US 2036987 A
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April; 7, 1936. E. WATSON 2,036,987
CONTAINER FOR HEAVY BULK MATERIALS Filed'Fb. 27, 1954 s Sheets-Sheet 1 IIIIIIIIIIIJ Invert/fin:
April 7, 1936. i v E. WATSON 2,036,987 '7 I CONTAINER FOR HEAVY BULK MATERIALS 'Fild Feb. 27, 1934 3 Shets-Sheet 2 jzfa,
Am 7, 1936 v w E W ON 2,036,987
CONTAINER FOR HEAVY BULK MATERIALS Filed Feb. 27, 1954 5 Sheets-Sfieet 3 mu mmnum/ I rwentbr: wafirow,
Patented Apr. 7, 1936 UNITED STATES PATENT ,oFFi'cE con'mmna FOR HEAVY BULK MATERIALS Edgar Watson, Towson, Md., assignor, by mesne assignments, to The Nelson Corporation, Baltimore, Md., a corporation of Maryland Application February 27, 1934, Serial No. 713,163 In the Netherlands August 24, 1933 17 Claims.
The present invention relates to improvements in containers for heavy bulk materials and is parfor a container capable of handling heavy bulk ticularly adapted for use with containers made of fiber board. v
The growing employment offiber board for shipping containers, by reason of the uniformity of its structure, and the lightness of the packages prepared therewith, has resulted in demand to capacity. The superimposed packages cause crushing of the lower packages and owing to the go peculiarity of the fiber board material, this crushing permanently weakens the structure.
By fiber board is meant the material of paper pulp nature which is employed for forming shipping containers, and is inclusive both of thesolid board and the corrugated board. The characteristics of fiber board of great strength in tension, the resilient yielding to bending loads short of the elastic limit, and its weakness to shearing and in compression parallel to wall surfaces when formed as a container, have heretofore led me to propose the employment of stay means as described in my copendlng United States patent application Serial No. 631,077, filed August 30, 1932, It has now been found that the container may also be improved by providing reinforcing means to enable the container to resist superimposed loads, and in some instances by providing external binding means operative in conjunction with the stay means for supporting the internal loads during shifting and during settling of such loads,
One of the particular features of the present invention is the provision in a fiber board container of reinforcing means having vertical portions for supporting vertical loads, andhorie zontal portionsfor receiving .and transmitting such loads to and from horizontal walls of the container.
Another feature of the invention is the con- 5o struction of a container with such reinforcing members 01' angle metal which may be cheaply and easily manufactured and assembled in the container.
' A further feature of the invention is the provision of a container having such reinforcing means in which the horizontal portions are employed as ledges or rests for receiving cover and bottom'fiaps of the container, and preventing the inward movement of these flaps both during the initial assembly and closure of the container, and during the employment of the container in the storage and/or shipment of the lading.
Still another feature of the present invention is the provision of a shipping container having internal stay means to prevent bulging of vertical walls of the container, reinforcing means for receiving and transmitting vertical loads, and external binding means associated with the stay means and passing around the container to assist in strengthening the, container against deformation in horizontal planes, and for sealing the top and bottom closure portions of the container, and cooperative with the reinforcing means. 1f Q With these and other lobjects in view as will appear in the course of the following specification and claims, illustrative forms of practicing the invention are shown on the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a perspective view of a container having stay means and reinforcing means therein, with parts broken away to show the relationship of the several elements.
' ting the same prior to bending to. shape.
Figure 5 is a perspective view of a closed and sealed container of modified form, in which external binding means are provided. 7
Figure 6 is a perspective view of 'the'container of Figure 5, with the cover or top flaps open for filling.
Figure 7 is a perspective view similar to that of Figure 3, showing another type of reinforcing element. v
Figure 8 is a detail view, on a larger scale than that of Figures 3, 4 and v'I,-showing the preferred manner of clipping the reinforcing blanks.
