US 2039542 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 5, 1936. b. E. LINDQUIST FITTING Filed Dec. 26, 1934 5 Sheets-Sheet 1.
May 5, 1936. D. E. LINDQUIST 2,039,542
FITTING Filed Dec. 26, 1934 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 MJJ y 1936- D. E. LINDQUIST 2,039,542
FITTING I Filed Dec. 26, 1934 s Sheets-Sheet 5 FIG. l3 FIG. l4.
3 82 /.9, I ,V i
reamed. May s, 1936 PATENT OFFICE.
David a. Lindqnist, Port nut-on, men. alsiml' to Mueller Brass 00., Portlinron. Mich, a corporation of Michigan Application December 28, 1934, Serial No. 159,217
Claims. (01. 285-210) his invention relates to fittings and the mani- :ture thereof, and with regard to certain more specific features, to threadless wrought metal fittings.
Among the several objects of the invention may be noted the provision of fittings oi the class described for pipe, rods, and the like which are relatively simple in construction, but which are rigid and serviceable in use; the provision of fittingsoi the class described which, while assembled from a plurality of pieces, are so constructed that there is substantially no likelihood of their coming apart while in use; and the provision of fittings oi the class described particularly adapted formaking joints of the capillary soldered type. Other objects will be in part obvious and in part pointed out hereinafter.
The invention accordingly comprises the elements and combinations of elements, features of construction, and arrangements 0! parts, which will be exemplified in the structures hereinafter described, and the scope of the application of which will be indicated in the following claims.
In the accompanying drawings, in which are illustrated several 0! various possible embodiments of the invention,
Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a blank;
Fig. 2 is a perspective view of the blank 0! Fig. 1 after an initial operation thereon;
Fig. 3 is a perspective view of the blank of Fig. 1 after a second operation thereonz Fig. 4 is a perspective view of the blank of Fig. 1 after a third operation thereon;
Fig. 5 is a perspective view showing the initial assembly of the blank of Fig; 4 with a tube length;
Fig. 6 is a perspective view showing the assembly after a first operation thereon; I
Fig. 7 is a perspective view oi a completed T fitting embodying the present invention;
Fig. 8 is a vertical cross section taken substan-- tially along line 8-4 of Fig. 7; a
Fig. 9 is a perspective view of a blank adapted for the production of a second embodiment of the invention;
Fig. 10 is a perspective view 01' the blank of Fig. 9 after the completion of certain operations thereon;
Fig. 11 is a perspective view of the blank 01' Fig. 9 after the completion of certain additional operations thereon;
Fig. 12 is a perspective view showing the initial 1 assembly of the blank 01 Fig. 11 with a tube length;
Fig. 13 is a perspective view cross fitting embodying the present invention;
Fig. 14 is a vertical cross section taken substantially along line I 4- of Fig. 13;
Fig. 1,5ls a perspective view 01' an assembly adapted. to be constituted into a further embodimerit of the invention; and, I
Fig. 16 is a perspective view of a header fi ting embodying the present invention.
Similar reierence characters indicate corresponding parts throughout the several views of the drawings.
Referring now moreparticularly to Fig. 1, numeral I indicates a cup-shaped blank, which may be formed by extrusion or a similar process, and is adapted for the production of a T fitting in which all three outlets are to receive pipe ends of equal diameter. The material of the blank I is the material of which the fitting is to be made,
which is usually wrought copper, although otheror a completed iii drical portion 2 is suitable to withstand the i'orming operations hereinafter described and present a finished fitting of practicable wall thickness. For example, with an outer diameter of one inch, the wall thickness may well be of the order of .064 inch. The cup end 3 of the blank I is desirably formed with greater wall thickness than the cylindrical portion 2, as illustrated, because in the operations to follow, it is. expanded into a greater area and such additional thickness is needed to provide the ultimate expanded portions with substantially the same wall thickness as the cedure may normally be canied out in a series of steps. with intermediate annealings or the blank. As shown in Fig. 2, the cup portion 3 of the blank I after this operation is expanded into a cylindrical portion 4, which is at right angles to the cylindrical section 2 of the original blank. The ends of the cylindrical section 4 are closed by portions 5. The outer diameter of the cylindrical section 4 is preferably made equal to the outer diameter of cylindrical section 2, plustwo wall thichiesses, (this making the inner diameter of the section 4 equal to the outer diameter of the section 2). The excess thickness of the cup portion 3 of the blank of Fig. 1 has now been distributed into the cylindrical portion 4 in such manner that the wall thickness is substantially uniform throughout the blank.
The next step, as illustrated in Fig. 3, comprises cutting off the closed ends 5 of the blank of Fig. 2. The blank has now assumed the general conformation of a T, having two outlets 6 at the region formerly occupied by the ends 5 and a side outlet formed by the cylindrical portion 2. The length of the cylindrical section 4, however, is insufilcient for the blank to be considered a practicable T fitting.
