US 2039601 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 5, 1936. B. LONDON BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Nov. 14, 1934 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR Bernard L oncion BY QW M FM ATTORNEYS y 1936- B LONDON 2,039,601
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Nov. 14, 1934 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 I IN NTOR ATTORNEYS er '0Z London y 1936. B. LONDON BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Nov. 14, 1934 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTOR 13 em ard London ATTORNEYS Patented May 5, 1936 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 2.039501 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Bernard London, New York, N. Y. N Application November 14, 1934, Serial No. 752,9 9 '27 Claims. (01. 72-16) This invention relates to building construction.
One of the objects of this invention is to provide a building construction that will be inexpensive, thoroughly practical, durable, and characterized by suchflexibility of arrangement, in-
terrelation, or shaping of the various parts as will meet the widely varying conditions of prac- Y Another object is to provide an inexpensive... light but strong building material unit capable of ease and speed in assembly with other like units to form inside or outside walls, partitions, flooring, ceilings, roofing, andthe like. Another object is to provide a building material unit for walls, partitions, orother portions of a building or house but constructed in "such a way that, when assembled with other like units, the assemblage provides the desired inside and outside decorative, mechanical, or like finish appropriate to the reliable functioning of the respective outside or inside surface or surfaces of the structure. Another object is to provide a building material unit which, when assembled with like units to form a wall or other portion of the building, will provide interiorly thereof appropriate passages or channels-for the accommodation of piping such as is used for the usual plumbing purposes, and for electrical circuits, conduits, or the like.
Another object is to provide a building mate- 4; rial unit that may be inexpensively produced and that will readily lend itself to quantity production. Another object is to provide a unit of the above-mentioned character that will be of low first cost and, moreover, in so far as its erection or assembly with like units is concerned to form a wall or other portion of the building, will notrequire highly skilled labor and whereby, accordingly, erection of the building may be carried on speedily and at low cost. I
Another object is to provide a building material unit that will be substantially self-contained in possessing 'the" desired mechanical, thermal, and other properties appropriate to providing at once such factors as (a) the desired and weatherproof outside material or finish, (b) the desired or other appropriate inside finish suitable for inside surfaces, walls or the'like, (c) any desired decorative effect or effects for the outside surface or material, (d) the desired inside decorative effect or effects, (e) appropriate mechanical '5 rigidity and strength, (1) appropriate heat insulation or resistance to heat passagetherethrough, (g) facility and speed of installation or assembly thereof with other units, and others. v
Another object is to provide a building material unit well adapted to be capable of manufacture in standardized sizes or shapes, whereby, upon the selection of appropriate numbers of appropriately mentioned or shaped units, any. desired design or architectural construction of building may be achieved upon the assembly of the selected standardized units- Other objects will'be in part obvious or in part pointed out hereinafter.
The invention accordingly consists inv the features of construction, combinations of elements, and arrangements of parts, all as will be illustratively described herein, and the scope of the application of which will be indicated in the following claims. I 5
In the accompanying drawings in which are shown several of the various possible embodimerits of certain features of my invention,
Figure 1 is a perspective view as seen from the inside of a corner of a building, showing two corner walls and the ceiling and floor;
Figure 2 is a horizontal sectional view through an outside wall and an inside partition wall, indicating certain features of my building material units and their interrelation with each other and certain other possible parts;
Figure-3 is an exploded perspective view showing, in perspective, the several parts that may be interrelated to each other to make a building unit;
Figure 4 is a fragmentary perspective view,
certain parts being broken away or omitted,
showing more in detail a preferred arrangement of floor or ceiling construction and a preferred arrangement of relating a floor or ceiling construction to the upper end of a wall;
Figures 5 and 6 are fragmentary cross-sectional or end view on a larger scale of possible other forms which certain parts of my building unit may take;
Figure 7 is a view like'those of Figures 5 and 6 showing in end elevation a fragmentary portion of another form of building unit, and
Figure 8 is a sectional view as seen along the line 8-8 of Figure 7.
portion of the ground floor of such a building.-
There is therefore seen in Figure 1 a foundation A, a side wall B makingan angle, illustratively a 90 angle, with another side wall C, walls B and C following the contour of the foundation A, the latter being of any suitable construction or material, illustratively of concrete. There is also shown a fragment of the floor D and a fragment of the ceiling E, the latter forming, of course, also the floor of the story over-head.
