US 2038615 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 28, 1936- D. G. UNDERDOWN ART OF CONSTRUCTION Filed July 28, 1953 INVENTOR.
ATTORNEYS Patented Apr.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE I ,ART OF CONSTRUCTION ing structures such as dwellings, lofts, storehouses, walls, enclosures, etc. The invention is particularly directed .toward a. method of and means for constructing enclosureswhich is rapid and requires a minimum amount or skilled labor. The art of construction contemplated by. this invention is inexpensive from thestandpoint of materials as well as labor; it is adaptable to all forms, sizes and styles of buildings; itsubstantially eliminates the use of wooden forms or other removable forms in whichconcrete structures or parts thereof are poured in place. The method of construction embraced-by invention gives rise to fa structure which is of ample strength and resistant to earthquake. The
resultant structure is-bra'cedjand connected by a substantially monolithic concrete reinforcing.
.' The structures resulting from the application of this invention are capable of bein g kept at optimum temperature and'humjidity conditions with-. out the necessity of installing expensive airwashing, heating, cooling, humidifying and circulating systems.
In general, the method of construction em- ,braced by this invention utilizes precast" or formed structural units which may be and. are
' of varying shapes, sizes and designs. Such precast structural units include wall slabs or units containing metallic reinforcing which may extend beyond the surfaces of the tile or units so as to permit the various precast units to be tied together or to the reinforcements employed in other portions of the finished'structure.
building units of the priorart have generally been of the nature 'of partition blocks and tile, and were self-supporting" but were incapable of becoming portions offthe finished structure. Furtherm rag nthe utilization of the building blocks or hollow tile of the prior art in a structure, the girders-andv beams were first 5 erected and the precast building units were then eifectively connect and tie the tile or other pre- I cast units with the beams, girders, studs and joists of a building. I I
The mode 01' construction embraced by this invention, however, distinguishes from the prior '5 methods and means in that precast structural V It is aclmizi'wledged. that heretofore .precas buildingunlts have been made but suchiprecast Donald Under-down, Los melts, c m.
1933, Serial No. 682.607
are arranged in a desired p s tion with relation to one another and to the configuration of the ultimate structure and thereafter monolithic concrete columns, beams and girders are v cast around or through portions of such precast units, thereby ,joining units together-and to the monolithic columns, girders, etc. Preferably, in accordance with this invention, the precast units themselves act as forms for the monolithic coland the like, thereby obviating the necessit'y of employing expensive, inaccurate, tempoand troublesome removable wooden or metallic forms. i
It is an object of invention, therefore, to disclose an improved mode of construction whereby'preformed structural units are used and become intimate and integral portions of the finished structure.
struction which employs precast structural units, said units-acting, InpartL-at'least, as forms in hich monolithic cementitious columns, girders and beams may be formed.
I These and other objects, uses and advantages of the invention will be. more readily understood from the following detailed description.
In order to facilitate understanding, reference 'ing a few forms and modificationswhichthe invention contemplates.
. In the drawing:
illustrating,a-imodified form of wall slab unit co'nstructedin accordance with my invention.
In describing the invention, reference will repeatedly bemade to structural units or formed structural units. By such terms, reference will be made to preformed tile, slabs, blocks, etc,, of varying shape and size which have been made before being installed or placed into desired position as elements of a structure. Such formed structural units may be either'cast, molded or otherwise shaped and may be made from .a number of different materials such as, for example, cementitious compositions, clay or terra cotta, etc. The term cementitious com- I perspective view of a wall slab I constructed naccordance'with'my invention Fig. 4'is aperspective view of a wall section I Another object is to .disclose a method of conwillbe'had to the appended drawing, illustrat- ..Fig. 3 ,verticai f sectional viewtaken through 'the center of thewall slab unit shown position" as used herein refers to compositions which are relatively plastic and mobile but which have the ability of setting or hardening. Such cementitious compositions generally include hydraulic cements such as Portland cement, and the like, but the term also embraces gypsum bodies and magnesium cxychloride cements.
As stated hereinbefore, the mode of construction embraced by this invention contemplates the use of precast units which are arranged and held in a desired position relative to one another.
and then connected together by means of monolithic members made from a cementitious material.
As shown in Fig. 1, for example, the wall is composed of inner and outer precast wall tile I and 2 which are identical in shape and configuration. These units are arranged one on top of another and during erection are seated upon a mortar or grout containing lime, Portland cement, or other cementing materials. These wall units are placed in abutting relation with other similar units such as the units 3 and 4, the joints, indicated at 5, forming vertical lines. After a wall composed of such units has been erected, a column 6 of concrete is poured through the channel formed by the end sections of abutting wall units I, 2, 3 and 4. The column 6 is therefore a monolithic member tying the wall together.
A corner block is indicated at I, such corner block being in abutting relation with the ends of wall tile. The corner block may be provided with a recess, indicated at 8, facing the ends of the wall units so as to form a channel, conduit or passageway into which cementitious material may be poured so as to form the corner column B. In addition, the corner blocks 1 may be provided with apertures which are in alignment when the corner blocks are laid one upon the other, and a vertical series of such corner blocks may then be securely tied together by pouring concrete into such apertures so as to form the monolithic comer post I 0.
The end portions of the corner block I are provided with rectangular recesses, indicated at 8, into which project metallic reinforcing rods II and I2 extending horizontally through the block I, the ends of the reinforcing rods extending a considerable distance into the recess 8.
Fig. 1 also shows the ends of two wall tile I and 2 in abutting relation with one end of the comer block I. The exterior vertical surfaces of the wall tile are preferably plane and as shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3, the body of the wall tile is relatively thin.
