|Publication number||US2036131 A|
|Publication date||Mar 31, 1936|
|Filing date||Aug 18, 1934|
|Priority date||Aug 18, 1934|
|Publication number||US 2036131 A, US 2036131A, US-A-2036131, US2036131 A, US2036131A|
|Inventors||Gaertner Edward C, Shoemaker George W|
|Original Assignee||Gaertner Edward C, Shoemaker George W|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (5), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
E. c. GAERTNER ET AL ORNAMENTED CERAMIC STRUCTURE Filed Aug. 18, 1934 2 Sheets-Sheet l Y I W ATTORNEYS.
Mmdh 31, mm, v c GAEWTNER ET AL E W36JM I ORNAMENTED CERAMIC STR-UCTURE Filed Aug. 18, 1934 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 ATTORNEYS.
Patented Mar. 31 19 3 6 PATENT OFFHQE ORNAMENTED CERAMIC STRUCTURE Edward .C. Gaertner, Terre Haute, and George W. Shoemaker, BraziL Ind.
Application August 18,
This invention relates to a system of building structures, wherein the walls are provided with .or formed of exposed building units.
The chief object of this invention is to provide a system of building units whereby certain architectural ornamental formations in structural walls maybe obtained witha minimum of special units, special equipment, special workmanship andspecial labor.
The chief feature of the invention consists in providing a minimum number of building units which may be of any desired outline or surface formation and of the desired shape, depending upon the particular purpose for which it is to be used and providing therein one or more angularly mediately prior to its incorporation in the wall :structure, whereupon the detachable portion, or portions, is readily removed by the use of a trowel, hammer or like instrument.
.Another and useful corollary feature of the invention consistsin the formation of a masonry unitof the aforesaid character, which, when one ,or more readily detachable portions is removed therefrom, is adapted to overlap and/or shroud a portion of a wall comprised of a plurality of standard building units, such as facing brick, structural facing tile and machine made terra cotta, as well as of plaster and other like surfaced constructions.
To appreciate the utility of this invention, it need only be mentioned that heretofore in building wall structures of structural facing tile, facing brick, and the like, and particularly with structural tile, it was and is necessary for the architect to position according to predetermined positions, his various openings precisely as determined by the standard sizes of said units. Whenever such openings were thus not positioned, the aforesaid standard structural units had to be cut to special lengths or heights with a smooth edge, thus resulting in an enormous wastage or the consumption of a large amount of time,,-or the use of expensive machinery such as carborundum saws, and the like, thereby increasing the cost of a wall structure of this character to the extent that the same can only be utilized in the more expensive homes and buildings.
The present invention through its overlapping feature permits the use of structural tile, brick, and the like, whenever and wherever desired and at a very materiallyless cost of the same as com- 1934, Serial No. 740,388
pared with previous installations constructed as aforesaid and this reduction is obtained through the overlapping feature possible with the use of units embodying this invention, whereby exact predetermined positioning of ends of Walls, openings, and the like, heretofore necessary to accommodate the regular coursing of mortar joints, is not required; neither is humoring of the joints of the included structural units in any one course required or necessary; and neither isit necessary to bring the vertical coursing to any predetermined height of wall or opening which heretofore has been necessary for the placing of sills, lintels and underbeams.
A further feature of the invention consists in the elimination of the precise cutting of many mitres of the standard abutting units for arched openings andinclined ornamental units, such as stair risers, ramps, et cetera.
It is to be understood that units of this general character, although not necessarily, preferably are of a structural facing tile type in that they are of a fired material.
While structures of fired materials, by reason of the variation in shrinkages during the firing operation, heretofore have increased the cost of building structures of this type, because the variation in each unit had to be held to a predetermined minimum, thereby resulting in an enormous culling cost, withthe present invention, due to the accommodation feature provided by the overlapping inherent in the invention, most of the culled units are susceptible of inclusion in the structural wall of the character set forth, thereby furtherdecreasing the cost of the completed structural wall.
It is also apparent from the aforesaid that the formation ,of the several units in substantially block form with a removable angle, reduces deformationduring the firing andbreakage to a minimum during handling and transportation, until the unit is .to be actually installed, thereby further-reducingthe cost of a structural wall embodying this invention.