I fnay, of course, provide, where desired,. inside or so-called partition walls, though for greater simplicity of illustration, I have not shown such a'partition wall in Figure 1, but in Figure 2, wherein I have shown. in horizontal cross-section a portion of the outside wall of the building and which outside wall may be the wall 13 or thewall C of Figure 1, there is shown at F,
also in horizontal cross-section, a portion of av partition or' inside wall, the latter being of lesser thickness than the former, though both embody the features of my invention. For greater facility of understanding and of description, therefore,
. reference may first be made to the details of construction of the inside partition or wall F of Figure 2, the detailed and preferred construction of the outside wall or walls beingaccordingly reserved for later description. In Figure 3 I have shown in exploded perspective the parts of a section or building unit of a number of which the inside wall F is constructed and inasmuch as the units'of which the outside walls are made have numerous features in common with the units of which the inside 'or partition wall F is made, and'accordingly detailed consideration may now be given to the parts shown in Figure 3 which are assembled to form a building unit, bearing in mind the assembly of these parts as shown at F in Figure 2.
What I have above termed as building con-'- struction units or as a building unit comprises preferably a block-like structure, preferably of substantial dimensions as to length and breadth or height and breadth,embodying certain features of my invention, and capable of ready interfitting and assembly of a relatively small number thereof to form a relatively large wall or other portion of the building. For example, the unit may be and preferably is dimensioned to have a width of 'several'feet and a length or height preferably in. excess of its width, having, of course, a thickness appropriate to .the particular purpose which the unit is to meet. For example, I may make up the'units, of appropriate wall thickness, to have a width of five feet and a lengthor vertical heightof ten feet, the latter dimension approximating the average height of a room, and the walls may be built up of the necessary number of such units.
Or, by way of further illustration, I may dimension the units as is indicated generally in stated dimensions are merely illustrative and are set forth not by way of limitation.-
With the above preliminary understanding of the preferred order of dimensions of the units and recurring to Figure 3, in which the component parts of a'unit intended particularly for an inside wall or partition are shown, I make up the parts Ni, II, II, l 3 and it (Figure 3) as about to be described and assemble them to form a single structural unit, all as hereinafter described. l
Where the two exposed faces of the structural unit are to have the same physical characteristics, as is usually the case with an inside-wall or partition, the parts or members l0 and M of Figure 3 may be of the same material, and any appropriate material capable of fabrication into sizes,
dimensions, or shapes, as abovementioned, may
upper face of member I and the under face of member H, as viewed'in Figure 3) may be glazed. Likewise, where the members It and are thus preformed or cast, any desired surface decoration or decorative efiects, including coloring, tinting, or the like, on these exposed surfaces may be permanently incorporated therein; for example, theseparts may be made'of so-called artifirjcial stone and treated or made in any desired way to give any desireddecorative effect or appearance, such as, for example, imitation marble, or-the like. Members l0 and I 4, particularly where they are to form part of a' structural unit to be embodied in an inside wall or partition, may also be made of so-called plaster-board, maze-wood, fiber-wood, fiber-board, card-board, asbestos compositions, or any other'appropriate or suitable material. They may also be made of sheet-rock or. appropriately dimensioned slabs of natural stone} It is to be understood, however, that the two outside members I 0- of the structural unit need not be made of the same material; one of them may be made of one material and the other of any other material; likewise one of them may have permanently incorporated in its outside sur-. face one decorative motif, tint, coloring, or the.
like, and the other member may have some other decorative motif, tint, coloring, or the like.
Members I 0 and I! may thus be fabricated in standardized shapes and dimensions and it'will be seen that they per se lend themselvesreadily to quantity production. In length and breadth they are dimensioned as earlier above indicated to correspond to the length and breadth of the ultimate buildingor structural'unit; in thickness they may be any suitable dimension, on the order of or /21 or thereabouts. I
Members II and I3 are preferably of identical construction to facilitate quantity production thereof though it is to be understood that they may vary one from the other in various or desired particulars. As shown in.
of their similarity of construction, it will suilice to describe only one of the parts H and I3 in detail and hence detailed consideration may now 75 be given to member H of Figure 3, the detailed description of which is equally applicable to member l3.
Member II is preferably made of a motif or plastic materialand is cast or pressed in a suitable mold having separable parts, each containing recesses and protrusions, the protrusions in the one entering but not filling the recesses in like that of part II, asshown in Figure 3.