The next operation is illustrated in Fig. 4, and comprises, broadly, expanding or sizing the cylindrical portion 2 to form a slide or lateral outlet or socket adapted to receive a pipe end to make a joint. This expanding or sizing operation may be performed with tools of the type shown in Rader Patent 1,938,194. The resulting socket is indicated by numeral 1 in Fig. 4. The socket I terminates with a shoulder 8, which is desirably so formed that it presents an inward taper inside the socket, down to the diameter of the short remaining section of the original cylindrical section 2. This taper serves to exert a centering action upon an entering pipe and is in accordance with the teachings of Lindquist Patent 1,890,998. It is likewise desirable, at the extreme end of the fitting, to provide an outside taper 8. The purpose of this out ide taper 8 is to permit the cooling of solder at the extreme end of the fitting in the making of a joint, prior to the cooling of the solder inside the joint, in
accordance with the teachings of Gresley et a].
After the formation of the socket 1, it is desirable that a bead I0 be outwardly rolled in the central region of the socket i, and that this bead Ill be provided with a solder feed hole or sprue II. The bead I II, in the making of a joint, acts as a distributing channel for solder introduced through the feed hole II. A similar solder feed hole I2 is drilled in some region of the cylindrical portion 4; the optimum location has been found to be substantially opposite the projecting cylindrical portion 2.
For reference purposes, the blank I as prepared up to this stage will hereinafter be referred to as the side outlet section of the T.
The next step in manufacturing the T is indicated in Fig. 5. Here it will be seen that a cylindrical pipe or tube length I3 has been inserted into the cylindrical portion 4 of the side outlet section, passing through the open ends 6 thereof. For the present, the tube I3 is completely cylindrical, without any deformation, throughout its length. When the tube I3 is in centralized position, and after suitable cleaning and fiuxing operations have been performed, it is soldered in position by heating the assembly with a blow torch or the like and feeding solder through the feed hole I2. With proper cleaning and fluxing, the solder introduced at the hole I2 may be made to spread and occupy the entire interfacial region between the pipe II and the cylindrical section 4' of the side outlet section I. This, in effect, means that the pipe I3 is soldered to the side outlet section I at all regions of the section 4 with the exception of the circular opening or interval left by the intersection of the section 2 with the section 4, and is thus prevented from rotating in the section or cylindrical portion 4.
As an alternative to soldering in the manner described, the side outlet section I may be spot welded, are welded, or otherwise autogenously joined to the tube I3. Soldering, however, is usually to be preferred, inasmuch as it is more likely to make a fluid-tight joint between the two sections.
Care must be used in selecting the solder for joining the side outlet section I and the tube I3, because the fitting being constructed is one that will later be used to make a joint with pipe ends by a similar soldering procedure. Accordingly, if the fitting is to go into usual service, wherein soft solder melting at a low temperature is used to make the joint, then it is desirable that the side outlet section I be soldered to the tube I3 with a high melting point solder, such as silver mentioned. These shoulders I5 are positioned to abut the ends 6 of the cylindrical portion 4 of the side outlet section I, to lock the tube section I3 against sliding movement in the side outlet section I. This arrangement, in addition to the soldering operation described, makes the fitting quite rigid and incapable of coming apart in service. Further, if the fitting, when in use, is subjected to so high a temperature as to melt the solder holding the side outlet section I and tube section I3 together (as for example, in case of a fire) the shoulders I6 still serve to lock the fitting in assembly and permit it to continue to serve a useful purpose, even though it may be somewhat leaky. If the shoulders I6 are formed sufiiciently tightly against the ends 6, the fitting will be found to be leak-proof even though no solder is used to join the assembly.
The shape of the sockets I4 and I6 at the ends of the tube section I3 is substantially the same as that of the socket I of the cylindrical portion 2 of the side outlet section I; hence, the same index characters are used, and the above description of socket i likewise applies to sockets I4 and I5.
The next and final stage in manufacturing the T fitting comprises introducing a drill through the socket 1 of the side outlet section i and drilling a hole I? in the tube I3 in order to establish communication between the tube I3 and the side outlet section of the T, as illustrated in Fig. 7. The drill is usually of the same diameter as the diameter of the restricted portion 2 beneath the shoulder 8. The T is now completed and ready for use in making a joint.
The manner of making a joint with the T as shown in Fig. 7 is substantially the same as that described in Hill Patent 1,770,852. This comprises, briefly, cleaning and fiuxing the inner surfaces of the three sockets 7, i4, and I5, similarly cleaning and fiuxing the ends of the pipes to be joined, telescoping said pipe into the sockets until they rest against the shoulders 8 and I6, respectively, heating the entire assembly with a blow torch or the like, and feeding solder, preferably in wire form, through the feed holes II in such a operationonthisblanhwhichcorrespondstothefitting involving four outlets. The method of ngfinufacturing this fitting is substantially as f ows: I
Fig. 9 illustrates ablank i. which comprises a simple length of cylindrical tubing. The first blank I of Fig. 1, comprises placing it in a split or book die and hydraulically forming a cylindrical portion" (Fig. 8) at right angles to the axis of the tube, in the middle portion of the tube. In order to do this, when the blank II is placed in the dies, one end of it needs to be plugged.