-It will also be apparent from-the aforesaid that by reasonof the accommodation factor inherent in the invention that the architectural cost is reduced to aminimum because accurate and precise positioning of openings is not required and second, exact and precise positioning of the architectural features inthe wall are not required and this accommodation factor also permits of con siderable flexibility in architectural design at substantially lesser cost than present construction, wherein it is more expensive to provide an opening than it is to build a flat wall, particularly if the opening has any decorative value, whereas with the present invention, decorative openings may be provided at substantially the same or lesser cost than the cost of the plain wall.
The chief purpose, therefore, of the present invention is to bring the heretofore relatively ex pensive, ornamented tile wall within the price range of plain wall structures, which use structural units and are without architectural ornamentation.
The present invention permits the employment of different colors and textures between the wall structure proper and the architectural ornamentation. Also the wall structure units and the architecture ornamentation units need not be of a predetermined ratio as to size, which heretofore has been necessary by reason of the precise engineering determination.
In general also this invention in its incorporation in the building structure permits the building of the wall structure of the standard units, leaving the desired openings for subsequent finishing with the architectural ornamentation units embodying this invention and at a later date if necessary, permitting the owner of the building to select diiferent colors and textures as desired, which will furnish the desired color combination and desired architectural ornamentation that the owner of the building determines by comparison with the wall to be what he wants.
Also, this invention has the advantage that if the architectural ornamentation should be incorporated in the wall structure as it is being built up and if for some reason or other one or more architectural units become lost, broken or for some other reason, or the architectural units are delayed in manufacture, then such delay, for whatever cause, does not delay the progress toward completion of the building. In other words, the building may be entirely completed, except for the architectural ornamentation just as at the present time in building structures, the entire building is completed and then the wood trim is applied to the several openings.
While the invention has been shown specifically applied to a structural unit wall, it need not necessarily be applied thereto, because in remodeling or in redecorating the ornamental panels may be utilized to replace wood trim in the present structures. Likewise, the same replacement may be efiected for the framing of windows when the Wood trim only is to be replaced.
The full nature of the invention will be understood from the accompanying drawings and the following specifications and claims:
In the drawings, Fig. 1 is a transverse sectional View of a building unit used generally as a closure and having an L-shaped removable portion to provide a projecting wall for overlapping purposes.
Fig. 2 is a View similar to Fig. 1 and of a similar type of unit; however, of slightly different surface contour.
Fig. 3 is a view similar to Figs. 1 and 2, and of a similar unit and of slightly difierent surface contour.
Fig. 4 is a view similar to the preceding figures and of a unit having a diiTerent surface contour.
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Figs. 1 to 4, and of a still further modified form of contour of the unit.
Fig. 6 is a similar view of still a further modified form and is similar to Figs. 1 to 5 inclusive.
Fig. 7 is a view similar to Figs. 1 to 6, inclusive, but shows an oppositely directed overlapping portion associated with an angularly removable portion, and the dotted lines extending across the two adjacent walls representing an additional alternative removable L-shaped portion, the dotted line I01 at the corner representing a modified form of contour.
Fig. 8 is a transverse sectional view of an internal corner or cove unit, there being two units shown back to back and arranged for parting at the median plane.
Fig. 9 is a transverse sectional view of a two wall external corner unit provided with two L-shaped detachable portions providing oppositely directed overlapping portions and a central corner forming portion, the dotted lines illustrating a modified form, wherein an additional central portion may be included.
Fig. 10 is a transverse sectional view of a unit similar to Fig. 9, the detachable portions being of angular arrangement in cross section, rather than of L-shaped and the dotted lines extending across the two connected walls representing alternative additional reliefs, permitting further detachment or reduction of the unit as required, the central dotted lines extending from the top to the bottom of the figure representing an alternative modified form, wherein a central additional wall is provided.
Fig. 11 is a transverse sectional view of a form of the invention which is of recessed type on its face and is provided with two oppositely directed overlapping portions, two oppositely directed,
readily detachable, L-shaped portions and a central connecting wall or portion, Fig. 11 being substantially a duplicate of Fig. 1 plus another unit of Fig. l of the reverse form united by the common wall, the dotted lines representing an additional modified form, permitting the removal of additional detachable L-shaped sections.
Fig. 12 is similar to Fig. 11, as illustrated, by the full lines thereof, except that in this form the central partition wall is omitted and in this respect is a duplicate of the upper two-thirds of Fig. 1, plus the addition of a reversed portion equal to the upper two-thirds of Fig. 1.
Fig. 13 is an enlarged transverse sectional view of a false sill unit and previous to the removal of the two readily detachable L-shaped sections and is somewhat similar to the form of unit shown in Fig. 7.