Accordingly, it will be seen that the member I I comprises in effect a sheet l5, the thickness of which illustratively may be on the order of M or or the like, depending upon the material".
employed, the..sheet l5 extending completely from the left-hand edge of the member I l to the righthand edge thereof but waved, curved, corrugated, or zigzagged, or otherwise shaped as willbe further described hereinafter. In Figure 3 the sheet H is shaped to provide a plurality of plane portions I 5 lying in one plane and to provide a plurality of plane portions l5 preferably similarly dimensioned as the portions l5! but lying in a plane spaced from the plane of the latter, the portions in the respective planes being joined by inclined portions l5 and Hi The spacing between the planes of the outer faces of the portions l5 and Iii may be'on the order of 2", for example.
At the. left and right-hand ends (the left-hand end in Figure 3 not being shown but being the same as the right-hand end), there is provided an end or edge portion l5=, integral, of course, with the sheet IE, but extending preferably at right-angles to the planes of the portions l5" and I 5 the vertical dimension of the portion l5 is, of course, and preferably, the spacing between the planes of the portions I5 and I5". Preferably the edge portion l5 extends at right angles from one of the outside plane portions, such as a part of the endmost portion I5 At suitable intervals lengthwise of the channels formed,between the connecting portions |5---l5 that are exposed upwardly, as viewed in Figure 3, I provide transverse ribs or. web-like portions I5 and similar webs at similar intervals are provided upon the under face of the member I l, as viewed in Figure 3, and preferably juxtaposed to the web members IS; in the lower portion of Figure 3, where member I3 is shown and which is similar in construction as the member II but turned upside down, these bridging web members are better shown and they are indicated at I5 At the lower edge of member II, the upper edge being broken away in Figure 3 but appearing as the lower edge in the member I3 in Figure 3 (it being remembered that member I3 is the same as member it only turned upside down), the upper web members l5 and the lower web members I5 are in alinement with each other and with the lower vertical end plane of the member like plastic materials-that harden upon drying or upon being fired, or it may be made of any of the moldable materials earlier above mentioned as illustrative of the materials of which either or both-of members l and I may be made. Inany case-,-the member II is strong, durable, and light in weight, having cross-sections, virtually in any direction or plane, that are of structural shapes and adapted to meet or sustain stresses of compression, torsion, bending, or the like. Preferably, however, the member II is made A of a fibrous material or composition the printhe other, resulting in the production of a shape,
of the kind or character described in Patent cipal ingredient of which is straw, illustratively 1,760,446 from which the manner of making this material and its facility of molding is sufliciently clear for illustrative purposes herein. That straw or fibrous material is very light in weight, is strong, fire-resistant, sound-proof, or sounddeadeningrand is a poor conductor of heat.
Members II and I3, thus constructed, are given dimensions as to length and breadth commensurate with those of the outside members It] and l4, and the four members l0, ll, l3 and M may v as viewed in Figure 3, engaging thefaces. of
portions l of member i3, with a suitable adhesive interposed therebetween.
, By such assembly the pockets P in the upper face of member II (Figure 3) are closed and 5 hermetically sealed by the member ID and the downwardly facing pockets P of the member l3 are similarly closed and hermetically sealed by the member l4.
Members II and I3, with members or parts Hi and M respectively assembled thereto as just described, may now be secured to each other with the portions l5 of each secured together by an adhesive, as above-mentioned, but in making this assembly I prefer to interpose between the portions I5 of the two parts II and H the part I! of Figure 3; part I2 is a relatively thin sheet illustratively of a thickness on the order of V or so and is preferably made of a-relatively strong fibrous material, illustratively fiber-board. a
Accordingly, in this preferred arrangement and still viewing Figure 3, the downwardly exposed faces of portions of member Ii are secured as by the above mentioned adhesive to the sheet member l2 and the upwardly facing portions l5 of the member I3 are secured to the opposite or under face of the sheet member l2.
With the interposing of the sheet I2, I cause the latter to close and seal the downwardly facing pockets P of the member H and the upwardly facing pockets P of the member l3 though I may, if desired, omit the member l2, in which case these pockets of the members II and I3 become nevertheless sealed by the adhesive though, by the omission of member l2, larger pockets are formed.
It is to be understood that the adhesive is applied not only to the outwardly exposed faces of portions [5 and l5 in the course of the abovedescribed assembly, but also to the edges of the ribs or webs I5 and l5 these edges lying in the plane of the faces of portions I5 and I5), respectively. It is also to be understood that the abovedescribed sequence of assembly need not be adhered to. For example, members H and ill or,
members H, I! and I 3 may first be secured to-- gether and thereafter members III and I4 applied.
