US 2038657 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
C. B. HILLHOUSE METHOD FOR MAKING GAS April 2s, 1936.
Filed Oct. 4, 1.930
@Mns-aus' can w A/ //v /A/ Il. ////////V/f//////m/// M noauto? Patented Apr. 28, 1936 ,lix'rralw'r 'OFFICE METHOD FOR MAKING GAS Charles B. Hillhouse, Newport, R. I., assignor to Sylvia Remsen Hillhouse, New York, N. Y.
Application october 4, 1930, serial No. 486,330 3 claims. (c1. 413-197) The invention relates toa method and apparatus for combustion whereby gases of combustion are screened oif from materials in the same chamber upon which heat from said combustion 5 is acting, and by a screen which does not materially reduce heat transference.
The invention may be utilized for general purposes or as an improvement in my pending applications Ser. No. 631,778, filed April 13, 1923, Ser.
m No. 17,565, led March 19, 1927, and Ser, No.
256,722, filed February 24, 1928, which applications relate to gas producers. The present invention supplies a Way of arranging4 axial combustion.so that the feed of -fuel holds the gases of combustion in a defined course through the chamber without materially reducing the heat radiation of the combusting fuel.
The method consists in feeding fuel in sheet form to surround axial combustion and then mixing the fuel current with air from combustion while deflecting them into a ame.
The products of combustion pass axially through the surrounding and moving sheet of fuel, either gaseous, liuid or solid or a mixture of any kind. Oil, or combustible gas free from nitrogen, or other uid conveyor may be used for the purpose of injecting fuel into the generator or furnace in suitable sheet form, either alone or accompanied by powdered coal or other fuel.
The current of fuel must have suliicient body and ve1ocity to confine the gases of combustion and prevent kthem from extending into the gas making materials or other materials acted upon.
As the fuel current is strongest at its entrance,
while the velocity of the iiame may have slackened and expanded at that point, the screen will offer most protection where most needed.
If a hollow circular axial flame is used it will allow inward expansion of the hot gases of combustion as well as expansion outwardly, and will allow combustion taking place nearer the object to which heat is to be transferred, along the walls of the chamber.
This method, among its other advantages, be-
sides confining the gases of combustion to a defined course through the chamber, will preheat the fuel before entering the zone of combustion and will enable combustion to be brought nearer the walls than a usual axial ame.
When pulverized coal is utilized as fuel, air should not be used askits conveying or fluidifying medium, but a non nitrogenous substance, such as a small percentage of made gas or oil or steam.
In making gas it does not matter `whether a 'portion of the fuel enters the gas making materials so long as no nitrogen is included4 in the fuel, nor does it matter whether some of the l axial gases of combustion are carried back again into the ame byk the fuel current, so they would 5 I coal into the gas generator'as the principal fuel 15` for axial combustion, and the drawing so indicates it.
Based upon common practce in the use of steam as an accelerator of gases it could be roughly stated that if 116 of the made water gas from 1 20 lb. of carbon or about 6 cubic feet should be used as the conveying medium for l/2 1b. of carbon for axial combustion that about 1/4 to 1 cubic foot of steam would be enough to give suicient velocity to the conveying medium to make a suitable 25 protecting screen. The 1/2 lb. carbon would add but about 1/100 of a cubic foot to the 7 cubic feet of gas and steam, or a quarter cubic foot, if semi-fluid. y
The accompanying drawing shows an applica- 30 tion of this method to making water gas, but the screened off hot zone near the furnace walls can be used for other purposes as well.
The drawing also shows a preferred Way of having the fuel current travel from top to bot- 35 tom of the chamber, but the directions of the flame and fuel current could be reversed.
The drawing is a somewhat diagrammatic vertical sectional view of a device for effecting the above mentioned process. 40
As applied to making water gas this method of combustion -mayb carried out in the following mannerA when powdered coal is used as fuel and in gas making.
The basey of the apparatus is indicated at I, 45 and upon the space there is erected an annular wall 2, which is hollow as at 3 so as to permit air from a lead 4, to be heated on its passage down to an inlet 5, into the main chamberG, of the ap- 2 i in the best position to create downward suction in the deilector 9 on \the side of said deflector nea-rer to the walls 2, and in exact augment with a circular fuel sheet indicated I I which fuel sheet moves downwardly into deflector 9, the suction from the incoming hot air maintaining a strong fuel current in the sheet I I. A gas conveying medium, preferably a portion of the made gases or oil is' indicated as conveyed by a medium as I2. The steam accelerating and conveying medium, preferably preheated as shown, by I3; and 'conveying medium for steam for gas making purposes by I4; -while I5 is the main source of steam. Powdered coal for fuel is entered thru conduit I9, preferably in a semi-fluid state, as for instance by a Kinyon pump using a portion of made gas instead of air for fluidifying. Powdered fuel 'in the above semi-fluid condition is caused to run like water from faucets as at I1' as used for chemical requirements in making water gas and for combustion. The gas making materials from I4 and I1 enter the chamber 6 tangentially and made gases indicated at I8, after helically revolving about axial combustion'zone 1 leave the gas generator 6 by a tangential outlet I9. 'I'he circular sheet of fuel I I is'composed of powdered coal from I1 and conveyed by gas or o`il from I2 and ac-` celerated by the steam, preferably preheated, from conveying member I3. Accelerators may be added to the outlets asindicated at 25 and 26.
'I'he circular form may be given in various Ways to the fuel but the way indicated is -to throw downward jets against a circular collar 20. When the circular sheet of fuel I I reaches the bottom of chamber 6 it enters the deflector 9 where it meets and mixes with heated air from 5 and they are deflected up into combustion zone 1. The circular defiector 9 is built around a truncated cone 2l so as to direct the combusting materials toward the burning the same to form an axial combustion zone extending in an opposite direction to the fuel feed, and feeding carbonaceous material and steam to be gasified along a Ahelical path to surround the fuel feeding zone, and in direct marginal contacttherewith whereby the heat from the axial combustion zone is transferred to the gas making materials to convert same into a gas.
2. The method of producing gas and screening an axial combustion zone from materials heated thereby. which consists in feeding fuel for `com bustion along a zone in one direction, deecting said fuel and burning the same to form a combustion zone extending inV an opposite direction adjacent the fuel feeding zone and feeding carbonaceous material and steam to be gasified along a helical path in contact with said zone of fuel feed and separatedfrom the combustion zone by the incoming fuel whereby the heat from the axial combustion zone is transferred to the gas making materials to convert same into a gas.
3. The method of making gas which consists in producing an axial combustion zone in one direc.
tion, feeding carbonaceous material and steam to be gasified along a helical patlfin the opposite direction andparallel thereto, and screening said materials from the combustion zone by feeding