Fig. 14 is a transverse sectional view of the composite unit similar to that shown in Fig. '7
in that it illustrates a rounded corner and the molded contour shown dotted in Fig. 7 and it includes a successive series of L-shaped, readily removable sections associated each with the other and with a common integral wall.
Fig. 15 is a transverse sectional view of the unit similar to Fig. 14 showing an additional L-shaped removable section for the same overall dimensions and outline.
Fig. 16 is a transverse sectional view of a unit similar to Figs. 14 and 15 having a still greater number of L shaped removable sections for the same over-all dimensions and outline.
Fig. 17 is a sectional view of a double cove unit similar to that shown in Fig. 8, each half unit having an integral extension and an L-shaped readily detachable portion.
Fig. 18 is a front view of a right hand sill starter unit embodying the invention.
Fig. 19 is an end view thereof.
Fig. 20 is a top plan view thereof.
In the drawings, Figs. 1 to 6, inclusive, illustrate different contoured units which are substantially alike functionally. In Fig. 1 of the drawings, the numeral 4I indicates the front wall of the unit. This is the exposed and suitably finished face. The numeral 42 indicates another exposed and finished wall and the two are shown connected by the Walls 43 and 44, forming a tubular unit.
For doweling purposes, and the like, at suitable intervals, and preferably at corners, the recesses or openings 50 may be provided. Projecting from the wall M, as a continuation thereof but offset from the face of wall II, is the wing extension 45. In other words herein the back of wall 450. is positioned so as to lie in a plane forwardly of the front of wall 4Ia by the difference of a mortared joint. The purpose of this will be set forth more fully hereinafter.
United to the end of wall 45 and to the junction of walls 43 and 44 and at 4-8 and 49, is an L-shaped portion 46 and 41, the portions 48 and 49 being reductions in the walls 46 and 41. These reductions permit the L-shaped portion 46-41 to be readily detached by a trowel or the like, from the remainder of the unit, leaving a tubular unit with the projecting wall 45 when thus detached.
In Fig. 2 similar parts of the unit shown therein bear numerals from i to 50, inclusive, corresponding to the same parts in Fig. 1.
In Fig. 3 the similar parts bear numerals from BI to 10, inclusive.
In Fig. 4 the similar parts bear numerals from "H to 80, inclusive.
In Fig. 5 the similar parts bear numerals from 8| to 90, inclusive.
In Fig. 6 the similar parts bear numerals from 9| to I00, inclusive.
The aforesaid represents various different forms or outlines of a jamb unit having a single wing extension arranged for overlapping a wall at an opening and providing a structural unit at the wall opening for finishing the same.
In Fig. 7 there is illustrated a modified form of the invention. In this form of the invention the unit is shown in a reversed arrangementthat is, the detachable portion is shown at the lower left hand corner of the figure, whereas in Figs. 1 to 6, inclusive, the detachable portion is shown in the upper left hand corner of the figure. It will be quite apparent that mere reversal of the units shown in Figs. 1 and 2 would approximate the showing of the positionof the unit shown in Fig. '7.
Fig. 7 illustrates two features that may be incorporated with equal facility in any one of the units shown in Figs. 1 to 6, inclusive. In Fig. 7, the numerals beginning with IN and terminating with IIO represent like or similar parts similar to the same parts similarly designated by consecutive numerals 4| to I00 in Figs. 1 to 6, inclusive, respectively. In other words, I05 and I0! represent an L-shaped portion united by the reduced portions I08 and I09 to the overlapping wing extension I05 and the back wall I04, re-
; spectively. Wall I03 together with wall I02 form with wall WI and wall I04, the tubular body structure. Wall I02 and wall IIII constitute the exposed surfaces. The overlapping wall or wing extension in shown at I05.
In this form of the invention, however, there is a distinct reversal. Heretofore, the overlapping wall has been shown positioned so that its rear face lies in a plane ahead of the finished face of the tubular portion. In the present form of the invention, the rear wall of portion IOI, designated by the numeral I'IIIa, lies in a plane slightly in front of or in some instances coincident with the plane of the front face of the overhanging wall I05, said face being designated by the numeral I05a. Thus, Fig. 7 shows a still further modified form of the invention.
Also, as indicated at IIlI the two walls I02 and IOI instead of meeting in a square corner, may have a rounded surface connection.