The resultant structural unit, disregarding for the present certain other features later described, is now ready for installation and, where it is to form a vertical wall portion as distinguished from a ceiling or floor portion, it is preferred to set the unit so that the portions I5 and l5 extend vertically and in such case, the resultant structural unit or the resultant wall made up of a suitable number thereof has a horizontal cross-section as appears better in thewall portion F of Figure 2.
Before considering certain other unique aspects of my invention, as thus far described, reference is now again made to Figure 2 in which, as
above noted, I have shown also an outside wall the unit of Figure 3 and above described. Ac-
cordingly, and referring to Figure 2 and selecting illustratively the unit H, the member I0 thereof being the weather side of the wall, is made of any of the materials earlier above mentioned appropriate and suitable for weather-resisting exposure, whereas member ll may be made of any such materials earlier above mentioned appropriate to give the inside wall of the room or building the desired characteristics, finish, appearance', or the like. Illustratively, as shown in Figure 2, the outside member It may be made substantially thicker than the inside member I. Interposed between members l0 and ii are two sub-assemblies or sub-units, each comprising the members H, 12 and H of Figure 3 but having interposed between these sub-units or sub-as-. semblies a sheet member I2 which may have the physical and structural characteristics of the member I! of Figure 3 though, illustratively, it
' maybe thicker, as shown in Figure 2. Of course,
well as of members like members II and I! as may be desired. I Accordingly, the building or structural units will be seen to be capable of easy and rapid assembly and manufacture to meet varying requirements of practical use, it being noted that throughout standardized and easily and inexpensively constructable parts or materials are employed.
Furthermore, it is to be noted that I achieve great rigidity of construction accompanied by desirable lightness in weight. Heat transmission is effectively nullified or minimized due to the provision of the air cells, or air pockets, all sealed, these numerous cells giving a honeycomb eifect, and due to the provision'of the peculiar crosssection or cross-sections which, viewing the wall. F or the wall C-of Figure 2, will be seen to provide exceedingly circuitous or long paths of small cross-sectionfor any possible flow of heat from the face of one member ID to the face of the other member'll; to this heat insulation the preferred material above mentioned to be embodied in the members II and I3 is a contributing factor,
being per se an exceedingly poor conductor of heat.
Furthermore, the resultant wall structure is substantially sound-proof, not only because of the sealed cellular structure thereof and other factors but also because of the character of the preferred material employed in the members II and I3, the preferred materials being also poor transmitters of sound.
Considering how the assembly of the structural units, reference may again be made to Figure 3 and particularly'to members l0 and H thereof from which it will be seen, and also by reference to Figure 2, that'the peripheral edges of these members are stepped as at S, preferably on all four sides in order that they provide tongues and grooves, as indicated at T in Figure 2, the one receivable within the other. Exact and precise mating of the units, in the course of their as-.
for example, by two men, and that accordingly,.
due to the ease of interfitting and the self-alineasily, inexpensively, but reliably built up.
In Figure -1 I have indicated at A the foundation upon which the outside walls B and C are to be laid. Accordingly, I may seat'the structural units I, H, G, K and .L, etc., directly upon the foundation A, interfltting the units along their vertical edges, and build, as indicated in Figure l, the wall up by other units superimposed upon the bottom ones and interfitted by the tongue and groove connections T along the horizontal mating edges with the lower reach of units, and so on. Or, as already above indicated, the building units may be of a vertical dimension equal substantially to the height of the room or equal substantially to the spacings from floor to floor of the building. 1
Also, I prefer to provide what I may term base structure units, as indicated at M, N, O, P, Q, etc., in Figure 1. These units are constructed as was already above described, excepting that the inside member I thereof is shaped, molded, or otherwise formed to constitute the ultimate baseboard of the interior of the room, the units being tongued and grooved, being otherwise of a thickness like the units G, H, I, etc., but of a height commensurate with the height of the baseboard.
Preferably, and in order to achieve, where desired, certain other features of coaction, though upwardly.
The parts 10 and I4 of such structural units,
be they base units M, N, 0, etc., or units like L,
K, G, etc., or even units like those of the wall F of Figure 2, are, along their inside faces, grooved or recessed as is indicated in the lower right-- hand part of Figure l, to receive the webs 20* ing features of the construction, the wall may be and 20 of the channel 20, it being understood that these grooves may easily be molded or otherwise formed in the parts l and I4 during the construction of the latter, just as the stepped or recessed portions S (see Figure 3) that provide the tongues and grooves of the ultimate structure are formed.
