US 2040351 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1936- F. a WILLIAMS, 2,@49,351
CENTRIFUGAL MACHINE Filed Nov. 25, 1932 1 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 5W. WM g MW,
attorney I 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed NOV. 23, 1952 0 w M Al JI 3 9 w a :2. d 2 Lfi l l, \s
I... Z 8 w k N 4 z fla w 1 5 J w 0 7 6 2o fi a M 4 1 3 i a 5 H w J j w I; I n 4n J Wu J m J 4' 1. 6 6 n 5 A 3 hwmw 4 5 attorney Patented May 12, 1936 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 14 Claims.
This invention relates to centrifugal machines and particularly centrifugals of the gyratory susended type, such as are employed in the treatment of sugar, starch, chemicals or like mate- 5 rials, which are usually required to carry fairly heavy loads of material to effect separation of the liquid from the solid content thereof. Among the objects obtained by the present improvements may be mentioned the smooth running of the machine and the efficient transmission of power thereto through a novel and simple mounting of the basket shaft and suspension head, the safeguarding against explosion due to heat or sparks from the brake when materials are being treated which give off a vapor or gas that forms an explosive mixture with air, the simple and convenient application of a cooling medium to con- Vey away heat from the brake drum, the absence of chattering or pounding on the ball joint bearing, the easy and effective provision of complete lubrication for the shaft bearings, the increasing of head room above the center of oscillation in order to reduce the overhead distance and the supporting of the gyratory head in a manner to more widely distribute the heavy weight of the machine on its suspension surface to avoid rapid and excessive wear at that point.
These and other features of the invention will be described in detail in the following specification and will be defined in the claims hereto annexed.
In the accompanying drawings I have illustrated a centrifugal machine containing in simple and practical form the improvements forming the subject matter hereof, including modifications of the specific forms thereof capable of alternative use, in which drawings.
Fig. l is a vertical central section showing the driving mount of a suspended centrifugal with the medial portion of the basket shaft broken away to permit larger scale illustration.
Fig. 2 is ,a plan view with the cover or top of the hanger removed to illustrate the brake mechanism, the casing or hanger being shown in horizontal section below the level of its supporting flanges.
Fig. 3 is a detail view showing a suspension construction like that shown in Fig. 1 but provided with an air circulating and cooling means, instead of the Water cooling means shown in Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is another modification showing a downturned belt drive pulley coupled to the upper end of the basket shaft with the brake drum carried upward somewhat above the upper end of the basket shaft. 7
In the practice of the invention as illustrated in Fig. 1 and partly in other figures of the drawings, I employ a fixed suspension hanger l se- 5 cured to any suitable overhead structure and supported by lateral flanges at its upper edge, as illustrated at l and having also an inwardly and upwardly turned annular flange 2, which is provided with an inner annular surface at 2* for engaging a yielding buffer ID that is interposed between a member of the oscillatory bearing head 6 and the surface 2 to yieldingly oppose the oscillation of the suspension head which forms the support for the gyratory basket shaft l2.
Supported on and secured to the upper face of the annular flange 2 is a socket seat member 3, whose inner concave surface is spherically curved to form a supporting spherically curved segment or seat that engages the underside of a similarly curved ball element 6 of the gyratory suspension head element 5.
The suspension head 5 is of substantially tubular form and contains upper and lower antifriction roller bearing races 1 spaced axially a substantial distance apart to afford a substantial leverage for receiving the radial thrust of the basket shaft as it oscillates. Between these two antifriction bearing elements 1 there is provided a flanged sleeve 8 which rests upon an antifriction thrust bearing element 9 supported on an intermediate internal flange 5 of the suspension head. Oil retaining annular cap members I l are bolted to the upper and lower ends of the tubular bearing head and serve to retain the radial bearing races 7 in position. The intermediate thrust bearing 9 has its lower race spherically curved about the center of gyration to allow the roller thrust bearing slight accommodation or self-adjustment to meet the stresses of the gyrating shaft.
An oil retaining cup I3 is secured to a flange of the shaft immediately below the lower end of the suspension head to overlap the lower end thereof and an oil scoop tube l4 projects into the annular space formed by the cup l3 to receive the oil therefrom when the machine is rotating and force it up through the vertical oi-l duct 5 to supply lubrication to the upper and the thrust bearings.