.The' container shown in Figures 1 and 2 has the-four side walls SI, S2, S3 and S4, to each ing bottom and cover flaps BI, B2, B3, B4 and TI, T2, T3, T4. The blank for such a container may be made in the usual manner, and then folded as usual into tubular shape and joined in the usual manner, as by the external tape II, to provide the joined vertical walls of the container. It is preferred to incorporate the stay means while the joined walls are held in definite position upon the form. Such a form preferably corresponds in external dimensions to the internal space of the completed container, and has cross notches extending from its free end to receive the stay means and permit their ready withdrawal when the semi-assembled blank is removed from the form. For this purpose, the stay wires I2, being connected each to a stay plate I3, are passed through one wall of each pair in the container, a notched portion of the form, and the other wall of such pair, and then are connected with another stay plate I3 as by passing through the same and being bent around a lug thereof, as shown for the wall S3 in Figure 1. The spurs of the stay plates I3 are firmly engaged in the container walls incidental to this insertion and connection of the stay wires, the walls of the form providing an anvil and guide to assure parallelism of the pairs of opposite walls in the container. stay means I2 are thus connected with the corresponding pair of vertical walls at points remote from the edges of such walls, and serve to transmit bulging strains from one of these walls to the other. Preferably, also, the stay means l2 for the walls SI, S3 is passed across the internal space of the container parallel to the walls S2 and S4; and correspondingly, the stay means I2 for the walls S2 and S4 is parallel to the walls SI and S3. Under such conditions and in the absence of the reinforcing members, it is possible to assemble the vertical walls together and to incorporate the stay means at a container factory, and then to fold the semi-assembled blanks to fiat condition and ship them to a loading point, such as a nail factory, where the bottoms are closed and sealed, and the containers finally filled and closed. If the container blank has been semi-assembled and shipped in fiat condition, as aforesaid, for use in packaging nails, for example, it is opened out at the nail factory until the vertical walls again form a rectangle in horizontal section, and is placed bottom upward upon a similar form, with the incorporation of reinforcing means RI and R3 as will be described in detail later, and then the.
pairs of bottom flaps are turned down and sealed. It will be noted in Figures 1 and 2 that the reinforcing means RI and R3 include horizontal portions which receive the first pair of bottom flaps B2 and B4, as these are turned inwardly and thus prevent these flaps from being forced out of position. Cement may now be applied to this pair of flaps B2 and B4 in the usual way, and the other pair of flaps BI and B3 turned down .upon and secured to them by the cement. Finally, a sealing strip 3| may be employed to close the final external seam and the container.
The formed container is now loaded with passed through a standard clos- The cover flaps T2 and T4 are urn'ed' down by the machine and are supported against excessive inward movement by the horizontal portions of the reinforcing means RI and R3, so that they may be cemented, and the pair.
articles and is The' of cover flaps TI and T3 turned down and secured to them in the usual way. Finally, the closed container may be sealed by a further strip 30, as indicated for Figure 5.
This loaded container is thus provided in this illustrative form with vertical reinforcing portions at the four. corners, being comprised in the illustrative case of metal angle pieces having their legs each resting against two adjacent vertical walls of the container. Further, the reinforcing means includes horizontal portions likewise illustratively of angle metal with vertical and horizontal-legs. The legs located in vertical planes rest against vertical walls of the container, while the legs located in horizontal planes rest against horizontal walls of the container. The reinforcements therefore strengthen all four vertical edges of the container and at least the horizontal edges of two of the side walls, and serve for supporting, receiving and transmitting the vertical loads, without the vertical walls of the container itself being required to support such loads. These reinforcing members, therefore, assist the stay means in their mutual action. The stay means tends to hold the vertical walls against bulging at their centers, while the reinforcing means supports the loads to relieve tendencies of the walls toward buckling or bulging. In particular, it will be noted that the manner of forming the reinforcing members, as illustrated, produces a definite closure of the container at the eight corners existing at the top and bottom ends of the vertical edges of the container, so that nails or like articles cannot project out of holes and possibly cause damage to adjacent containers.