Accordingly, the channel iron 20, once appropriately alined and secured to the foundation A, acts also automatically, to aline the structural units interfitted with its webs, appropriate cements, or the like, being employed, if desired, and thus greater ease of installation and alinement are achieved as well as greater rigidity of construction.
Likewise, and by similarly grooving the members l0 and I4 as, for example, of the units G, H and I of Figure 2, along their vertical edges, I may interpose, during the assembly of the units, vertical columns of I-cross-section, as indicated at 22 and 23 in Figures 1 and 2, the I-beams being suitably interfitted with the bottom channel 20 and secured thereto as by welding, bolting, riveting, or brackets, as is generally indicated at 24 in Figure 1. Thus, the I-beams, where employed, are completely embedded in the wall structure and take part, aside from the action of the tongue and groove connection between the units, in vertically alining the units as they are superimposed one upon the other.
Still referring to Figure 1, when an appropriate height of wall has been achieved, as, for example, the spacing between fioor and ceiling, I run along the upper edge of the thus far constructed wall a channel 25 similar to the channel .20 above-mentioned but inverted, having its flanges or webs 25 'and 25 directed downwardly and fitted into the grooves or recesses provided in the members [0 and I4. Channel 25, extending, like channel 20, throughout several or any suitable number of building units and along the edges thereof and interlocked therewith, thus assists, when employed, in maintaining the otherwise tongued and grooved units in appropriate alinement but I prefer to employ the channel 25 particularly for the purpose of distributing throughout the units of the wall thus far built and to transmit to the vertical columns .22, 23, etc., when and Where the latter are employed, some of the load of the floor or ceiling beams, reference now being made to Figure 4 wherein two ceiling beams 26 and 21, as illustrative of a number thereof, are shown resting directly, upon the upper channel 25 and being secured thereto in any suitable manner, as by bolting, riveting,
welding, or the like (not shown). It will be understood that, if desired, the upper channel member or members 25 (Figure 1) may be secured to the vertical columns 22, 23, etc., when the latter are employed, in any suitable manner (not shown) for example, in the same way as the lower channel member or members 20 'are secured thereto as at 24 inFigure 1. r
, The beams 26 and 21 are preferably I-beams of a character generally similar to the I-cross-section columns 22, 23, etc. (see Figures 1 and 2) and they,are spaced apart from each other by distancescommensurate with the widths of buildumns 22 and 23, etc. are interfitted (see Figure 2) with the structural units. as already above described. And thus I build up the flooring or ceiling, it being noted in this connection that, as is better shown in Figure 4, the cross-sectional configuration of the unit provides, as already above indicated, arch-like or truss-like structures well adapted to resist the strains to which floorings are subjected.
Furthermore, the units that go into the flooring or ceiling may have their upper and lower members, corresponding to the members l0 and It already described, made of materials appropriate to their respective uses; For example, the lower member may be made of a material, as already indicated, to mate with or contrast with the inside material of the other building units that form the walls of the room in question. The
upper member, in elfect the flooring per se of the story above, may be made of a material such as ce'rnent, artificial stone, sheetstone, or any other material appropriate for direct use as a floor or flooring.
As already above indicated and pointed out, the interfitted joints of the various units are preferably also cemented by any suitable cement, adhesive, composition, or the like, and it will be seen that a building structure results of the highest sanitary order, being virtually vermin-proof.
It will also be seen that, if desired, the structural steel members, such as the channel irons and columns or like members that are employed when desired, may be of any desired weight or strength, depending upon such factors as the height to which the building is to be carried.
When my structural units are employed particularly in home building, these structural steel members when employed can beof relatively light weight for, as will now be clear, the structural units employed according'to my invention, are capable of such dependable interaction in the resultant wall structures that the coaction therewith of the structural steel members may be dispensed with or be made available to any degree or extent desired. Furthermore, it will be seen that it is also possible to carry the construction of walls and floors or ceilings along concurrently with the erection of the structural steel members when it is desired to embody the latter in the construction. i
As earlier pointed out, the internal parts of the structural units may take shapes or forms other than those described in connection with Figures 2, 3 and 4 and several illustrative modified forms are shown in Figures 5-8 inclusive.
