projections 35, while positioned at suitable intervals, may employ an arrangement either parallel or staggered, or otherwise, and that extensions 36 may employ any suitable direction or combination of directions in the construction. Also, that in the arrangement illustrated in Figures 1 to 3 of the drawings, the reticulated element 3| is positively and permanently retained in completely spaced relation to extensions 36 by the projections 35,

thus insuring the complete enclosure of the reticulated element in the applied material X.

Especially whenever the reticulated element 3| is formed having relatively large interstices or openings therein and the support adjacent which thereenforcement foundation may be installed is formed having members exposed in spaced relation, the reenforcement foundation may include a backing material, which may have sheetlike form, such, for example, as indicated at 38, and which may comprise paper of suitable quality or other suitable material, in order to prevent the cementitious materialv falling away while it is being applied to the reticulated element and/or enable the constructor to expeditiously enclose the reticulated element within the cementitious material. In making the reenforcement foundation, incorporating the backing material 38, the backing may be applied before the reticulated element 3| and projections 35 of the furring element are connected. And the backing may be provided with apertures or openings 38L so as to particularly accommodate projections 35 of the furring element and/or facilitate connecting of the reticulated element 3| and projections 35 of the furring element.

It is to be noted that, should the reenforcement foundation incorporate the backing material 38, the spacing provided between the inner-face of the reticulated element 3| and the inner-face of extensions 36 of the furring element is relatively greater than the space therebetween occupied by such backing. In view of the backing material 38 shown in Figures 1 to 3 of the drawings being loosely secured between the reticulated element 3| and furring element 34, the backing material 38 may contact with the reticulated element 3| such, for example, as illustrated in Figure 1; however, it will be readily understood that the application of the cementitious material to the reenforcement foundation in the process of enclosing the reticulated element will remove the bnckingfrom the reticulated element.

In structures employing reenforcement foundations which are to be secured in position, various means, differing in character as requirements may necessitate, may be employed for the purpose. For example, in Figures 2 and 3, where the reenforcement foundation hereinbefore described is shown installed adjacent a support of wooden construction in fragmental illustration, as exemplified at 8", there is shown a fastener or spacer-nail 39, having a locking portion engaging the reticulated element 3| and an anchoring portion penetrating the support S, in this instance so driven as to embrace members 32 and 33 at their crossing junction, thereby effecting an expeditious connection for securing reenforcement foundations in position. In forming the spacer-nail 39 there is provided oppositely disposed and spaced portions of unequal length in substantially parallel relation, integrally connected together so as to be of hook shape, the longer or driving portion 39! being pointed to pierce the suppoitwherewith it is employed and the shorter or furring portion 392 having a blunt end or tip to engage the member or element contacting therewith when the spacernail is driven home, which effect is clearly shown in Figure 2 of the drawings.

It will be readily understood, that should a staple for example, instead of the spacer-nail 39, have been employed for connecting the reenforcement foundation to the support illustrated in Figures 2 and 3, the constructor would have been compelled to exercise considerable diligence in driving the same in order to leave the precise protrusion there required to retain the previously determined spacing in the reenforcement foundation, because a staple has both its ends or legs pointed to pierce the support wherewith it is employed; therefore, the embodiment preferred by me for securing reenforoement foundations to position in wooden constructions is differently formed than a staple, as the fastener indicated at 39, in Figures 2 and 3, readily discloses. Moreover, should the portions 39! and 392 of the spacer-nai1 be formed in different relation than the aforesaid parallelism, there would be the tendency of the shorterportion 392 to penetrate the support or to bend when the spacer-nail is being driven home and thus defeat the purpose of my construction.

Now the length of the shorter portion 392 from the inner face of the section connecting together the portions 39l and 392 to the end or tip thereof, approximately corresponds to the thickness of the reticulated element and the spacing as may be provided in the reeniorcement foundation for the cementitious material, thereby insuring the spacing of the reticulated element from the support to which the spacer-nail 39 connects it, substantially the distance previously determined therefor. Consequently, in structures employing the spacer-nail 39 for securing reenforcement foundations in position such, for example, as shown in Figures 2 and a, the constructor may drive the same home without the necessity of considering the protrusion required by the reenforcement foundation there shown,

since the shorter portion 392 being blunt at its end or tip will engage the member or element at the support and cause the spacer-nail to drive hard, indicating in a positive manner to the constructor to cease driving and thus leave the spacing previously determined for the cementitious material.

The section 393 of the spacer-nail, connecting together the portions 39l and 392, may be either curved or straight, or otherwise. It may be preferable, however, to construct the section 393 at the longer portion 39l substantially at right angles thereto so as to concentrate the driving thereat and thus lessen the effort and time otherwise required to penetrate the support wherewith it is employed, and at the shorter portion 392 more or less curved so as to suit the reticulated element to be engaged by the spacer-nail.

In order to admit of the spacer-nail 39 still more firmly embracing the reticulated element to be engaged thereby and prevent the reticulated element being forced away from its previously determined position within the bight of the spacernail as the cementitious material is being applied to the reenforcement foundation, the longer portion 39! and/or shorter portion 392 may be providod with depressions or protuberances such, for

example, as grooves or ridges, as exemplified at 394, in Figure 3. Whenever the spacer-nail 39 is accordingly treated, it may have a breadth, between the portions 39I and 392, that will permit of placing the spacer-nail for driving, having the reticulated element to be engaged within the bight thereof, snugly fitted between the portions 3! and 392 or positioned in an angular relation therebetween, and thus, better insure the spacing previously determined for the reticulated element thereby engaged.

The anchoring or penetrating portion of the spacer-nail, or at least the point thereof, may be provided with a helical or twisted cutting such, for example, as indicated at 395, in Figure 3, so that when the spacer-nail is being driven into the support wherewith it is employed it will rotate or turn about the axis of the longer portion 39I and clamp or grip the reticulated element thereby engaged within the looking or protruding portion of-the spacer-nail. It is to be noted that this rotating or turning of the spacernail, besides embracing the reticulated element to be engaged within the bight thereof, provides an effective means for tightening the reticulated element between adjacent spacer-nails.