In the forms illustrated in Figures 1 and 2, the reinforcing means is illustrated as comprised of a pair of the reinforcing members shown in Figures 3 and 4. In Figure 4, the blank is made of angle metal, either by clipping and forming the black sheet, or by folding a skelp parallel to its length to provide the legs of the angle form. Such members may be cut to the desired length and then passed through a black sheet multiple rotary clipper having its dies or blades arranged for alternately clipping to the right and left, as indicated in Figure 8, where the arrows a. and b indicate the upper and lower blades of a clipping machine. The clipping operation is accompanied by a distortion of the sheet at the clipping point, so that the edges are left in position for guiding themselves during the later folding. Thus, the edges tend to slide past one another in the direction shown by the arrows c. This alternate clipping to the 'right and left is utilized so that the vertical horizontal and vertical portions, and so that no raw edge of any reinforcing member under normal load in the structure is exposed to the fiber board. It will be understood that the horizontal members RbRbI and RdR.dI constitute beams for transmitting loads to and from the horizontal walls of the container; whereas the vertical members Ra-RaI and Rc--Rcl constitute posts for supporting these beams.
In the illustrative form of Figures 3 and 4, the reinforcing member is assumed to be finally bent to rectangular form as shown in Figure 1, and for the purpose of maintaining this form, a short further section Re is utilized which is interlocked with the other free end of the blank to prevent relative movements of the horizontal and vertical portions at the joint (see Figure 1).
In the form of construction shown in Figures and 6, the container blank may be identical with that of Figures 1 and 2, and the reinforcing means RI and R3 may be identical with that shownin Figures 1 to 4. The stay means, however, is here provided by stay plates 13a located remote from the edges of the corresponding side walls, and the pairs of internal stay portions lZa, 12b which are illustrated as wires passing through apertures in the stay plates l3a. Each wire is bent at a sharp angle just outside of the stay plate and then is carried around the container externally thereof. In
the particular illustrated form of Figures 5 and 6, one of the wires constituting a stay portion IZa is passed horizontally around the container and then its ends are connected by twisting at I20. The other stay portion I2ais similarly carried in the opposite direction around the container horizontally and is connected by a similar twist 120. One of the stay portions lZb is bent at its ends around the bottom of the container and joined by a twist I20. This joining of the stay portions externally completes the preliminary assembly of the container ready for filling, and leaves it in the condition shown in Figure 6. It may now be filled with the articles, the cover flaps T2, T4 turned down as before, and then the flaps Tl, T3 brought down and sealed upon the first pair of cover flaps. The closing 'strip 3| may then be applied and finally the final stay portion l2b has its externally projecting ends brought over the top flaps of the gontainer and twisted together at l2c (Figure portions [2a which constitute binding means pass around the container substantially in a hori zontal plane and are supported by the reinforcing means RI and R3 at the corners, so that closed condition, and likewise pass transversely to horizontal portions of the reinforcing means.
It will be understood that the twists I20 have been illustrated in the form in which made and that it is customary to turn them parallel to adjacent runs of the external binding means IZa, 12b and to press them inward so that they do not interfere with the free sliding. movement of the containers relative to one another.
Another form of constructing a reinforcing member is shown in Figure 7, where it is made, of a U-shaped piece of angle material and having beam portions R122 preferably to be located at the top of the filled container, and the two reinforcing members such as those shown in Figures 1 and 3 gives a structure in a. container measuring eleven inches square horizontally, arid It will thus be-noted that the external eleven and a half inches deep, internally, which will hold one hundred pounds of nails for storage and shipment under the usual conditions, each such' container being capable of supporting the superimposed weight of six or seven other containers for long periods of time under even disadvantageous atmospheric conditions, without collapsing or such loss of strength as to cause the breaking of the package.