The upper and lower longitudinal or side edges of the wall tile are of increased thickness, as indicated at I3, so as to form a suitable seating surface between meeting faces of adjoining or adjacent tile; such horizontal seating surfaces may be provided with longitudinal grooves I 4 adapted to receive grouting material and facilitate the erection of a wall.
The wall tile are further provided with rearwardly extending spacing fins I5, these spacing fins extending rearwardly of the rear surface of the body portion of said tile throughout the full width thereof and extending from a point spaced from the end of the tile so as to leave a recessed portion 16 which is of uniform configuration vertically. In other words, the bearing surface or thicker section I3 does not extend beyond the spacing fins I5.
The wall tile may be provided with reinforcing rods I'I extending longitudinally through the thicker seating sections I3 and projecting out of the rear surface of the body portion of said tile between the fins and the adjacent ends of the tile, the point of exit of the ends of the rods being preferably the junction point between the outermost surface of the fin and the rear face of the body portion of the tile. The ends of the reinforcing may extend beyond the end of the tile, as indicated at I8.
Again referring to Fig. 1, after the wall units I and 2 have been placed into abutting relation with the end of the comer block I and the wall and corner thus formed has been built to a sumcient height, concrete is poured into the form shaped by the recess 8 of the corner block and the recess I6 of the adjacent wall tile.
In this manner, monolithic concrete column 9 is formed, this column extending through the wall and tying the various corner blocks and wall tile together. The reinforcing rods II and I2 of the corner blocks and rods I! of the wall tile extend into this concrete column 9. Before pour-'- ing the column, the various rods, suchas the reinforcing rods II and I2 of the corner block and I! of the wall tile, may be twisted or otherwise suitably tied together, such twisted reinforcing being eventually covered by and embedded in the finished column 9.
From the description given hereinabove, it is evident that no forms have been required in the construction of the monolithic column 9, thereby eliminating the cost of temporary wooden forms.
In order to strengthen the corner construction, the bore ID of the various corner blocks 1 may be also filled with concrete. Fig. 1 shows a vertical reinforcing rod I9 positioned in the center of said bore prior to the pouring of the concrete into place. Again, the resulting column ties the corner blocks together but does not require the use of any special forms.
If desired, reinforcing rods I9 may be placed in the spaces formed by the recesses I6 to reinforce the poured columns 6 and reinforcing rods II and I2 and I! may be interwoven with such reinforcing rods I9 to assist in tying all of the wall units firmly together.
The formation of beams either at the top of a wall or elsewhere is facilitated by employing slabs formed in the, manner indicated in Fig. 4. The wall, for example, may be composed of opposing wall slabs I and 2 similar to those shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 3, but in order to form a continuous beam along the top of such wall, opposing slabs 20 and 2| are employed, these slabs distinguishing from slabs I and 2 in that their lower edges are provided with inwardly extending flanges 22 and 23 respectively, such flanges being adapted to contact with one another when the opposing slabs are in position so as to form a member adapted tcrbridge the hollow space between the lower slabs I and 2 and thereby permit the retention of concrete 24 poured beween the slabs 20 and 2|.
The manufacture of the precast or preformed structural units described hereinabove has not been described in detail as it does not form a part of the present invention. Any suitable forms,
machines or methods of making preformed bodies may be employed in the manufacture of the slabs or tile. Furthermore, the proportions and character of aggregate, sand, cinder, ash, etc., used in the slab composition may be very materially varied. .It may be stated, however, that slabs made of Portland cement and an aggregate not exceeding about mesh have been found to be very satisfactory, particularly when such slabs are compacted by vibration of the molds in which they are cast.
All such changes, modifications and adaptations of the invention as come within the scope of the following claims are embraced thereby.
1. A precast structural unit including a body member formed as a slab having front and rear faces; a plurality of fins formed on and projecting rearwardly of the rear face of said body member, said fins extending the full width of the body member and spaced inwardly of the ends thereof, the side edges of said body member being thickened between said fins to form strengthened meeting edges between said units when two of said units are assembled one upon the other, a reinforcing rod extending longitudinally of said slab and embedded in said thickened edge portion of said body member, the .ends of said reinforcing rod extending from the rear surface of said body member at the junction between said fins and the rear face of said body member.
2. A precast structural unit including a body member formed as a slab having front and. rear faces, a plurality of fins formed on and projecting rearwardly of the rear face of said body member, said fins extending the full width of the body member and spaced inwardly of the ends thereof, and the side edges of said body member being thickened throughout the entire space between said fins to form rearwardly projecting side flanges on said body member, a reinforcing rod extending longitudinally of said slab to a depth substantially equal to the unthickened portion of said slab, whereby the ends of said reinforcing rod extend outwardly from the rear face of said slab at the junction between said fins and the rear face of said slab.
3. A precast structural unit including a body member formed as a slab having front and rear faces, a plurality of fins formed on and projecting rearwardly of the rear face of said body member, said fins extending the full width of the body member and spaced inwardly of the ends thereof, a pair of reinforcing rods extending longitudinally of said slab parallel with the face of said slab and spaced therefrom'adistance equal to the distance between the front and rear faces of said slab, one adjacent each side edge of said slab, the ends of said reinforcing rods extending outwardly of said slab at the junction between said fins and the rear face of said slab, the side edges of said body member being thickened to form side flanges on said body member extending rearwardly thereof a lesser distance than said fins, said thickened side edges of said body member embedding that portion of the reinforcing rods lying between the fins.
4. A precast structural unit including a body member formed as a slab having front and rear faces, a plurality of fins formed on and projecting rearwardly of the rear face of said body member, said fins extending the full width of the body member and spaced inwardly of the ends thereof, and the side edges of said body member being thickened to form rearwardly extending flanges, one of said flanges extending rearwardly a lesser distance than said fin and the other of said flanges extending rearwardly to the full extent of said fins.
DONALD G. UNDERDOWN.