In order to insure the shorter portion 392 against penetrating the member or element contacting therewith in the process of driving the spacer-nail home, the area of the shorter portion 392 at its end or tip may be enlarged as, for example, by providing a shoulder 396 thereat, preferably convexed, such, for example, as indicated in dotted lines, in Figure 3.

Having described the construction of one form of my invention of reenforcement foundations, the operation of applying merely consists in placing the same in whatever construction it is to be a part, giving effect to both the reticulated element and the furring element; however, in struc tures employing reenforcement foundations secured in position such, for example, as shown in Figures 2 and 3 of the drawings, where the reenforcement foundation there shown is connected with a support of wooden construction in fragmental illustration, using therefor the fastener or spacer-nail hereinbefore described, the operation of installing consists, first, in spreading the reenforcement foundation there shown upon the support, giving effect to both the reticulated element and the furring element, and, second, in engaging the spacer-nail at suitable intervals with the reticulated element and driving the spacer-nail into the support until it drives hard, securing the reticulated element substantially within the bight of the spacer-nail and holding the reticulated element taut between spacernails.

Referring to Figures 2 and 3, it is quite obvious that because of the practically continuous spaced relation of the reticulated element 3| and furring element 34, that the point of contact of the furring element with the support S could just as well have been at any other place therealong than where shown; therefore, it is especially noteworthy that the invention expeditiously facilitates installing reenforcement foundations adjacent a support comprising differently spaced members, without the necessity of predetermin'ing the definite positions of the members in reference to certain places on the reenforcement foundations.

It may be mentioned in connection with the spacer-nail that, besides securing reenforcement foundations in position in structures employing the same, it further secures any backing material in position against the support, as well as against movement toward the reticulated element and between adjoining spacer-nails.

In some instances it may be found that with certain constructions of the backing material, employed in conjunction with reenforcement foundations, the shorter portion of the spacernail may slightly compress the backing against the support before driving hard or may penetrate the backing before being stopped by the support; therefore, it is to be understood that the shorter portion of the spacer-nail may have correspondingly increased length.

The operation of placing the invention having been completed, the constructor will then apply the cementitious material that is to enter into the complete structure in any approved manner to fill the interstices or openings of the reticulated element 3| and provide the desired covering and should the reenforcement foundation incorporate the backing material 38 or instead is installed adjacent an equivalent thereof, so as, whenever desired, also to fill the space between the reticulated element 3| and backing material 38 or aforesaid equivalent thereof and embed or encase the reticulated element 3| within the cementitious material such,for example, as illustrated in Figures 2 and 3 of the drawings.

It is to be noted of my construction of reenforcement foundations that besides being adapted to assembly at the factory as a unitary product, it enables the reticulated element to have the interstices thereof in an unbroken and single plane the extent of the reenforcement founda tion, admitting of the construction imparting the greatest possible strength to structures wherewith it is employed.

Owing to my construction of reenforcement foundations permittingof completely interlocking without pocket-voids the reticulated element within the cementitious material forming the structures employing my invention of reenforcement foundations, particularly at points where the reticulated element and furring element connect and the reenforcement foundation is conmetal areas lying between the reticulated element and rear-face of the cementitious material.

Referring to Figure 3, it is particularly noteworthy that the construction admits of the cementitious material X being proportioned to any desired thickness on each side of the reticulated element 3| and that whenever the reenforcement foundation there shown is installed adjacent a support comprising members in spaced relation, as exemplified at S, where one only is shown, the invention admits of the cementitious material being of a practically uniform minimum thickness substantially without bulging between the members comprising the support, thereby avoiding or limiting the deleterious consequences of strains and stresses induced or promoted by varying thicknesses of cementitious material.

Owing to my invention providing for a uniformly distributed strength in structures employing reenforcement foundations, because of permitting of totally embedding or encasing, without pocket-voids, the reticulated element within a substantially uniform predetermined thickness of the cementitious material used in the structures, and owing to my invention providing at most a minimum of metallic material between the reticulated element and rear-face of the cementitious material, especially at points lying in contact with a support and particularly between the reticulated element and such support, whenever the invention is secured in position adjacent a support, it is to be noted further that the invention practically eliminates the liability of deterioration the result of strains or stresses induced or promoted by natural forces or physical differences betwen the structure and support.

Now .referring more particularly to Figures 5 and 6, the reenforcement foundation there shown is constructed substantially as in Figures 1 to 3, consequently, members or elements in Figures5 and 6, indicated by reference characters previously employed, followed by the sufiix a, are of equivalent function of members or elements hereinbefore described having corresponding reference characters.

- In order to lend the reenforcement foundations to bending of the character hereinbefore described, certain members thereof may be constructed making provision therein for contracting or expanding such, for example, as indicated in generalby the character 40, in Figures 5 and 6.

Accordingly, the members 32a and/or 33a of the reticulated element 3| a may be crimped, as exemplified at 4|, in Figure 5, and/ or the projections 35a of the furring element 34a may be tapered inwardly, as exemplified at 42, in Figure 6, and thus, enable the reticulated element and/or furring element to be contracted or expanded without substantially affecting the spacing previously determined for the reenforcement foundation.

And when the reenforcement foundation incorporates a backing material, similar provision may be made therein, which in Figures 5 and 6 consists in providing in the backing material 38a suitable pleating 43, preferably in suitable grouping such, for example, as indicated at 43 I. While pleating 43, providing for contracting or expanding .of the backing, in Figures 5 and 6 extends crosswise of the furring element 34a, it will be readily understood that such means or other means of-giving similar effect may extend so as to permit of contracting or expanding the backing in any other desired direction.

The members forming the reticulated element or at least certain portions thereof may be distorted or deformed, which provision in Figures 5 and 6 may be accomplished by the aforesaid crimping 4|, thereby diminishing liability to deterioration, in structures employing reenforcement foundations, having its cause, for example, in strains or stresses by reason of temperature difierences between the reticulated element and the cementitious material and/or in deflection or distortion by reason of design or natural forces and/or in displacement or slippage of the reticulated element within the cementitious material by reason of deflection or distortion in the structure.