When the reinforcing members are located inside the container as illustrated, the lading of the container serves to maintain them definitely in position. Thus, in the illustrated form, the posts formed by the angle members are pressed tightly'against'the vertical walls.
It is obvious that the invention is not limited to the particular forms of construction shown, but, that it may be modified in many ways within the scope of the appended claims.
Having thus described the invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent, is:
1. A container of fiber board having joined vertical walls and bottom and cover flaps providing horizontal walls forming the bottom and top of 'the container, reinforcingmeans providing rigid vertical posts at vertical walls of the container and rigid horizontal beams located at opposite horizontal edges, said posts and said beams respectively being spaced from. one another to expose the major portion of each wall to give a maximum capacity to the container, said horizontal beams receiving and transmitting vel'tical loads between said vertical posts and said horizontal walls.
2. A container of fiber board having joined vertical walls and bottom and cover fiaps providing horizontal walls forming the bottom and top of the container, metal. reinforcing members having vertical portions located at the vertical edges of the container and horizontal portions located at opposite horizontal edges, said posts and said beams respectively being spaced from one another to expose the major portion of each wall to give a maximum capacity to the container, said horizontal portions extending along a vertical wall of the container and from one vertical .portion to the other for receiving and transmitting vertical loads withrespect to said vertical portions and operating to hold the same in spaced relation and in position at the vertical corners of the container.
3. A container of fiber board having joined vertical walls and bottom and cover flaps providing horizontal walls forming the bottom and top of the container, metal reinforcing members having vertical portions located at the vertical edges of the container and rigid horizontal portions located at opposite horizontal edges and connected to the vertical portions, said posts and said beams respectively being spaced from one another to expose the major portion of each wall to give a maximum capacity to the container, said horizontal portions receiving and transmitting vertical loads with respect to said vertical portions, said "members being constructed and arranged to be held frictionally by said walls when the container is empty and with the vertical portions located in the vertical corners and the horizontal portions located in horizontal. corners of the container.
4. A container of fiber board having joined vertical walls and bottom and cover flaps providing horizontal walls forming the bottom and top of the container, metal reinforcing angle members, each having vertical and horizontal portions connected to each other, the legs of the vertical portions being disposed at the corners of the container and each having surfaces individually bearing against two adjacent vertical walls and the legs of each horizontal portion having surfaces individually bearing against a vertical wall and a horizontal wall.
5. A container as in claim 4, in which the metal members are a pair of integral units each formed from a piece of angle, metal and having one leg thereof bent to provide vertical and horizontal portions, and the other leg thereof gashed to provide portions in vertical planes, the vertically extending portions of the other leg being located inside the horizontally extending portion thereof so that the loads on said vertically extending portions may be transmitted to the horizontal portions of said one leg.
6. A container of fiber board having two joined pairs of vertical walls and bottom and top cover flaps providing horizontal walls forming the bottom and top of the container, each vertical wall I having fiaps at its top and bottom, the bottom and top flaps of each pair of walls being sub stantially in common planes at bottom and top, the flaps overlapping in pairs with one pair inside the other, and metal angle members 10- catcd inside-the container and providing ve'tical posts and rigid horizontal beams connected to said vertical posts, said vertical posts and horizontal beams being disposed at the corners of the container, the inner pairs of flaps bearing against and being supported against inward movement by said horizontal beams, said horizontal beams also resting against vertical walls of said container.
'7. A container of fiber board having pairs of walls joined to form the vertical walls of the container, and bottom and top flaps providing horizontal walls forming the bottom and top of the container, stay means extending between opposite pairs of said vertical walls to support the same against bulging at points remote from the edges thereof, and reinforcing means inside the container and including vertical posts bearing against adjacent vertical walls and horizontal beams, said vertical posts and horizontal beams being rigidly connected for transferring vertical loads to and from said vertical posts and bearing against the top and bottom walls.
8. A container as in claim 7, in which the reinforcing means are metal angle members each folded to rectangular form and of which at least one has the legs of its horizontal and vertical portions bearing against a single vertical wall.