Turning now to Figure 5, there is there shown on a larger scale a portion of a building unit again embodying the members l0 and i4 above described in detail but in which the members I l and i3 of Figures 2, 3 and 4, insteadlof having the sheet-like portion l5 thereof (see Figure 3) shaped as shown in Figure 3, are given the shapes, in cross-section, as shown at Ha and Ba, respectively, in Figure 5, the structure as to the crosswebs I5 and l5 of Figure 3 being the same in Figure 5. By the shape shown in Figure 5, I am enabled to utilize effectively the mechanical advantages of a true arch and I preferably embody also a member 12 like the member I2 of Figure 3.
In Figure 6 another possible constructionis shown embodying again the outside members l0 and I4 and also members like members II and I3 but shaped in cross-section as shown at II and I3 in Figure 6, again preferably embodying I therebetween the member l2. The structure of Figure 6 isotherwise the same as that of Figure .3.
In the structures of both Figures 5 and 6, manyv tages of the structure of Figure'3 are realized and achieved, an :1 the sealed pockets or air cells like-j wise embodied therein. The members I I and I! of Figure 5 and ll and it" of figure 6 may be easily molded or produced much the same as was described above in connection with the parts II and ii of Figure 3.
In Figures 7 and 8 I have shr wn another possible form of structure in which there are again the members l0 and II but interposed therebetween is a cellular structure generally indicated at 30 and better shown in Figure 8, being made upof a series of members 3| substantially or broadly speaking corrugated much in the same manner as the parts II, II', l l and I3, l3 and t! of Figures 3,5 and 6, respectively, are shaped in cross-section, but
are stacked one upon the other with intervening strips 32 of a material like that as employed in the member I2 of Figure 3, all of the parts 3| and 32 having a dimension in a direction at right two members llliand H (see Figure 7) and secured thereto as by such'a cement or adhesive as above mentioned, members Ill and i4 closing and sealing the cells or pockets formed between the members 3|, 32, 3|, 32, etc., as seen in Figure 8.
Otherwise, as to the tongue and groove or other slotted or recessed relations, such as were above I described in detail in connection with Figures 1-4 inclusive, it is to be understood thatthese structural features are also preferably embodied in the illustrative'modifications or forms of Figures 5, 6, 7 and 8f I have above described various possible materials of which either the outside or inside members or slabs (l0 and/or H of Figure 3, for example, or of Figures 5-8) may be made, giving, as above indicated, a wide range of adaptability to meet the particular conditions met with in practice; it is to be understood, however, that either or both of these members or parts may be of composite construction. For example, I may carry the material of which parts I] and/or l3 of Figure 3 may be made, such as the fibrous or straw material like that of Patent 1,760,446, in whole or in part into either or both of the outer members l0 and I. The latter may be made entirely of such material or an inner thickness or layer thereof may be made of such material and the outer layer or .thickness thereof of some other material, such as cement, glass, ceramics, etc. Furthermore, I may construct my building units with either or both of the outer members ill or I4 given any suitable or appropriate rough surface appropriate for the reception of stucco, plaster, or the like. Dr these members may be appropriately surfaced to receive a coat of paint or other finish, and for interior walls or partitions, these parts of the building units may be finished to receive acoat or layer of plaster, or finished to receive paint, or a layer of tile, or sheet marble, or paper, or textile, or other materials commonly employed for interior decoration, or even to'receive and composition, or other suitable material.
Where an inside wall or partition, such as the wall F of Figure 2, mm abut against another wall, be it an inside or an outside wall, illustratively the wall of Figure 2 'made up of the building units J and I, I prefer to have the building abutting wall F grooved so that the units of the abutting wall may be set into the groove, as is unit or units which are to be abutted by the have applied thereto pinelingofwood,"
formed in the building units in any other suit-' able or desired way.
Recurring for a moment to the optional feature above described according to which structural steel members may or may not be employed inconjunction with my building units. it is to be noted that, where such structural steel members are employed, they are, as appear particularly from Figures 1, 2 and 4, effectively and dependably encased or enclosed by the building units withor without the use of a cement, adhesive, or the like, and they are thus dependably protected against exposure and the effects thereof .of the elements. Note, for example, how the columns 22 and 22 (Figures 1 and 2 are effectively buried in the construction and the particulardnterlocking or interengaging relations of 1 the columns with the building units together with the specific I-cross-section of the columns are to be understood as merelyillustrative of one of various possible modes of carrying out these features while retaining the broader features and aspects of my invention.