It may be 'of advantage in some instances to provide for connecting the backing material with portions of the furring element, which, in Figures 5 and 6, may be accomplished by the means indicated in general by the character 44, in which the extensions 36a of the furring element are bent at suitable intervals to form bows, of which one only, as indicated at 45, is shown in-the drawings, projecting in the direction of the reticulated element 3la, though not necessarily disconnected therefrom as the drawings indicate, through an aperture or opening in the backing material 38a such, for example, as indicated at 382, and interwoven between the bow 45 and the backing material 38a is a suitable peg or pin such, for example, as indicated at 45, preferably having a formation with compound curves therein, in order to facilitate positioning and prevent slipping before the reticulated element receives the cementitious material to be applied thereto, so engaged that its intermediate portion is embraced by the bow 45 and its end portions rest against parts of the backing material 38a on opposite sides of the aperture or opening 382.

In order to prevent slipping of the peg or pin 46 after positioning, I may provide within the bows 45, preferably extending lengthwise of the bows, grooves or ridges such, for example, as indicated at 45l, in Figure 6, and/or provide within the peg or pin 46 grooves or ridges such, for example, as indicated at 46 I in Figure 5, which in this instance extend throughout the length and breadth thereof.

Now it may be preferable to insert the pegs or pins 46 connecting the backing with portions of the furring element when placing in the structure wherewith the construction is to be employed; however, this may be done at the factory, before or during or after the operation of connecting the reticulated element and furring element.

It is to be noted that the projections 35a of the furring element, whenever of construction suitable to receive the peg or pin 46 and thus connect the backing with portions of the furring element as hereinbefore described, may be employed in place of the bow 45, whenever desired, in which event the peg or pin 46 then will be interwoven between said projections and backing, in like manner hereinbefore described.

It will be obvious that where the furring element and backing are to be connected together by a construction such, for example, as indicated at 44, in Figures 5 and 6, it may be desirable in some instances, especially should the entire operation be performed at the factory, to have the backing resting on the outer-face of the furring element, as opposed to the construction illustrated in Figures 5 and 6.

Referring now to the reenforcement foundation illustrated in Figures '7 to 9, members or elements there shown having the equivalent function of members or elements hereinbefore described, are indicated by the corresponding reference characters first employed therefor, followed by the suffix b.

The reticulated element 3Ib is formed having a netting such, for example, as indicated at 41, and which may comprise metallic material, preferably, possessing corrosion-resistant characteristics so as to insure the netting, particularly because of its comparative fineness, against deteriorating influences, interposed between metallic stifi'eners 32I and 33!, connected together at their crossing junctions as, for example, by

fusing or welding; the members forming the netting 41, preferably, being secured in position on the metallic stiffeners such, for example, as indicated at 4' in Figure '7. I

Whenever desirable, the reticulated element or certain portions thereof, such, for example, as the members forming the netting 41, particularly whenever comprising metallic material possessing oxidizable characteristics, may be coated with a suitable protective substance such, for example, as bituminous material, as exemplified at 48, in Figure 'I.

The projections 35b besides being of bow-like formation as in Figures 1 to 3 and 5 and 6, are further extended so as to more or less form loops 352, which loops in order to facilitate joining of the reticulated element and furring element may be spread at their ends or tips, as exemplified at 49, in Figure 7, whenever desired.

To facilitate bending of the reenforcement foundation illustrated in Figures 7 and 8, the furring element 34b may incorporate at suitable intervals a bent portion such, for example, as indicated at 50, admitting of shortening or lengthening the furring element, and the backing material 38b may be formed with suitable craping or crinkling 5!, extending crosswise of the furring element 34b and, preferably, slightly stretchedas it is positioned in the reenforcement foundation readily enabling, because of the distinctive elastic characteristics of craping and crinkling, adjustment in the backing, whenever desired.

Now the furring element or at least certain portions thereof such, for example, as the loops 352, whenever comprising metallic material, may be tempered so as to possess spring properties, and thus, more or less retain the form previously determined therefor, particularly whenever the reenforcement foundation in which it is employed is subjected to bending.

In Figures '7 to 9 the means there shown connecting the backing material 38b with portions of the furring element 34b, may comprise staples 52, preferably comprising metallic material, positioned at suitable intervals along the extensions 35b of the furring element, in this instance so formed that their intermediate portions closely embrace the furring element and rest against portions of one face of the backing on the sides opposite the furring element and their end portions protrude through the backing and engage the other face thereof opposite which the intermediate portions of the staples 52 rest, as indicated at 52 I, in Figure 9.

Referring now to the reenforcement foundation illustrated in Figures 10 and 11, members or elements there shown having the equivalent function of members or elements hereinbefore described, are indicated by the corresponding reference characters first employed therefor, followed by the suflix c.

The reticulated element or metal fabric 3lc is constructed from sheet metal, slitted and expanded to form the portions 53, and, whenever desired, it may be provided with portions slitted but unexpanded such, for example, as indicated at 54, in Figure 10, and thus, provide for contracting or expanding of the reticulated element in order to lend the reenforcement foundation to bending.

The furring element 34c, is constructed of fiat wire or metal ribbon and projections 35c, in the form of prongs 353, may be suitably punched or stamped from the furring element such, for example, as to leave the orifices 55. Prongs 353 project through the backing material 380, each connecting with the reticulated element Me as, for example, by having its loose end bent into the form of a hook 55l so as to engage the reticulated element 3lc, as indicated at 56, in Figure 11.

In order to minimize the thickness of reenforcement foundations for handling in advance of installation, it will be obvious that the construction illustrated in Figures 10 and 11, for example, permits of manufacture having the prongs 353 of the furring element temporarily resting more or less parallel to the plane of the extensions 360 of the furring element, or possessing spring properties in the furring element or Within portions at prongs 353 that will allow the prongs 353 temporarily to be bent over more or less parallel to the plane of the furring element, whenever desired.

The backing material 38c comprises paper sheets 51 and 58, which may be connected together by a suitable stable substance, preferably, possessing moisture-retardent properties such, for example, as bituminous material, as exemplified at 59, in Figure 11.

The sheet 5'! may have a smooth, dense texture to give it strength and durability and the sheet 58 may have a rough, porous texture to give it absorptiveness, and thus, provide a comparatively inexpensive backing that will enable, cementitious material to better adhere thereto, as well as remove the Water of the cementitious material, hastening the stifiening action before chemical setting takes place therein and minimize liability, particularly, to loosening and to checking and crazing, while at the same time retarding the passage of water through the backing.