9. A container of fiber board having pairs of walls joined to form the vertical walls of the container, and bottom and top flaps providing horizontal walls forming the bottom and top of the container, stay means extending between opposite pairs of said vertical walls to support the same against bulging at points remote from the edges thereof, and a pair of reinforcing means of rectangular form bearing against a pair of opposite vertical walls and including vertical portions also bearing against adjacent against adjacent horizontal walls.
A container of fiber board having pairs of walls joined to form the vertical walls of the container,..and bottom and top flaps providing horizontal walls to form the bottom and top vertical walls and horizontal portions bearing of the container, reinforcing metal of rectangular shape closely fitting the container and located at opposite walls of one pair and having vertical portions for supporting vertical loads and horizontal portions for transferring such loads from and to the horizontal walls, and stay means including stay plates located at points of the vertical walls remote from the edges thereof and stay connections extending across the container space between the stay plates of pairs of said vertical walls, said stay means being operative to prevent relative separating movements of the stay plates.
11. A container of fiber board having pairs of walls joined to form the vertical walls of the container, and top and bottom flaps providing horizontal walls to form the bottom and top of the container, and stay means including stay plates located at points of the vertical walls remote from the edges thereof and stay connections,extending across the container space between the stay plates of pairs of said vertical walls and external binding connections including first connected portions extending horizontally from stay plate to stay plate and second. connected portions extending from stay plate to stay plate across the bottom and top horizontal walls.
12. A container as in claim 11, in which said flaps are in pairs with one pairat bottom and top overlapping and. outside of t. .e other pair, and in which said second CORT set-ed portions extend at right angles to the free edges of said overlapping pair.
13. A container of fiber board having pairs of walls joined to form the vertical walls of the container, and bottom and top flaps providing horizontal walls to form the bottom and top of the container, reinforcing means including vertical portions located at the junction of vertical walls for supporting vertical loads, and horizontal portions located at junctions of vertical and horizontal walls for transferring such loads from and to the horizontal walls, and stay means irrcluding stay plates located at points of the vertical walls remote from the edges thereof and stay connections extending across the container space between stay plates and external binding connections including connected portions extending from stay plate to stay plate across the bottom and top horizontal walls and passing around said horizontal portions.
14. A container as in claim 13, in which each stay means comprises a pair of flexible members passing through apertures of the corresponding stay plate and passing in different directions away from' said plates externally, of the container.
15. A container of fiber board having joined vertical walls and bottom and cover flaps providing horizontal walls forming the bottom and top of the container, reinforcing means providing rigid vertical posts located at the vertical edges of the container and rigid horizontal beams located at opposite horizontal edges, said horizontal beams receiving and transmitting vertical loads between said vertical posts horizontal walls, said posts and beams being located in thecorners of the container walls to close the container at its corners and having integrally joined surfaces engaging directly the container walls adjacent each said corner.
16. A container of fiber beardhaving pairs of joined vertical walls and bottom and cover'fiaps providing horizontal wallstorming the bottom and top of the container, and stay and binding means including stay plates located on each of vthe'vertical-walla; remote from the edges thereof, 7
and external binding connections extending externally of the container, one pair of opposite stay plates being joined by binding connections extending horizontally around the container, and another pair'of opposite stay plates being joined by binding connections extending in an upright plane around the top and bottom walls.-
17. A reinforcing member for fiber containers v comprising an integral piece of angle metal having one leg folded to form a closed rectangle andthe other leg cut at the corners of the rectangular form'and providing vertical and horizontal portions, of which the vertical portion is located inside the horizontal portion to transfer vertical loads from and to .the same; said angle metal being folded to provide five sections, of
.which the end sections overlap in forming the rectangular reinforcing member and are interfitted with, one another so that the vertical por tion of the rectangular reinforcing member transfers vertical loads from and to the horizontal portions thereof.