As a further modification of the invention, which may be included also in any one of the units shown in Figs. 1 to 6, inclusive, the wall I03 may be united to wall I05 by a reduced portion IE8 and similarly wall I04 may be united to wall I02 by a reduced portion I09. In other words, this modified form of the invention illustrates broadly a succession of L-shaped detachable portions similarly associated in the unit.
The unit shown in Fig. "I, while suitable for use as a jamb unit whenever the space is insufficient Fig. 8 such a unit and for production purposes and reduced handling and also to reduce breakage, the internal corner or cove unit is preferably made double. The main wall is indicated by the numeral III has a concave, finished surface contour II2 with ornamentation I I8 at each end. The back wall portion is indicated by the numeral H3 and an extension II I projects therefrom.
Suitable recesses or passages ill for doweling are also provided. Ihe two portions I I 'i as united by reduced portions H6 and the two adjacent portions of the meeting walls III are united by the reduced portion M5. Thus the two units are positioned back to back and are tied together like the Siamese twins by the reduced portions I I5 and IIS and are readily separable by the use of a trowel or other suitable instrument.
In each of Figs. 9 and 10, there is illustrated a two-wall corner unit of external or convex type. In Fig. 9 the numeral III indicates the rounded corner wall which at the ends is provided with dowel recesses or openings I21. Projecting laterally from each end of the curved or suitably contoured wall I I9, is a finished Wall or wing extension I201; and an oppositely directed finished wall or wing extension I202). Extending towards each other from each of the junctions of said wings with the curved corner portion I I9, are the walls I280. and 62873 which are united together at I24.
Suitably secured to the portion I24 at I23 and suitably secured to the overlapping wing wall I200. at I23, is an L-shaped structure having, the wall portion IZIa and I22a associated with the wall I28a and the wall portion IZIb and IN?) is similarly associated with the wall I201).
The dotted lines indicated at I25 in Fig. 9 represent a central or partition wall which may be utilized whenever desired. It extends from wall I24 to wall He.
Also, if, as and when desired, the walls I28a and I28b may be associated with the junction of walls I20a and the adjacent corner of wall 9 and wall I20b with the adjacent corner of wall H9 by the reduced portions I25aI and I251); respectively.
, of the same.
The unit shown in Fig. 9 embodying the central wall I25 and having the two L-shaped portions removed, is shown at 203 in Fig. 17 and is illustrated in elevation in Fig. 16.
In Fig. 10 a slightly modified form of the invention shown in Fig. 9 is illustrated. In this form of the invention, I29 indicates the curved corner wall at the ends of which may be provided the recessing or passages I37 for dowel reception and from the opposite ends of corner wall I29 project the overlapping walls or wing extensions I30a and I 305. Extending towards each other from said connections, are the walls I38a and I381) united together at portion I34. Extending across from portion I34 to wall I29, there may be provided an intermediate central wall I35, shown dotted. If desired, walls I33CL and I38b may be connected to walls IBM and I301) by the reduced portions I35, shown dotted, if, as and when desired.
Extending towards each other from the ends of each of the overlapping portions I390, and I361) are the walls I 3i a and I3Ib, respectively, associated together by the reduced portions I33. A continuation of each of said walls is indicated at I32a and I321), respectively, and the same are associated with walls I 33a and I331), respectively, at the junction I34 by the reduced portions I33. In this form of the invention, the readily detachable portion I3Ia and I32a or I3Ib and I32b are of angular formation, as distinguished from the right angular or L-shaped form heretofore illustrated in all of the first nine figures, excluding Fig. 8. Broadly, therefore, the invention contemplates the formation of the readily detachable portion of angular outline and as a specific form of the invention, such angularity is L- shaped. In certain types of production, the corner unit with the angle arrangement shown in Fig. 10 will lend itself to more rapid and less expensive production than the form of the unit shown in Fig. 9.
Whenever additional architectural ornamentation is desired, as for paneling and border work, a duplication, as it were, of units I to 6 may be employed and herein two forms of such duplication are illustrated in Figs. 11 and 12. The unit shown in Fig. 11 includes primarily a front wall I49, 2. back wall I54, and two side walls I58a and I581). said walls being provided at suitable positions with recesses or passages I'I for the reception of doweling, or the like. If desired, wall I581) may be connected to wall I49 by the reduced portion I56a and when so connected, the wall I54 is connected to the central wall I55 interposed be-- tween wall I54 and Wall I49 by the reduced portion I56b. Each of said walls I580. and I581) may be thus connected if, as and when desired.