It may be of advantage to construct the backing material making provision for'increasing the rigidity thereof, which in Figures and 11 may be accomplished by interposing at intervals between sheets 51 and 58, members 60, preferably comprising metallic material, in this instance positioned at right angles to the direction of the furring element 34c. I

In order to diminish liability to oxidation and jointly provide means for connecting the backing material against portions of the furring element, the furring element or at least those portions thereof remaining exposed following the application of the cementitious. material to the reticulated element, may be coated with a suitable protective substance such, for example, as bituminous material, preferably, possessing tacky characteristics, which is exemplified at 6| in the drawings.

The extensions 360 of the furring element may be enclosed between the sheets 51 and 58, and thus, protect those portions of the furring element thereby enclcsecL against liability to oxidation, while connecting the backing with the furring element.

In Figures 10 and 11 there is shown a form of means especially suitable for connecting the backing material 380 with extensions 360 of the furring element, comprising tongues positioned at suitable intervals along the extensions 350 of the furring element, of which one only, as indicated at 62, is shown in the drawings, in this instance punched 0r stamped from the furring element such, for example, as to leave the orifice 62L the tongue 62 projecting through the backing and bent over away from the orifice 62I so as r to engage the backing under the tongue 62 and connect it with extensions 360, as indicated at 622, in Figure 11.

Referring now to the reenforcement foundation illustrated in Figures 12 and 13, members or in staggered relation to each other and the wires 33d in the sections 3 and 3|?! positioned directly opposite each other, the furring element 34d being positioned between said metal fabrics or sections 3 and 3|2 and having in this instance alternately opposing projections 35d, pref- 7 erably, projecting through the backing'material 38d, each of which projections 35d connects with the reticulated element 3ld as, forexample, by being fused or welded thereto, in this instance at points on wires 32d midway between wires 33d,

as indicated at 63in the drawings.

The backing material 38dmay be constructed having an intermediate member 64, preferably comprising insulating material such, for example, as hair felt, interposed between paper sheets 64! and 642, and mayembrace extensions 36d of the furring element, preferably midway within; the member 64, the sheets 5M and 642, in this in stance being suitably connected with the member 64 as, for example, by sewing,'and thus, hold the backing in spaced relationto'the oppositely disposed sections of the reticuated element 3Id.

In" order to provide an effective foundation for the cementitious material as well as retard the passage of water, thesheets 6M and 642 may have a rough, poroustex'ture and be treated on their inner-faces with a suitable moisture-retardent substance such, for example, as bituminous material, which may possess tacky characteristics, and thus, further accomplish connecting the sheets with the member 64.

It is to be noted, referring to corrugating or crimping 4 Id in the reticulated element and craping or crinkling Bid in the sheets 6 and 642, that in Figures 12 and 13 the former is provided in the wires 33d of section 3 of the reticulated element and in the wires 32d of section 3 l2 of the reticulated element and the latter extends in the sheet 6H parallel to the direction of the furring element and in the sheet 642 crosswise to the direction of the furring element; the object of which construction is to enable the reenforcement foundation there shown to be subjected to bending in any one of several directions.

It will be obvious, referring further to Figures 12 and 13, that the construction there shown effectively minimizes thermal conductivity and diminishes the passage of noises through the structure.

Referring now to the reenforcement foundation illustrated in Figures 14 to 16, members or elements there shown having the equivalent function of members or elements hereinbefore described, are indicated by the corresponding reference characters first employed therefor, followed by the suffix e.

The reticulated element 3le is formed having a netting such, for example, as indicated at 65, preferably, comprising fibrous material such, for example, as jute yarn, interposed between metallic stiifeners 322 and 332, connected together at their crossing junctions as, for example, by fusing or welding; the netting 65 preferably being treat ed with a suitable stable substance such, for example, as bituminous material, preferably pos sessing tacky characteristics, as exemplified at 66, in Figure 14, connecting together the members forming the netting and the netting with the metallic stiffeners as well as increasing the rigidity of the netting.

The furring element Me is similar to the furring element illustrated in Figure 1 of the drawings, except that, instead of comprising multiple projection members as in Figure 1, the continuity of the furring element between the projections 35c is broken as, for example, by omitting portions of the extensions 36e, as indicated at 61 in the drawings, thereby lending the furring element to bending, whenever desired.

The backing material 38e is similar to the backing illustrated in Figures 12 and 13 in that it preferably comprises outer members or paper sheets 68 and 69 and an interposed member 10, which latter may be formed of paper and corrugated such, for example, as indicated at 'IOI, extending in any suitable direction, the backing material 38c like the backing in Figures 12 and 13 may embrace the extensions 36c of the furring element, preferably between the members 69 and 10, so as to be in contact with the member 69, preferably resting within a groove in the member 10, as indicated at 102, in Figures 14 and 15. Preferably, the members 69 and only are connected together as, for example, by gluing, thereby producing a backing of the character described that will lend more readily to bending. It will be clear that the apices 10! in the member 10 could just as well be fiat and join at .points where shown in contact with the member 68. Therefore, it will be obvious that, whenever so modified, the member 68 may .be omitted, whenever desired.

As earlier described for sheets 6 and 642 in omitted, the member 10 may have a rough, porous texture and be treated on the inner-face with a suitable moisture-retardent substance such, for example, as bituminous material.

Figure 16 serves the twofold purpose of showing a preferred construction of the marginal portions of the reenforcement foundation illustrated in Figures 14 and 15, lengthwise of the furring element and a preferred method of joining the same, which method consists in bringing together these opposing marginal portions so as to interlock the backing while engaging the loose ends of the metallic stiffeners 322 around the marginal metallic stifieners 332, as respectively indicated at H and I2 in the drawings.

Referring now to the reenforcement foundations illustrated in Figures 19 and 20, respectively, members or elements there shown having the equivalent functions of members or elements hereinbefore described, are indicated by the corresponding reference characters first employed therefor, followed, in Figure 19 by the suflix h and in Figure 20 by the suiiix it.

