US 2040302 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
C. FORTIER May 12, 1936.
PROCESS OF AND APPARATUS FOR ATOMIZING LIQUIDS Filed Feb. 24, 1951 CAROLUS FoRTlER \NVENTOR ATTORNEY UNITED S'TATESPATENT oFFicE PROCESS OF'AND APPARATUS FOR ATOMIZING LIQUIDS Carolus Fortier, Outremont, Quebec, Canada Application February 24, 1931, Serial No. 517,763 In Great Britain March 24, 1930 Claims. (Cl. 299-95) The present invention relates in general to the liquid and the aeriform body evolving therefrom art of atomizing liquids and in particular to a in such wise that the liquid is permanently subof atomizing pressure thereto from an external aeriform body; and gradually liberating the liqsource and to apparatus suitable for carrying the uid and the aeriform body from the said state of process into eflect. confinement in such Wise that the liberated liquid More particularly the. invention has reference is impingedand reduced to a state of atomizato a process of and apparatus for atomizing liqtion by the liberated aeriform body. uids, such as vegetable or synthetic perfumes, or A feature of the invention is the impingement 19 other substances, which are capable of having of the liquid stream, substantially at the instant dissolved therein, either directly or by means of of liberation from close confinement, by the aeri- 1 5 tures to constitute an aeriform body which, when incident to sudden reduction of pressure on the confined above the liquid, will exert pressure sufliquid and enables a very perfect atomization to ficient to expel the liquid from a container and be realized. simultaneously cause atomization of the liquid. I contemplate within the purview of my inven- The term liquid" as herein used is tobe untion the provision of apparatus for carrying out 20 derstood as including not only the material to this process which in one acceptable form and purpose of holding the pressure producing maordinary atmospheric temperatures, or other tiles but is herein used as a relative term to indievolves therefrom; and means to control diso m of a p which Comprises mixing h l qliberation impinge one another and commingle, uid with alowboiling diluent, confining the mixand discharge tothe atmosphere in finely atomture in such wise that a body of gas evolved from ized condition. the diluent is confined at super-atmospheric pres- Furthermore, with respect to the apparatus, an Sure above and in Contact with the u fa of object of this invention is to provide means for 40 the confined liquid, and simultaneously releasing dispensing perfumes, in finely atomized state,
P n Wh h y are r l eved of the pressure incontrolling dispensing of the liquid and the aericident to confinement of the said liquid and the form body emanating therefrom that the liquid is gas evolved from the diluent. discharged from said confining means under ex- A novel characteristic of this invention, asrepensive pressure of the confined aeriform body, gards the processj resides in mixing a volatile which aeriform body upon liberation-from said component in solution in or with the material confining means commingles with the liberated primarily intended to be atomized, the material liquid and reduces the same to a finely atomized being, for instance, perfumes, which volatile comstate.
: nature of the volatile component; confining the form body exerts expansive pressure on the liquid;
converge, impinge the process herein twenty parts of perfume.
dissolved gas as and means to control egression of the liquid and aeriform body from said confining means, in such wise the liquid and the aeriform body egress from said confining means in separate streams which and commingle.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a dispensing container which is, for all practical purposes, non-refillable and which will therefore afford protection to both the manufacturer and 10 purchaser against substitution of contents.
A further object is to provide a non-refillable atomizing container which may be so cheaply constructed that it may be discarded, with negligi- ,ble loss, when empty.
Novel aspects, objects and advantages of the invention, in addition tothe foregoing, may be ascertained from the following specification and claims read in conj drawing, in which;-
Fig. l is a sectional elevation illustrating the invention in one form, and
Fig. 2 is a like view disclosing a modified form of the invention.
Although not necessarily restricted thereto, disclosed is particularly well adapted for atomizing perfumes, in view of the extreme simplicity and compactness of the atomizer design, made possible by utilization of a volatile component in solution in the perfume 3o capable of gradually evolving therefrom at ordinary temperatures and permanently exerting expansive pressure on the perfume, and by controlling discharge of the perfume and the aeriform body evolving therefrom, whereby atomiza- 35 tion of a perfume in the form of a fine spray is effected by releasing a stopper or the equivalent.
Asexamples of volatile components suitable for the purpose of my present invention, there may be mentioned methyl chloride, .ethyl chloride,
40 ethylene oxide, or other liquids of suitable boiling temperature, also carbon dioxide or any suitable gas capable of solution in the liquid and gradual evolution therefrom at desired; temperatures. The substances named above are all gaseous at ordinary temperatures and pressure. In practice, methyl or ethyl chloride have been found to be very satisfactory when combined with concentrated perfumes in the proportion of one hundred parts of methyl or ethyl chloride to from two to In using volatile components such as methyl or ethyl chloride, the volatile component may be used as substitute for any desired po ion of the alcohol usually employed to dilute the perfume, but when using a volatile component alcohol or other suitable material may be used as a common solvent for both the perfume and the gas. The proportions given are such that, when used in a dispensing. device as shown, the gas evolved from .0 the diluent will suffice to expel all the liquid from confinement.