Extending laterally from wall I49 and at each end of said wall, are the walls or Wing extensions I50a and I551). The back face of wall I5Ila or I561) as illustrated in Fig. 11, lies in a plane slightly in front of the front face of wall I49. The end of each wall I59 of the respective subscripts, is connected to one end of an L-shaped readily detachable portion, including the wall I5I of the same subscript and the wall I52 of the same subscript. The reduced connection I53 connects the last mentioned wall to the wall I58 of the same subscript.
The unit shown in Fig. 11 is of the reentrant type. It is similar in a way to the unit shown in Fig. 7 but constitutes, as it were, a duplication As previously set forth, when thus constructed it includes four readily detachable L- shaped sections. The unit shown in Fig. 11 is similar to the unit shown in Fig. 13, in that the L- shaped portions which are detachable, are oppositely directed and in that respect the unit shown in Fig. 11 is similar to Figs. 9 and 10 but as res'pects the two successive L-shaped portions, which are similarly directed, Fig. 11 is comparable to the unit in Fig. 7 and of the modified form thereof and is similar also to the unit shown in Figs. 14, and 16, which show the successive arrangement of a plurality of L-shaped detachable portions.
In Fig. 12 a modified form of the unit is illustrated. This also is of the reentrant type, although it will be readily understood it may be of the opposite type. The wall I39 is connected at its ends to two parallel walls, I48a and I482), and these are connected at their ends by wall I44 forming a tubular unit. Extending outwardly from each end of wall I39, are the overlapping walls or wing extensions M011 and I4lJb. The rear faces of the walls Mud and I405 lie in a plane slightly ahead or in front of the finished surface of wall I39. When the structure is not of the reentrant type, the arrangement of the walls is preferably that as shown in Fig. '7, wherein the overlapping wall is offset rearwardly so that its finished surface lies somewhere behind the surface of the front wall of the tubular unit and preferably in line with or behind the rear face of the front wall thereof.
Each end of the overlapping extension is connected by a reduced portion I43 to an L-shaped Wall bearing the corresponding numeral subscripts. Thus wall I40a is connected to the wall I44 at the junction of the wall I48a by the reduced portion I43 and the angularly arranged portions I4Ia and I42a. Similarly, wall M01) is connected by an L-shaped structure bearing similar numerals with the subscript b. It will be apparent from the comparison of Figs. 11 and 12, that Fig. 12 is a simpler unit, in that it only illustrates two L-shaped removable portions oppositely directed and it includes a tubular structure with two diverging wings which are in substantial alignment. In this respect, unit I2 is similar to Figs. 9 and 10, except the two overlapping wings of the units in Figs. 9 and 10 extend angularly of each other.
Fig. 11 differs from Fig. 12 in that the tubular portion, instead of being a single unit, as shown in Fig. 12, is of a double unit type with the central partition wall and in this manner broadly conforms to the original disclosure in Figs. 9 and 10, wherein the wall I25 and wall I35, respectively, are comparable to wall I55. However, in this form the two overlapping wings are in alignment with each other, whereas in Figs. 9 and 10 they are angular of each other. However, Fig. 11, as stated, includes two successive L-shaped detachable portions and two oppositely directed L- shaped portions as well. Figs. 9 and 10 do not show anything more than two oppositely directed L-shaped portions or two oppositely directed angular portions, respectively, with which may be associated a substantially v-shaped portion that is readily detachable, as shown dotted therein.
While in Figs. 9 and 10, the wing walls are shown of equal length as to the extension and as of similar contour in each wing, the wings of either of said forms may be of unequal length and also to dissimilar outline.
Also, the units shown in Figs. 11 and 12 may be similarly modified.
The brick manufacturer only makes full length and half brick. The facing tile manufacturer makes short lengths of the 12 unit, to wit, 4", 6", 8" and 10 short length units. The overlap accommodation, of the invention therefore, is sufficientto cover any variation of length of span and utilize the closest length without cutting the latter.
Probably the biggest field of the invention for the present is for single face wall or veneer construction, and the overlap is bonded to the end and a portion of the face by a mortar joint which insures perfect plumbness in the ornamentation in spite of slight variation or irregularity in the contour of wall units proper.
The provision of spac ng for a mortar joint between the overlapping portion and'the overlapped face of the wall provides for the aforesaid accommodation.