As in Figures 14 to 16, the furring elements illustrated in Figures 19 and 20, respectively, comprise individual projection members. However, in each of these latter views there is but one such member shown. In Figure 19 the projection 35h of the furring element there shown is so formed as to engage, for example, alongside the wire 33h, preferably on opposite sides thereof and at points on the wire 33h embracing the wire 32h therebetween, as indicated at 13, where they are connected as, for example, by being fused or welded together. The furring element illustrated in Figure 20, which is formed from flat wire or metal ribbon, connects with the reticulated element as, for example, by providing the outer-end of the projection 3510 there shown with a hook 14, preferably, bent in opposite directions and engaging, for example, the wire 32k at points embracing the wire 33k therebetween, as indicated at 15; the extension 36k preferably comprising slitted portions bent in opposite directions and in offset relation.

In Figures 19 and 20, respectively, the extensions of the furring elements may be bent over near their ends or tips at right angles to the planes of the extensions, preferably projecting ,toward the reticulated elements, though separated therefrom the distances the constructions provide between the reticulated elements and the backing materials; the ends ortips of the bent portions constituting grounds for setting the backing materials in the constructions, as respectively indicated at 36! and 362 in Figures 19 and 20. Therefore, the backing materials, preferably possessing insulating properties, as, for example, by employlng fibrous material, may be constructed around the extensions of the furring elements to thicknesses suflicient to embrace the extensions therebetween, as shown in the drawngs.

Those portions of the reenforcement foundations or at least those portions of the backing materials that contact with the cementitious material, may be treated, first, by coating with a suitable moisture-retardent substance such, for example, as bituminous material, preferably possessing tacky characteristics, and, second, by dusting with a suitable moisture-absorbent substance such, for example, as silica, to produce a porous surface, which treatment is exemplified at 16! and 162, in Figures 19 and 20, respectively.

Referring now to the reenforcement foundation illustrated in Figure 21', members or elements there shown having the equivalent function of members or elements hereinbefore described, are indicated by the corresponding reference characters first employed therefor, followed by the suffix n.

Projections 3511. of the furring element illustrated in Figure 21, in this instancein the form of loops 354, may be formed on wires 3211,, preferably midway between wires 331i, the wires 3211. preferably being connected together at the loops 354 as, for example, by fusing or welding, as indicated at 11. Extensions 36n of the furring element, which may be employed with the loops 354, whenever desired, may extend through the loops 354 and be connected therewith as, for

example, by beingfused or welded thereto at a point as indicated at 18.

Means for holding the backing material spaced 20 :from the reticulated element shown in Figure 21 may consist in providing the reticulated element with projections at suitable intervals, in this instance in the form of loops, of which one only, as indicated at 19, is shown in the drawings, in this instance formed on the wires 3211 and preferably over the extensions 3611 of the furring element, the wires 3211, preferably being connected together at the loops 19 as, for example, by fusing or welding, as indicated at 19!.

Referring now to the reenforcement foundation illustrated in Figures 22 and 23, members or elements there shown having the equivalent function of members or elements hereinbefore described, are indicated by the corresponding reference characters first employed therefor, followed by the suffix 1'.

Whereas previously described figures illustrate reenforcement foundations in fiatwise application, Figures 22 and 23 illustrate an application to tubular formations, wherein theopposing marginal portions, lengthwise of the furring element, as preferred to be constructed, are brought together, in this instance so as to form a cylinder with the backing inside of the cylinder and the edges of the backing lapped, as indicated at 88, and with the reticulated element outside of the cylinder, the reticulated element having its end marginal wires 331' abutting and having the ends of the wires 321' bent to embrace the wires 331', a indicated at 8| in the drawings.

In connection with the manner of bending illustrated in Figures 22 and 23, it is to be noted that the craping or crinkling lr there shown as employed in this instance, obviously is in parallelism with the furring element.

In order to support a yielding backing, particularly during the application of the cementitious material to the reticulated element, and thus insure the form previously determined for the structure being built, it may be desirable in some instances to employ form maintaining means therefor such, for example, as bands or rings temporarily positioned at suitable intervals adjacent the backing, preferably in alinement with the projections 35r of the furring element,

. as exemplified at 82, where one band or ring only is in view, which band or ring, in this instance, is lapped, as indicated at 82!, in Figure 22, and, preferably, employs suitable spring quality, so as to expedite installation and engagement and removal.

Instead of forming the reenforcement founda tion having the reticulated element in the greater diameter, as illustrated in Figure 22, so as to require the cementitious material to be applied to locking portion 85, may have a shoulder or shoulthe construction from the outside, the reenforcement foundation may be formed with the reticulated element in the least diameter thereof, thus, requiring the cementitious material to be applied from the inside of the construction, whenever practicable.

Now the invention, as earlier indicated herein, provides means for fastening reenforcement foundations with different construction materials. In Figures 2 and 3, where the reenforcement foundation there shown is exemplified connected with a support of wooden construction, the fastener there preferred by me comprises the spacer-nail 39. It may be expected, however, that where the support comprises materials of construction other than wood, it may be necessary to employ fasteners of different construction than the hereinbefore described spacer-nail 39. Consequently, in Figures 1'7, 24, and 27 there are shown other forms of fasteners, particularly adapted for use with my invention of reenforcement foundations.

Referring first particularly to Figure 17, the fastener there shown is especially useful with constructions of masonry such, for example, as concrete. The fastener, indicated in general by the character 83, comprises an anchoring portion 84 for holding the fastener connected with the support wherewith it is to be employed and a locking portion 85 for engaging the reticulated element that is to be secured in position adjacent such support, holding the same in substantially the desired furred relation thereto.

In constructing the fastener 83, the anchoring portion 84 is preferably in the form of a screw blade 84l, preferably having a flange or flanges 842 extending at an angle orangles from the plane of the blade 84 I, that will permit of setting the fastener with the anchoring portion enclosed within the support, particularly at the time it is formed, and so as to enable the support to more firmly hold the fastener. The locking portion 85 is preferably pointed, as indicated at 85L and is preferably reduced in thickness at the point. Therefore, should the support comprise, for example, concrete cast in situ, as exemplified at 86, the constructor may readily drive the locking portion of the fastener into the wooden formwork as may be employed in forming the support 86, and thus, effectively enclose the anchoring portion of the fastener within the material of construction during the forming of the support. The anchoring portion 84, at the junction with the ders 843, which, contacting with the face of the wooden formwork aforesaid, when the fastener is driven therein, limits the driving depth of the fastener; The object of this is to give uniformity to the distance previously determined for the fastener to project beyond the support. The shoulders 843 or other means, for example, scoring, may function to indicate the depth of setting the fastener in the mortar joint of a support built of blocks, for example, brick or tile.