When using substances of the above mentioned character in accordance with the invention, a suitably proportioned quantity of the substance,
or mixture of the substance in liquid condition,
is introduced into a container able to resist its vapour pressure, together with the liquid to be atomized. When the discharge outlet in the container is uncapped, the liquid (perfume) will be forced out under the pressure prevailing in the container.
This invention resides in part in the control of' the liquid and the gaseous contents of the container egressing therefrom, whereby the liquid,
7 upon liberation to the atmosphere, is in the state unction with the annexed extending open laterally of a finely atomized spray. Atomization of the liquid may be efiected by establishing separate discharge streams of the liquid and the aeriform body evolving from the liquid; liberating said streams at a point exterior of the container proper. whereby the liquid stream is impinged and reduced to a finely atomized condition by the aeriform body stream substantially at the instant of liquid liberation; and subsequently liberating the admixture of liquid and aeriform body to the atmosphere.
As examples of apparatus utilized to carry out this process, preferred and modified commercial adaptations are disclosed in the annexed drawing. The numeral iii indicates a main tube which may be in the form of a glass bottle, having a capillary tube or extension ii, through which the contents of the container are dispensedto the atmosphere. In the form shown in Fig. 1 and found the most desirable from a manufacturing viewpoint, the numeral l2 designates a tube or pipe integral with the capillary tube H and extending close to the lower end of the container it. A capillary channel l3 forms a restricted continuation, in so far as volumetric capacity is concerned, from tube i2 and leads into a mixing chamber it. A second capillary channel I5 provides'a communicating passage directly between container it and the said mixing chamber it.
ing chamber It to the atmosphere and a stopper of tonventional design, generally indicated at it, forms a releasable closure for said vent channel.
The extremities of the'capillary channels is and i5 may converge towards each other and are then so formed with respect to the mixing chamber it that the liquid and aeriform body streams, upon passing out of contact with the confining walls which determine the size and direction of the said streams, impinge one another, at a point preferably spaced from any confining surface, with the result that impingement of the liberated liquid and aeriform body streams effects complete disruption of the liquid body stream by the aeriform body stream within the mixing chamber It, and the resulting admixture subsequently egresses through the capillary vent channel It to the, atmosphere in the form of an atomized spray having a velocity dependent upon the nature and relative amount of the volatile component and sufiicient to cause the spray to carry a suitable distance beyond the vent channel It.
In Fig. 2, I have shown a modified type of atomizer varied in form with respect to the design previously referred to, in that the liberated streams of liquid and aeriform body impinge a wall of the mixing chamber and subsequently commingle, instead of being directly impinged one upon the other. In thisflgure the numeral l8 indicates a capillary channel in the form of a pipe or tube, having a laterally turned lower end, from near the lower extremity of the container HI into the mixing chamber l9. Another capillary channel 20 extends from the opposite side and upper end of the container l0 into said mixing chamber and may extend and thereinto and oppositely to the channel l8, as shown. 'The wall IQ of said mixing chamber constitutes an abutment for the streams of liquid and aeriform body which egress from said capillary channels. A capillary vent channel 2| leads from the centre of the mixing chamber IE! to the atmosphere. A stopper 22 of conventional design constitutes a reiea. ble closure for said vent channel.
the upper end of body egressing from capillary channel I5, which breaks up the liquid stream and reduces the same to a finely atomized condition prior to liberation through vent channel ii to the atmosphere. When the container is inverted, the liquid enters the capillary channel i5 and the capillary channel i3 serves-as'the aeriform body capillary channel.
. I An essential characteristic of the form of atomizer disclosed in Fig. 1 is that the two capillary channels l3 and i5 converge at their extremities leading into the mixing chamber i4 and the walls of said mixing chamber in relation to the open ends of said capillary channels. are such that the liquid and aeriform body streams, upon egression from said capillary channels, are out of contact with the confining walls which determine the size and direction of such streams, so that the liquid stream is not confined at the point where it is impinged by the aeriform body stream. The high degree of atomization obtained according to this invention is in large measure due to the above defined liberation and sudden reduction of pressure inherent thereto and substantially coincident commingling of the liquid and aeriform body streams.
In the form disclosed in Fig. 2, the container I0 is charged in the manner referred to in connection with the preferred design. When held upright, or approximately so, liquid under pressure of the aeriform body emanating from the liquid is forced up capillary channel l8 and the egressing stream impinges the wall l9 of the mixing chamber and is deflected thereby. The
aeriform body discharges from the capillary channel 2|] against wall ill of said mixing or expansion chamber and is likewise deflected and the two streams ultimately mingle and egress to the atmosphere as a very finely atomized spray. When the atomizer is inverted, the aeriform body passes through the capillary channel I! and the' liquid enters the mixing chamber i9 through the capillary channel. By having the extremities of said capillary channels turned laterally in opposite directions, the'contents of the container may be dispensed if the container is held in a horizontal position or approximately so, when. the liquid level in the container is low.