The projection of the end of the overlap is sufficient to cover a projection from a wall of such standard brick and facing tile units, as the sanitary cove and the ogee Wainscot cap, and, therefore, these units may be used in conjunction with the units embodying this invention, without the necessity of using the many various hand molded closures heretofore necessitated.
Unit 255 is clearly illustrated in Fig. 13 and it will be noted that Fig. 13 illustrates a further modified form of the general arrangement shown in. Figs. 1a to 6, and Fig. 7. It will be noted that in Figs. 1: to 7 but one L-shaped portion is detachable, while in Fig. 7 in the modified form, two L-shaped portions are detachable, leaving but two exposed walls. In Fig. 13, the unit has two L- slraped portions which are readily detachable and a central or partition wall projecting rearwardly from the main wall body portion and intermediate'the ends.
In Fig; 13, the exposed wall portion is indicated by'the numeral 291 and the transverse wall is indicated by the numeral 289. The corner is shown rounded and in that respect is similar to the modification indicated at HM in Fig. 7. Extending parallel to the wall 29!] and of greater length and at the opposite end of the portion 291, is a wall 293. Extending oppositely from the wall 29! and from the wall 293 is the wall portion 292. In this form of the invention also, the. front face 292a cf portion 292 lies behind the rear face 229m of portion 28!, and in this particular also this unit is similar to the unit shown in Fig. 7. The walls 2% and 293 are united by L-shaped readily detachable portions 29419 and 29152) by the reduced portions 29% and 2911), respectively, the latter constituting the reductions in said walls to facilitate ready and predetermined detachment. Similarly, Walls 292 and 293 are connected by an L-shaped readily detachablewall having portions 295a and Etta, the same being attached to said walls by the reduced portions 291a and 296a, respectively. The unit 255 shown in Fig. 13 or one like it, may have the two L-shaped detachable portions removed therefrom.
In Figs. 14 to 16, inclusive, there is illustrated a unit which is similar in many respects to units shown in Figs. 1 to 7, 9 to 11 and 13. It will be noted in Fig. 13 the two L-shaped portions, or broadly speaking the angular portions, are oppositely directed and in that respect, Fig. 13 is comparable broadly to Figs. 9 to 12, inclusive.
With respect to Figs. 14 to 16, inclusive, these figures represent units that have a multiplicity of successively and similarly arranged readily detachable L-shaped portions and in that respect particularly, said units correspond to the modi fied forms shown by full and dotted lines in.
Figs. 7, 9, 10 and 11.
Figs. 14 to 16 also represent a single unit of the same general outline so that for exterior purposes and architectural ornamentation, they allare the same. For structural purposes, however,-
the same overall dimension as to length, unless full and fractional length units are formed, these units provide different degrees of detachment. In Fig. 14, there are three successive and similarly arranged detachable portions. In Fig. 15 there are four and in Fig. 16 there are five.
In Fig. 1a, the numeral 260 indicates the top wall which is finished, numeral 263' a wall approximately at right angles thereto, numeral 264' an extension thereof, numeral 2640!. a further extension and numeral 26% a still further ex tension. Wall 250 is united to wail 263, in addition to the direct connection, by Walls 26! and 252. The junction of walls 262 and 26! is united to the wall 264 by the L-shaped portions 265 and 266, the connection being by reduced por tions 261 and 2%, respectively. Successive L- shaped portions bearing the subscript a and b are similarly united by the reduced portions 261a and 26117, and 268a and 2681), respectively.
One or more of the L-shaped portions successively may be detached from the unit.
In Fig. 15, wall 2'5!) is positioned similarly to wall 266. Wall 213 is similar to 263 and walls-- 214, 21 411, 21%. and 2140 are continued exten-- sions of Wall 214 and are similar in outline and total length to the unit shown in Fig. 14. Walls 2' and 212 are similar to walls 26! and 262 of Fig. 14. The L-shaped portions 2'15 and 216 are united in a similar manner by the reduced Wall portions 211 and 218. Similar L-shaped extensions and similar reduced connecting portions bearing similar numerals with the subscripts a, b and o, are illustrated.