The locking portion 85 is provided with a suitable opening, preferably of a construction taper-' ing inwardly from an opening in the tip thereof, as indicated at 81, for receiving the reticulated element to be engaged thereby. The walls of the opening 81 are preferably suitably notched or toothed, as indicated at 81!, so that, in the operation of engaging the reticulated element within the opening 81, it will still more firmly hold the same.

The locking portion 85 may be provided with a suitably formed eye or eyes, in this instance walled in on all sides, as indicated at 852, where one only is shown, and adapted to receive a suitable pegor pin such, for example, as illustrated at 86, in Figures 5 and 6, for holding the backing. In this instance the spacing of the eye 852 from the opening 81 approximates the spacing previously determined for the reenforcement foundation wherewith the fastener 83 is to be employed.

Since a dead-air-space between the support and reenforcement foundation may be desirable in some instances, the fastener 83 is illustrated with such provision therein by having the looking portion 85 extended accordingly between the eye 852 and the shoulder or shoulders 843 of the anchoring portion, as indicated at 853' in the drawings.

In Figure 24 the fastener indicated in general by the character 88, comprises an anchoring portion 89 and a locking 9 portion 98, .preferably punched or stamped therefrom, leaving the orifice 89l within the anchoring portion. The fastener is preferably constructedhaving a series of anchoring portions 89 and locking portions 98, thus, adapting it for use with a variety of supports. The fastener may have a flange or flanges, as indicated at 9|, which, together with the spacing portions connecting together anchoring portions, may constitute the support and together forming a channel as employed in framing for buildings. The locking portion 98, in the instance illustrated, projects at a right angle from the anchoring portion 89 and extends beyond the plane thereof and has its outer-end, preferably, twisted, as indicated at 98 l, at an angle of ninety degrees to its inner-end. But it will be readily understood that the locking portion 98 may be punched or stamped at a right angle to that shown as well as from an anchoring portion having an angle, whenever desired.

The opening 92 in the locking portion 98, adapted to receive the reticulated element to be engaged thereby, is a modification of the opening 81, in Figure 17, which opening 92, in this instance, instead of opening into the tip of the locking portion 98, opens through a kerf or slit to the outer-top-end thereof, as indicated at 92l. The kerf or slit 92! is sufficiently wide to permit of the reticulated element to enter through the slot thus formed into the opening 92, so that the constructor may contract the opening by suitably striking the tip 982 of the locking portion to clamp the reticulated element in the opening 92. The walls of the opening 92 are preferably suitably notched or toothed, as indicated at 922, so that, in the operation of contracting the opening 92, the reticulated element may be still more firmly held. The fastener 88 is preferably provided with an eye983, functioning similarly to the eye 852 in Figure 17, and may, whenever desired, provide an extended portion in the locking portion 98 lying between the anchoring portion 89 and eye 983, similar to such portion indicated at 853 in Figure 17, which provision will be readily understood since further illustration is mere duplication.

Now the reenforcement foundations may be secured in position by the fasteners 83 and 88,

described in preceding paragraphs, by means such, for example, as the peg or pin 93, in Figure 26, connecting with the reticulated element and engaging in the opening 81 of the fastener 83 or in the opening 92 of the fastener 88, as the case may be, thus, serving in the same manner as the members of the reticulated element in engaging reenforcement foundations with said fasteners. The peg or pin 93 is preferably formed having barbs 93l and/or shoulders 932, of any suitable construction, in order to avoid or limit slipping of the peg or pin in the opening of the fastener and to better engage the reticulated element. Such peg or pin may be in the form of a. continuous member extending from opening to opening of the fasteners wherewith it is employed, especially for the purpose of enabling engagement with the reticulated element in places at points between the openings of adjoining fasteners.

Describing the construction illustrated in Figure 27, the fastener, indicated in general by the character 94, comprises an anchoring member 95 and a locking member 96 detachably engaging each other. The anchoring member 95 is constructed, having a relatively long aperture 91, preferably consisting of a series of connecting eyes, the walls of the aperture 91, therefore, being wider at some points on sides opposite each other than at other points therealong, forming the recesses 91l. The object of this will be given hereinafter. The surfaces of the anchoring member 95 adjacent the aperture 91 or at least the inner-face thereof may be roughened or scored, in order to better engage the locking member 96 and prevent it slipping from position. The locking member 96 is constructed having a head 96l of a breadth greater than the width of the aperture 91, which it is adapted to enter when turned parallel thereto, and having a neck 962 of a width that will snugly rest within the wider portions of the aperture 81 and a shoulder or shoulders 963, preferably having a flange or flanges 964, for engaging the anchoring member 95 at a point opposite that engaged by the head 96l when the members 95 and 96 are inengagement, as illustrated in Figure 27.

In the outer-end portion of the locking member 96 is an opening extending into the tip thereof, as indicated at 98, and lying between portions, preferably, notched or toothed, as indicated at 98l, which portions may be bent in opposite directions so as to form bows 99 for receiving the member to be engaged thereby, the inner-faces of the bows 99, preferably, having barbs, as indicated at 99l, so as to prevent or limit the member engaged by the bows 99 slipping from position.

To position the reticulated element to be engaged by the fastener 94, the constructor will preferably pull the reticulated element taut crosswise of the aperture 91 and will seat the re ticulated element in the opening 98, holding the locking member 96 projecting edgewise' toward the aperture 91, whereupon the constructor will thrust the locking member 96 through the aperture 91 a distance sufficient to enable the neck 962 to rest within the aperture 91, and then the constructor will preferably pull the reticulated element and the lockng member 96- lengthwise of the aperture 91 so as to draw the reticulated element taut lengthwise of the aperture. The constructor will next cause the locking member 96 to rotate or turn ninety degrees so that the neck 962 will engage in one of the recesses 91l of the aperture 91 and so that the reticulated element will be embraced by the bows 99. The opening 98 and bows 99 also function to receive a peg or pin,as exemplified at 93, in Figure 26, or similar member hereinbefore described, whenever desired.