Recurring now to Figure 2, it will be noted that,
if the horizontal end webs (see the parts 15' or it of Figure 3) are broken out, cut-away, or omitted, uniformly throughout the air pockets or sealed air cells that are alined not only in the other structural units that may be alined therewith, there is provided a continuous channel or passage running vertically of the wall and accordingly I am enabled to utilize such a con tinuous passage for the accommodation of electrical circuits, conduits, piping, such as is used ing. I may, therefore, when molding the parts II or l2 of Figures 3, 5 and 6 omit the crosswebs I5 or Ii in any one channel or run, illustratively as indicated in Figure 3 at W, in the part ll, thus providing a continuousvertical channel as at the points 'X'in Figure 2.
Such channels or runs, thus. provided, may be utilized not only for purposes above noted, but
also they may be utilized to function as conduits per se and in this connection it is to be noted that certain unique advantages are achieved. Where utilized as such channelsor conduits and particularly where the material employed in making up the member or members such' as members ll and/or l3 of Figure 3 out of which the walls of the resultant conduit are formed,
is a good heat insulator or a low or poor conductor of heat, I prefer to utilize such conduits for the transmission therethrough of conditioned air, as from a central air conditioning or heating or cooling plant.
45 any given structural unit but also throughout for heating, water supply, etc., or other plumb- And because of the material forming the walls 75 of such a continuous conduit, it being understood that I may break away or omit portions of the member l2 where desired thereby to increase the size of the conduit, I may with great efliciency effect a distribution of conditiored air throughout the building, and do so without necessitating special or additionalpiping, the continuous conduits being tapped in any suitable manner as by providing appropriate openings in the outer members of the building units for the emission of the conditioned air or for the connection thereto of pipes or conduits. Thus cooled air may be transmitted without the acquisition thereof of heat and heat may be transmitted without the loss therefrom of heat.
Thus, it will be seen that there has been provided in this invention a building construction and structural unit in which the various objects hereinbefore noted, together with many thoroughly practical advantages, are successfully achieved. It will be seen that the units are capable of standardized manufacture in quantity production, may utilize inexpensive materials, yet result in permanence, strength, and durability of construction, not to mention again the facility and inexpensiveness of erection. Moreover, it will be seen that numerous thoroughly practical advantages, some of which have been pointed out above, may be realized effectively.
As many possible embodiments maybe made of the above invention and as many changes might be made in the embodiment above set forth, it is to be understood that all matter hereinbefore set forth, or shown in the accompany- 2 ing drawings, is to be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
1. In construction of the character described, in combination, a building unit of substantial length and breadth and comprising two spaced outer sheet-like members of suitable material, and a plurality of intervening otherwise openpocketed members respectively secured to each other and to said outer members, thereby to close the pockets and form sealed air'cells, one or more of said intervening members being made of a material that is apoor conductor of heat.
2. In construction of the character described, in combination, a building unit of substantial length and. breadth'and comprising two spaced cuter sheet-like members of suitable material, means intervening said two spaced members and made of sheet-like material but repeatedly reentrant, thereby to form open pockets, and means including cement means and said first two members for securing said members and said means together and for closing and sealing said pockets.
3. A construction as in claim 2 in which the intervening means comprises a plurality of repeatedly reentrant means related face to face to each other and to the first two mentioned members and having additional sheet-like means intervening adjacent reentrant means and se cured thereto.
4. In construction of the character described, in combination, a building unit comprising a sheet-like material to form one face of said unit and having secured thereto means of plastic fibrous materialmolded to form a plurality of intervening sealed air pockets in substantially honeycomb formation. I V
5. In construction of the character described, in combination, a wall including a structural steel member and building units for interrelation with said structural steel members, each of said units having two spaced sheet-like members of commensurate area and means of molded fibrous material having the characteristic of being a poor heat conductor intervening said two spaced members and rigidly connected thereto, said units having along certain edges thereof grooves for v the reception of flanges of said structural steel member and said intervening means being dimensioned to accommodate at least a portion of the web of said structural steel member.