In Fig. 10, the blank is shown with the ends of the cylindrical portion ll already cut ofi, forming openings II. It will be understood that as the blank comes from the dies, the ends 2| are closed expanding the two tube ends thereof into pipereceiving sockets 2 I, as illustrated in Fig. 11. The sockets ii are similar to the sockets I, II, and iii, heretofore described in connection with the T fitting. A solder feed hole 22 is also now provided in the cylindrical portion II.
The next step, as illustrated in Fig. 12, com prises inserting a' straight length of tube 23 through the cylindrical portion is, and soldering it in position therein. Thereafter, the ends of the tube 23 are expanded into sockets 24 (Fig. 13) similar to the sockets 2i. This expansion of the sockets 24 forms shoulders 25 which look the tube 23 in the cylindrical portion is, in the same mannor as in the T embodiment. Thereafter, a drill length of tube 28. While Figures 15 and 16' show the outlet sections all in a similar angular,
position on the tube ",it will readily be seen that each one may occupy a different angular position. After the outlet sections have been soldered in position on the tube 25 in the manner heretofore described, the ends of the tube 26 are expanded -into sockets 21 (Fig. 16) providing shoulders 28 holdin the assembly ri idly together. Thereafter holes 29 are drilled, one for.
each outlet, and the fitting is thus completed.
It will readily be seen that, instead of using the side outlet sections asshown in Fig. 4 for making this header-type fitting, the sections as illustrated in Fig. 11 may be used; or, a combination of Fig. 4 sections and Fig. 11 sections may be used in one header.
less character including at least one socket por-' tion and a cylindrical portion at right angles to said socket portion, and a maintube portion fit- .ting through the cylindrical portion of the side outlet section, having sockets formed on its ends whereby it is locked to the socket portion.
The method of manufacturing fittings set forth in this application is claimed in my copending application Serial No. 33,931, filed July 31, 1935.
In view of the above, it will be seen that the several objectsof the invention are achieved and other advantageous results attained.
As many changes could be made in carrying out the above constructions and processes without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
- I claim:
1. A fitting comprising a side outlet section and a tube, said side outlet section comprising a side portion and a cylindrical portion at an angle to said side portion, said tube being fitted in said cylindrical portion and having expanded shoulders thereon positioned to lock the tube against longitudinal movement in said cylindrical section, and means preventing relative rotation of said tube and said cylindrical portion.
2. A fitting comprising a side outlet section and a tube, said side outlet section comprising -a side portion and a cylindricalv portion at an against longitudinal movement in said cylindricalsection, and means preventing relative rotation of said tube and said cylindrical portion, said tube having a hole therein positioned to permit com-- munication between the side outlet section and the tube.
3. A fitting comprising a side outlet section and a tube, said side outlet section comprising a side portion and a cylindrical portion at an angle to said side portion, said tube being fitted in said cylindrical portion and having expanded shoulders thereon positioned to lock the tube against longitudinal movement in said cylindrical section, said tube being additionally soldered or welded in position in said cylindrical portion to prevent relative rotation thereof.
4. A cross fitting comprising a side outlet section and a main tube, said side outlet section comprising a tube length having formed integrally therewith, in the central region thereof, an open-ended cylindrical portion at right angles to the axis of the tube, said main tube fitting closely in said cylindrical portion and extending beyond each end thereof and having expanded shoulders thereon abutting the ends of said cylindrical portion whereby said main tube is locked against longitudinal movement in said cylindrical portion, and means preventing relative rotation of said main tube and said cylindrical portion.
5. A header fitting comprising a plurality of side outlet sections and a tube, said side outlet sections each comprising a side portion and an open-ended cylindrical portion at an angle to said side portion, said tube extending through and closely fitting in the cylindrical portions of each of said side outlet sections thereby juxtaposing the ends of the cylindrical portions of tive rotation of said tube and said side outlet adjacent side outlet sections, said tube having sections. expanded shoulders thereon abutting the ex- 6. A fitting as set forth in claim 1, in which the treme ends of the cylindrical portions of the adsaid expanded shoulders comprise the bottom 5 jacent side outlet sections thereby to clamp said of sockets expanded into said tube at each end a side outlet sections in assembly and to prevent thereof, and adaptedtotelescopingly receive pipes said tube from moving longitudinally in said therein. cylindrical portions, and means preventinz rela- DAVID Q BT-