Referring now broadly to the fasteners hereinbefore described and indicated in general by the 28, the fasteners or at least the portions thereof to be enclosed within the cementitious material may be coated with a suitable protective sub-- stance, as indicated at I 00, in Figures 4, 18,25, and 28 preferably possessing properties of tenaciousness with fixedness and pliableness that will minimize liability to chafing and scarifying and possess insulating properties, the advantages of which are described earlier herein where reference is made to the treatment. The treatment may comprise a comparatively hard, fixed primary coating underlying a relatively soft, pliable surface coating. Therefore, it may be applied in two operations, first, employing, for example, suitable bituminous material, and second, employing, for example, suitable resinous material. 1

Obviously, the numerous combinations and various detailed changes within the range of the invention are not described or illustrated.

What I claim is:

1. A reenforcement foundation comprising a reticulated element, and a furring element connected at intervals with the reticulated element, one of said elements including metal possessing oxidizable characteristics and the other of said elements including metal possessing corrosionresistant characteristics.

2. A reenforcement foundation comprising a reticulated element, a furring element connected at intervals with the reticulated element, one of said elements'including metal possessing oxidizable characteristics and the other of said elements including metal possessing corrosion-resistant characteristics, and a backing material disposed along the furring element, which furring element is provided with means for spacing the backing material from the reticulated element a distance sufficient to permit cementitious material to enter between the reticulated element and backing material.

3. A reenforcement foundation comprising reticulated element, a furring element connected at intervals with the reticulated element, and means for altering the extent of portions of the reenforcement foundation, when the latter is subjected to bending.

4. A reenforcement foundation comprising a reticulated element, a furring element connected at intervals with the reticulated element, a backing material disposed along the furring element, and means for altering the extent of portions of the reenforcement foundation, when the latter is subjected to bending.

5. A reenforcement foundation comprising a reticulated element, and a furring element having bows at intervals connected with the reticulated element to prevent relative movement and having straight portions between and extending away from said bows and spacing the reticulated element from the support adjacent to which said element is to be positioned.

6. A reenforcement foundation comprising a. reticulated element, and a furring element having projections at intervals immovably connected with the reticulated element and having portions extending away from said projections and held spaced from the reticulatedelement.

7. A reenforcement foundation comprising a reticulated element, a backing material, and means connecting the backing material with the reticulated element and spacing the backing material from the reticulated element.

- ment and said 8. A reenforcement foundation comprising a retic ulated element, a furring element having projections at intervals connected with the reticulated element and having portions extending away from said projections, and 'a backing of sheet-like material between the reticulated eleiaortions, which portions are spaced from the reticulated element a distance greater than the space therebetween occupied by the backing topermit cementitious material to enter between the reticulated element and backing.

9. A reenforcement foundation comprising a reticulated element, a furring element connected at intervals with the reticulated element, and a backing material disposed along the furring element, which furring element is provided with means for spacing the backing material from the reticulated element a distance sufilcient to permit cementitious material to enter between the reticulated element and backing material.

10. A reenforcement foundation comprising a reticulated element, a .backing material spaced from the reticulated element and having openings therein, and a furring elementhavin'g projections protruding from said openings and connected with the reticulated element.

11. A reenforcement foundation comprising a reticulated element, a backing material, a furring element to space the backing material from the reticulated element and connected at intervals with the reticulated element, and means connecting the backing material with the furring element.

12. A reenforcement foundation comprising a reticulated element, a furring element connected at intervals with the reticulated element, a backing of sheet-like material disposed along the furring element, and means to hold the backing spaced from the reticulated element and to secure the reenforcement foundation to position adjacent a support. I

13. A reenforcement foundation comprising a reticulated element, a furring element connected with the reticulated element, and a. backing of sheet-like material spaced from the reticulated element and embracing portions of the furring element.

14. A reenforcement foundation comprising a reticulated element having oppositely disposed sections, a furring element connected with said sections and having portions between and substantially parallel with said sections, and a backing material disposed along the furring element and spaced from said sections.

15. A reenforcement foundation comprising a reticulated element, a backing material and a furring element for spacing the backing material from the reticulated element and connected with the reticulated element, the backing material embracing portions of the furring element and having outer members and an intermediate element.

16. A reenforcement foundation comprising a reticulated element, a furring element connected with the reticulated element, and a backing material having outer members and an intermediate member, one of the outer members and the intermediate member embracing portions of the furring element between them and being connected to each other.

in spaced relation to the reticulated element, and means for securing a relative uniformity of spacing between the reticulated element and backing material when the reenforcement foundation is subjected to bending.

18. The combination with a fabric composed of strand wires and stay wires connected at their points of intersection, of a backing of sheet-like material disposed to the rear of fabric, and means for retaining the backing consisting of a wire-like member disposed mainly to the rear of the backing but having portions projecting through the backing and connected with the fabric at a plurality of points, said projecting portions being of such depth that the backing may have spaced relation to the fabric.

19. Fabric structure comprising strand and stay members, a backing sheet, and means connected to said members, for supporting the sheet in completely spaced relation thereto, to permittion of mesh-like material, a backing sheet, and

means extending perpendicular to said body member for supporting said backing sheet in spaced relation to one side thereof.

22. A plaster and stucco base comprising a sheet of material having perforations therein, a metallic fabric disposed on one side of said sheet, a retaining member disposed upon the opposite side of said sheet, and said member having ofiset bends projecting through said perforations and extending a substantial distance beyond the face of said sheet upon which said metallic fabric is disposed, said bends being substantially integrally connected to said metallic fabric to space the same from said sheet.

23. A plaster and stucco base comprising a sheet of continuous surface material having perforations therein, a wire fabric disposed on one side of said sheet and composed of fully tensioned wires, a retaining wire disposed upon the opposite side of said sheet, said retaining wire having means projecting through said perforations and welded to the wire fabric to space the same from said sheet.

24. A plaster and stucco base comprising a sheet of continuous surface material having a perforation therein, a wire fabric disposed on one side of said sheet, a retaining wire disposed upon the opposite side of said sheet, and said retaining wire having an offset bend with its apex projecting through said perforation and the exterior surface of said apex being welded to the wire fabric to space the latter from said sheet.