In Fig. 16, wall 286 is similar to walls 260 and 216' of Figs. 14' and 15. Wall 283 is similar to walls 2% and 213 and the extensions 284, 284d, 28%, 2860 and 284d constitute an extension of the same length and outline as wall portions 264, 26 300 and 26th in Fig. 14 and 214, 214a, 2141) and 2M0 in Fig. 15. The connecting walls 28l and 282 complete the permanent portion of the unit and a plurality of successive L-shaped readily detachable portions, herein five in number, are associated therewith. The first of these is indicated by the numerals 285 and 286 connected by the reduced portions 281 and 288 to the junction of walls 281 and 282 and wall 284. Successive L-shaped readily detachable portions are similarly positioned and are similarly connected, the several successive portions being designated by similar numerals bearing the successive subila77, Mb)! (C3, (d,,.
In. Fig. 17, there is illustrated a modified and multiple form of the unit shown in Fig. 8 and which embodies the singie wing extension and an L-shaped readily removable portion, and in this respect the unit shown in Fig. 17 is similar to a combination of the disclosures of units illustrated in Figs. '7 and 8. In said Fig. 17, the numeral M2 indicates the finished reentrant surface of the cove or corner unit, the body portion being formed by two oppositely directed portions 4H and M3, Extending oppositely from the portion 413, is the wing 4. It is not finished. The corners of the cove unit may be .finished either as shown at H8 in Fig. 8 or as illustrated in Fig. 17 and indicated by the numeral M8. The cove units may also have the dowel openings All. The L-shaped portion is indicated by the numerals M9 and 42D and portion M9 is united to the portion MI by the re duced portion 4 I5 adjacent the surface M8, while portion 420 of the L-shaped, readily detachable portion is united to the wing extension 4 by the reduced portion M6. For manufacturing purposes, this type of cove unit readily lends itself to dual production and when so produced, the portions 413 are united by a readily detachable connecting portion HI and portions 4| 4 adjacent their free ends are similarly united by the readily detachable portion 422.
In Figs. 18 to 20, inclusive, a right hand end sill starter unit is illustrated. This unit has the same outline or architectural ornamentation as the sill unit shown in Fig. '7. In Figs. 18 to 20, the front face is indicated by the numeral 5H]. The face 5| l is unfinished and substantially abuts the adjacent sill and (of course, separated by the mortar joint therefrom). The opposite face 5 suitably merges with face 5| and 2. An L- shaped portions 5I3--5l4-see Fig. 20,-is provided at one corner, and herein is shown dotted having been removed. It is secured by reduced portions 515 and 5H5, respectively, to the main body portion. This cutout or corner 5|! is provided to accommodate the jamb unit. The unitsee Fig. l9also includes the L-shaped readily detachable portion 5l8-5I9 united by the reduced portions 520 and 52I, respectively, to the body portion, having the depending overlapping wing 522 to overlap the upper course of the wall at the opening.
It will be apparent from the foregoing description that the basic form of the ornamental structural unit comprises a unit having at least two finished faces or the equivalent thereof, and at least one angularly outlined, and usually L- shaped in outline, readily detachable portion. Other forms of the invention disclose the utilization of two angularly arranged, readily detachable portions and in some instances, these are of L-shaped outline.
A further form of the invention contemplates the positioning of the angularly or L-shaped outlined extensions when of plural character, either in succession and similarly directed or oppositely directed and in certain instances, both oppositely and successively directed and in certain instances in longitudinal alignment and in other instances in angular relation. Each of the units has the fundamental distinction that by removal of a portion of the same, there is provided a finished portion adapted for overlapping purposes and in most instances, except the multiple attached form in Fig. 13, the form shown in Fig. 8 and a detached form of the unit, as installed, usually includes a tubular type structure.
Each of the units may, if desired, be provided with dowel receiving recesses, although they have, for the sake of clearness, been omitted in Figs. 13 to 16, inclusive, although it is to be understood they are usually included therein. The doweling is not illustrated in those figures, wherein the several units in their structural application are shown on a relatively small scale.
It will be quite apparent that the exposed faces of these units are suitably glazed, if, and when desired, and may be suitably colored so that any desired tint or color may be obtained; further more, the surface may be any desired texture or finish.
To illustrate the advantage of the present system in a certain proposed installation, it was estimated that with the old method of construction for a certain architectural ornamentation, eliminating entirely the question of increased cost due to exactness of laying, increased cost due to precise architectural design and other expenses incidental thereto, that fifty-five different types of present standard construction units were neces sary to secure the architectural ornamentation desired and to secure the requisite finishing of the several 'walls and openings.