6. In construction of the character described, in combination, a wall or the like made up of at least one structural steel member and a plurality of building units each comprising two spaced members of rigid material with means for holding the spaced members in spaced relation, said .spaced members and said holding means being shaped at certain of their edges to provide, when said units are assembled edge to edge by way of said edges to form the wall, interfitting tongue-like and groove-like parts, and having certain other of their edges shaped to interfit with a face of said structural steel member.
for holding the spaced members in spaced rela-- tion, a member of structural steel cross-section and having flanges but dimensioned to be of lesser thickness than the thickness of said wall, and means provided in edge portions of said building units for the reception of the flanges of said member. v
8. In construction of the character described, in combination, a building unit comprising a sheet-like member of substantial length and breadth having related to at least one side thereof a member made of sheet-like material molded or formed to provide a plurality of pockets, some of which face toward and are closed by said first-mentioned member and others of which face away from the latter.
9. A building unit as in claim 8 in which the pocketed member, along a cross-section thereof, has the bottoms of one series of pockets in one plane and the bottoms of the oppositely facing pockets in another plane.
10. A building unit as in claim 8 in which the pocketed member has related to it means providing. the other face of the unit for closing the oppositely facing pockets.
11. A building unit as in claim 8 in which the pocketed member has secured to its side opposite that of the first-mentioned member means, such as relatively thin fiber-board, of good tensile strength, for closing the oppositely facing pockets.
12. In construction of the character described,
.in combination, a plurality of members of I-crosswith means of cellular construction intervening them.
bers in each building unit comprising two correspondingly spaced parts of slab-like material having therebetween means of cellular construction that comprises a molded or preformed fibrous I material.
15. In construction of the character described, in combination, a wall made up of a plurality of building units having extending along an edge thereof a channel-cross-sectioned. member, said;
units each being made of two spaced members of rigid material and means for holding them in spaced relation, the end course of building units having longitudinal and spaced recesses extending therealong to receive the flan es of said channel-cross-sectioned member.
16. In construction of the character described, in combination, a wall or the like made up of a plurality of building units each comprising two spaced members oi rigid material with molded means of low heatconductivityfor holding them in spaced relation, a member of structural steel cross-section extending along the upper edge 'of said wall and having at least one downwardly directed flange and interiitted with all of the building units for alining the latter and for distributing throughout them the load carried by said wall. 1'7. A construction as claimed in claim 16 in which the load carried by said wall is a ceiling or floor construction, said construction comprising horizontallyextending but laterally spaced beams resting at one endupon said structural steel member, said beams being flanged, and a plurality of floor and ceiling units each extending between two adiacent beams and interlocked with the flanges thereof.
J 18. In ponstruction of the character described, in combination, a building unit of substantial length and breadth and comprising two spaced outer sheet-like members of rigid material and means secured thereto and holding them in spaced relation comprising a sheet-like material that is repeatedly reentrant, simulating corrugations, and having means'sub-dividing the channels in said sheet-like material, thereby form-.
' sheet-like material have external faces substantially flat, and means coacting between said flat outer sheet-like members of rigid material and means secured thereto and holding them in spaced relation comprising a plurality of means of sheet-like material of low heat conductivity, each of said means being repeatedly reentrant, means securing said means together, and means securing each of said outer members to one of said reentrant means. I
21. In construction of the character described, in combination, a building unit of substantial length and breadth and comprising two spaced 'outer sheet-like members of rigid material and means secured thereto and holding them in spaced relation comprising a means of relatively small thickness and of a material of low heat con-' ductivity bridged between said two outer members but shaped so that any possible path of heat flow from one outer member to the other through said intervening means is longer than the smallest spacing between said two outer members.
, 22. A construction as claimed in claim 21 in which the intervening means has portions forming a plurality of sealed air cells. 23. In construction of the character described, a building unit comprising two spaced outer sheetlike members of suitable material with means in-.
ty of open pockets on one side thereof and a plu-,
rality of open pockets on the other side thereof, and means securing all of said members together, each outer member closing the otherwise open pockets facing toward it in the relatively thin member next adjacent to it.
24. A construction as claimed in claim 23 in which the intervening members of material of low heat conductivity are molded out of a plastic fibrous material.
25. A construction as claimed in claim 23 in which the means which secures two intervening members of low heat conductivity together comprises sheet-like means extending substantially parallelto said outer members and closing off the otherwise open pockets of said intervening members on one side of the latter.
26. A construction as claimed in claim 23 in which the intervening members are at least four I in number and form, in between said outer 'members,- a relatively thin-walled-honeycomb-like structure.
27. A construction as claimed in claim 23 in which the intervening members are at least four in number and in-which there is provided, extending between two adjacent intervening members, a relatively thin sheet-like member secured to both and closing oil the contiguous pockets in each,