25. A plaster and stucco base comprising a sheet paper backing, a wire fabric disposed on the front face of said backing and composed of fully tensioned strand and stay wires welded at their points of intersection, a retaining wire disposed upon the rear face of said paper backing, and said retaining wire having offset bends with apices projecting through said backing to extend a substantial distance outward from the front face of said backing and welded to the strand wires of said wire fabric to space the latter from said paper backing.

26. A wire fabric adapted for reinforcing plaster or the like and comprising a wire fabric composed of fully tensioned strand and stay wires adapted to be embedded in the plaster or the like, an attaching wire and spacing means immovably connected to said fully tensioned wires and to said attaching wires to maintain the fully tensioned wires in a plane parallel to and spaced from said attaching wire.

27. A fabric structure comprising strand and stay members, a backing sheet, and means immovably connected to said members for supporting said sheet in completely spaced relation thereto, to permit complete embedment of said members in plaster applied to said sheet.

28. Fabric structure comprising strand and stay members, a backing sheet, and means welded to said members for supporting said sheet in spaced relation to said members in a plane substantially parallel to the plane of said members.

29. Fabric structure comprising a body portion of mesh like material, a backing sheet, and retaining means therefor projecting through said sheet and immovably cgnnected to said mesh like material to maintain the same spaced from said backing sheet.

30. Fabric structure comprising a backingsheet, reinforcing means on one side of said sheet adapted to be embedded in plaster or the like, retaining means on the opposite side of said sheet, and means immovably connected to said renforcing means and retaining means for supporting both of said latter means in completely spaced relation to each other.

31. A wire fabric adapted for reenforcing plaster or the like and comprising a wire fabric composed of fully tensioned wires adapted to be embedded in the plaster or the like, a backing sheet, and a retaining wire having spacing means projecting through said backing sheet and immovably connected to said fully tensioned wires to maintain the same spaced from said backing sheet.

32. The combination with a fabric having straight strand wires and straight stay wires connected together, of apaper backing sheet or the like, and wire-like members back of the paper sheet for holding the latter in completely spaced relation to the fabric, said wire-like members having bent portions that extend through the paper sheet and engage with the fabric.

33. A reenforcement foundation comprising a backing of continuous surface material, a reticulated element disposed entirely on the front face of the backing, and integral means connected with the reticulated element and projecting through the backing and disposed mainly upon the back face thereof, for supporting portions of the backing in completely spaced relation to the reticulated element.

34. A reenforcement foundation comprising a backing of continuous surface material having perforations therein, a reticulated element disposed entirely on one side of the backing, and means for supporting the backing in completely spaced relation to the reticulated element and having means protruding from said perforations and connected with the reticulated element.

35. A reenforcement foundation comprising a backing of continuous surface material, a reticulated element disposed entirely on one side of the backing, and means comprising fiat wire positively and permanently connected with the reticulated element and disposed mainly spaced from the reticulated element, for supporting the backing in completely spaced relation to the reticulated element, to permit complete embedment of the reticulated element within cementitious material applied thereto.

36. A reenforcement foundation comprising a backing material, a reticulated element, and a furring element immovably connected with the reticulated. element and retaining the backing material in completely spaced relation to the reticulated element, to permit complete embedment of the reticulated element within cementitious material applied thereto, substantially as described.

37. A reenforcement foundation comprising a paper backing sheet, a reticulated element disposed on one side of the paper sheet, and means disposed mainly upon the opposite side of the paper sheet and having projections with apices extending through and substantially beyond the paper sheet to space the latter from the reticulated element, the exterior surface of the apices being immovably connected with the'reticulated element.

38. A reenforcement foundation comprising a reticulated element, a backing material including means providing insulating properties, and a furring element connected with the reticulated element, for retaining the backing material in completely spaced relation to the reticulated element, to permit complete embedment of the reticulated element within cementitious material applied thereto.

39. A reenforcement foundation comprising a mesh-like material and furring element in integral relation, the mesh-like material being composed of members immovably secured together,

and the furring element having projections at intervals approximately at right angles to the plane of the mesh-like material and located at points on the mesh-like material where members thereof form interstices in the plane of the meshlike material, to permit complete enclosure of the mesh-like material in cementitious material applied thereto.

40. A reenforcement foundation comprising a backing material, a reticulated element on each side of the backing material, and means connected with the reticulated elements and spacing the latter from the backing material, to pemiit cementitious material to enter between the backing material and each of the reticulated elements.

41. A reenforcement foundation comprising a A furring element, and a reticulated element on each side of the furring element, the tuning element being connected at intervals with the reticulated elements so as to support the latter in completely spaced relation to each other, said furring element being provided with portions substantially parallel with and spaced from said reticulated elements.

42. A plaster and stucco base comprising a plane backing sheet having perforations therein, a metal fabric disposed on one side of the plane sheet, a paper corrugated sheet disposed on the opposite side of the plane sheet, and means for retaining said sheets and having portions projecting through said perforations and connected with the metal fabric to space the latter from said sheets.

ELMORE WILLIAM MENNINGER.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2929239 *May 5, 1958Mar 22, 1960Keystone Steel & Wire CompanyLathing construction
US3010258 *May 3, 1954Nov 28, 1961Pittsburgh Steel CoReinforcement fabric for concrete structures
US3342003 *Sep 25, 1963Sep 19, 1967Frank Joseph JMesh reenforcement with spacer for cementitious material
US3360898 *Nov 8, 1965Jan 2, 1968Nat Lock CoConcrete weld plate
US4489528 *Aug 18, 1982Dec 25, 1984Tolliver Wilbur ECage spacer
US5697195 *Mar 7, 1995Dec 16, 1997Alabama Metal Industries CorporationFor use in plaster or stucco structures
US6918222 *Sep 9, 2003Jul 19, 2005Illinois Tool Works Inc.Fastener for spacing object from substrate
Classifications
U.S. Classification52/451, 52/686, 52/714, 52/454
International ClassificationE04F13/02, E04F13/04
Cooperative ClassificationE04F13/04
European ClassificationE04F13/04