However, this same desired construction and ornamentation with the new units embodied therein, required but sixteen different types of new units. The volume of structural work remained substantially the same. It is quite apparent that due to the saving factor in the elimination of breakage, the saving factor in the elimination of cutting and the elimination of special fitting of the units together, all permitted a much lower price to be quoted for the proposed construction when it was to be built of units of the present invention.
Furthermore, the present invention has the advantage that the number of units are a minimum for any given job and are of predetermined lengths, it, of course, being understood that the units may be made in half, full and double lengths. This eliminates the complexity and confusion resulting from the use of fifty-five shapes under the old and standard type of construction, with the predetermined positioning of each piece in an exact location in the architectural design.
Furthermore, in the actual construction, there is no interchangeability with these fifty-five pieces, as a general rule. With the present construction there is a considerable range of interchangeability so that should a piece be broken, become lost or be missing, the construction can proceed, leaving the gap for that particular piece, if necessary, and no other duplicate unit is available.
Furthermore, due to the fact that but sixteen different types are required, it is possible to include in any bill of material at least one extra piece of each size at a very small cost, whereas with fifty-five different shapes, such a procedure is practically prohibitive.
As further evidence of the utilitarian value and the savings that are possible, it is pointed out that for any given construction, there are at the present time, excluding the present invention, three desirable sanitary types of permanent structuresfirst, the salt glazed type which includes no, or but little, architectural ornamentation or color flexibility; second, the terra cotta construction with all of its advantages, and third, the standard tile structural construction in ceramic glazes. The cost of these is as follows: The salt glaze is the lowest, the terra cotta usually is the highest, and the ceramic glaze is usually a very close second to the terro cotta.
With the present invention, which is especially adapted to the ceramic glaze type, there is obtained three distinct advantages; all of the advantages of ornamentation and color selectivity possible with terra cotta or ceramic glaze and at a price that is very close to the salt glaze construction, without any ornamentation for a finished wall. Most of this saving is effected in the matter of installing the units in construction of the wall, the specific advantages having been set forth hereinbefore.
While the invention has been described in great detail in the foregoing specification and various modifications thereof have been specifically illustrated and described, the aforesaid is not to be considered as restrictive in character nor the sole modifications that are possible. The several modifications illustrated and described here, as well as others which will readily suggest themselves to persons skilled in the ceramic and masonry art, are all considered to be within the broad scope of this invention, reference being had to the appended claims.
The invention claimed is:-
1. An architectural unit including a body presenting a plurality of finished exterior faces disposed at angles to each other, a pair of walls integral with and disposed at angles to each other and detachably connected at their ends to said body, the outer face of one of said walls disposed 2. An architectural unit including a body presenting a plurality of finished exterior faces disposed at angles to each other, a pair of walls integral with and disposed at angles to each other, the edges of said walls detachably connected to the rear of exterior finished faces of said body.
3. An architectural unit including a body having substantially right angularly disposed exterior finished faces, a pair of Walls disposed at right angles to each other, the ends of said walls detachably connected to the rear of said body so that the outer faces of said Walls are disposed in substantially the same planes as said finished faces whereby the unit assumes a substantially rectangular shape in cross section.
4. An architectural unit including a hollow body bounded by walls and assuming a substantially rectangular shape in cross section, certain adjacent walls of said body having finished exterior faces, and the remaining walls of said unit connected along weakened lines to the interior faces of the first mentioned walls.
EDWARD C. GAERTNER. GEORGE W. SHOEMAKER.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2654912 *||Jul 28, 1948||Oct 13, 1953||Cambridge Tile Mfg Company||Method of making blended tile|
|US3798854 *||Mar 23, 1972||Mar 26, 1974||Hinojosa O||Prefinished wallboard|
|US4150515 *||Apr 13, 1977||Apr 24, 1979||Cartec Costruzione Articoli Tecnici Di Luciano Giulini||Gutter structure|
|US6088991 *||Dec 7, 1999||Jul 18, 2000||Nassef; Namon A.||Method of forming a reinforcement mat assembly|
|DE10216992A1 *||Apr 16, 2002||Nov 13, 2003||Michael Ruediger||Lintel block for bridging door openings etc has elongated grooves outside of base part for determining lintel height when lintel is installed horizontally|
|U.S. Classification||52/100, D25/116, 52/316|
|International Classification||E04B2/02, E04B2/22, E04B2/14|
|Cooperative Classification||E04B2/22, E04B2002/026, E04B2/02|
|European Classification||E04B2/22, E04B2/02|