Having thus described claim is:-
1. An atomizer having a liquid chamber having a normal liquid level leaving a vapor space, and
provided with an outlet at one end, separate -conduits extending into said container and communicating with said outlet, one conduit having .a
laterallyturned inlet end adjacent the end oi agent in said container my invention, what I said chamber which is remote 0nd horizontal position of the atomizer, whereby to provide a vapor passage, and the other conduit to provide a vapor passage.
3. In an atomizer including a body providing other disposed above the liquid level. to provide a vapor passage.
4. .Means incapable of re-use and adapted for dipsensing perfume and the like in atomized condition comprising, an integral structure including a container having a single outlet of substantially capillary dimension, a pair of short capillary passages converging toward the outlet thereby to cause impingement in space of fluid streams emerging from said passages, one of said passages communicating with the interior of the container at the'top thereof and a tube extending from the inner end of the other of said passages to substantially the bottom of the container; a fluid motive having a boiling point which at atmospheric pressure is below room temperature; and a removable closure for the outlet of said container.
' 5. A non-refillable container of the type adapted for expulsion of liquid therefrom by means of gas released from the liquid contents comprising a one-piece integral structure including a hollow body having a single restricted outlet passage forming the sole means of communication with the interior of the body, a capillary passage c m.
a liquid chamber having a maximum liquid level municating said outlet passage with the interior ends, thereby to cause thereof and a second capillary passage communicating the top said tube with the outlet passage.
6. A dispensing container for liquids which include a substance capable of gradually separating therefrom at temperatures within a predetermined temperature range as an aeriform body, comprising a main tube, a capillary tube integral with one end of said main tube, a, pipe rising in said main tube, an atomizing chamber in said capillary tube, a single discharge channel in said capillary tube leading from said atomizing chamher, a short capillaryoutflow channel communieating said pipe and said atomizing chamber, and a second short capillary outflow channel communicating said atomizing chamber directly with the interior of said main tube, said capillary channels converging adjacent their discharge fluid streams emerging therefrom to impinge one another in said atomizing chamber.
'7. A non-refillable dispensing container for liquids which include a substance capable of gradually separating from the liquid at temperatures within a predetermined temperature range as an aeriform body, tube having integral external and internal extensions, a gas and liquid mixing chamber in said external extension, a passage in said internal extension communicating the lower portion of said main tube with said mixing chamber through said internal extension and including a capillary portion opening into said mixing chamber, a second capillary passage communicating the upperportion of said main tube with said mixing chamber, a capillary outlet passage in said external extension communicating with said mixing chamber, and a stopper for said outlet passage.
8. A container for dispensing liquids in atomized form comprising a one-piece glass structure including a hollow body, an externally projecting neck and a tube extending from said neck to nearly the opposite end of the body. said neck being formed with a pair of capillary outflow passages converging toward and in communication with a single outlet and adapted to direct fluid streams for mutual impingement in space, one of said capillary passages communiat the neck end thereof comprising a closed main.
eating exclusively with said tube and the other communicating with the interior of the body and independently of said tube.
9. A container for dispensing in finely atomized state a liquid including a low boiling diluent, said container comprising a one-piece glass structure including a hollow body having a single outlet orifice of substantially capillary dia pair of short capillary passages in communication with said outlet and converging at their outer ends and adapted to streams for mutual impingement in space beyond the ends-of said passages whereby atomization results, one of said passages communicating with the interior of the of and a tube of internal diameter materially greater than the capillary passages communicating the inner end of the other of said passages with the interior of the body at the end remote from the outlet, the diameter at said passages being such as to limit the, rate of gas escape to substantially the rate of gas evolution from the confined diluent at room temperature, whereby .eflicient liquid ejecting pressure will be maintained in the body while any substantial amount of liquid remains therein.
10. A dispensing container of the type adapted for expulsion of liquid therefrom by means of gas evaporated from the liquid contents of the container, said container comprising a body and a one-piece outflow controlling structure connected directly to the body and including a pair of capillary outlet passages of substantially equal length and equal diameter, each of which is adapted for outflow of gas during outflow of liquid through the other, said passages converging toward their outlet ends and being adapted to direct a jet of liquid anda jet of gas into impingement in space beyond the passages, whereby the liquid will be atomized by the gas, one of said passages communicating directly with the interior of the body, and a tube'establishing communication between the other passage and the interior of the body at a point remote from said first passage.
' CAROLUS FORTIER.
direct fluid body at the outlet end there-