In the present construction the spherically curved ball member 6 of the suspension head is described on an unusually large radius, so that the center of this bearing and supporting surface will be located at or very close to the upper end of the basket shaft to which is attached a driving fixed inclined annular face of the hanger flange well as of the spherically curved seat some distance below the equatorial plane thereof so that the driving power, whether from an' overhead shaft rotating about a fixed axis or from a downturned belt pulley, can be applied at substantially the plane of the center of oscillation. V
To check excessive oscillation, the annular buffer Ill, whose internal and external resistance faces are obliquely inclined to the axis of the basket shaft, is interposed betweenthe rigid or 2 and the frusto-conical face of a sleeve or collar surrounding the cylindrical portion of the gyratory head and forced into tight compression against the adjacent face of the yieldingbuffer Iii by means of a follower nut 2 I, which engages the threaded exterior'of the suspension head 5 and can be screwed upward to secure any desired degree of compression of the buffer through the medium of the buffer-engaging collar 20. The nut may be fastened in place by providing it with split jaws 2 l that may be drawn together tightly by'a tangential bolt to clamp the nut in any desired positionof adjustment. It willbe observed that by reason of the frusto-conical outer and inner faces of the elastic buffer [0 in engagement with similar frusto-com'cal faces on the collar 20 and the'hanger flange 2, two very advantageous effects-are produced. In the first place, the natural tendency of the gyrating V centrifugal basket 7 to lift from its seat and cause chatter is overcome because the buffer, by its compression, tends to keep the ball head snugly engaged with'its spherical seat; and in the second place, owing to this arrangement and relationship of the buffer, the buffer experiences only a directcompression in the'direction of sway of the abutting'part of the suspension head without causing a rubbing and twisting'of the rubber between its confining faces, which is a prolific source of deterioration of the elastic buffers as heretofore used in this class of .centrifugals. Compression is normal to the radii.
The foregoing construction, in which the suspension ball is designed to locate the center of oscillation at the'upper end of the shaft, permits theuse of-a downwardly turned brake drum comprising the flat'fia-nged disc or spider 29 and the cylindrical member 29 around which external brake bands 30 are carried, as shown in Fig. 2. This construction permits the use of relatively light pressed 'metal brake drums which may be Secured to the shaft through the medium of a flanged collar 3l secured around theupper end of the shaft, the collar in this case having a hollow center for the insertion of the coupling member l5, when it is desired to drive the centrifugal from an overhead shaft 26 passing through a stuffing box or gland 21 in the enclosing cover'28.
It will be observed that the suspension head 7 and the underneath buffer form a perfect seal against the circulation of air into the hollow .hanger which encloses the brake elements, while the cover 28 seals the upper portion of this chamber against the circulation of air as well as the penetration of dust or foreign particles that might adversely affect the brake drum surface or any bearing surfaces. By' thus sealing the brake mechanism and the bearing portion of the head against communication with the surrounding atmosphere, all danger of igniting an explosive mixture of air and chemicals by the heating or sparking of the brake is completely eliminated.
Furthermore, this enclosing hanger makes it possible to provide a very simple and effective means of cooling the brake drum. As shown in Fig. 1, a nipple 32 is tapped into the bottom of the casing or hanger I and into it are threaded the nozzle pipe 33 and a supply pipe 34 for de livering a spray of cold water against the interior of the brake drum. To prevent spattering of the liquid into the bearing seat an annular fin or flange 35 is extended down from the horizontal member 29 of the brake drum so as to overlap the outer end of the suspension seat 3.
'An off-take pipe 36 is also tapped into the bottom of the hanger to carry off to any desired point the drum cooling water supplied by the pipe 34. The brake drum is preferably providedat its lower inside edge with projecting flange 29 to allow the building up of a film orring of water on the inside of the brake drum to increase the cooling eifect.'
The overhead driving-or power shaft 26, which is coupled at its lower end by a flexible coupling member 25 to a similar toothed coupling secured a short inwardly around the upper end of the basket shaft, may
be driven by any desired application of power,
whether a belt pulley, electric motor or otherwise.
The centrifugal basket A may be of any suitable form or construction and may be secured to the lower end of the basket shaft in any desired brake band is attached to a short arm 42, that is fastened to a vertical spindle 43 passing through a close fitting or packed opening in'the bottom wall of the hanger I, was to present an external portion for actuating it to set or release the brake. .The suspension head construction shown in Fig. 3 is similar to that shown in Fig. 1, but in stead of using a cooling medium of water for cooling the brake drum, provision is made to cool the drumby the flow of outlet pipes 45 and 46. effected by striking up from the outer area of the horizontal member 41 of the brake drum spider an annular series of-vanes 48, which are inclined forwardly in the direction of rotation of the bas- In Fig. 4 I have illustrated a further modificaair through inlet and The air circulation is 48. The only change involved,
tion utilizing the-same arrangement of bufferand V hanger for abelt driven centrifugal, in which the belt pulley is attached directly to the upper end of the shaftinstead of'transmitting the drive to the basket shaft through the medium of an overhead coupled shaft 26. a In thisarrangement a flanged driving head is secured to the upper end of the shaft and to i s horizontal member are bolted, preferably by a common set of bolts, a downturned belt pulley 5| and an up-turned brake pulley 52. To allow the driving belt 53 to pass to an external drive shaft there must of course be openings or slots formed in the fixed hanger 54, so that this-form of device, although providing an enclosing hanger for both the belt pulley and the brake drum and brake, does not effect complete sealing of the hanger forming the hollow casing.
Interposed between the parallel horizontal portions of the belt pulley 5| and of the brake drum 52 are a series of spacing washers or rings 56, which allows circulation of air between the brake drum element and the belt pulley element to avoid undue transmission of heat from the brake drum to the belt pulley. The resistance buffers II] are of the same form previously described and are interposed between opposed frusto-conical faces of a buffer-compressing member 51 and an inturned flange 54 of the hanger. The downward thrust or weight of the centrifugal is sustained by upper and lower bearing races 59 which afford a combined radial and end thrust support for the shaft. A cover 60 protects the brake drum from dust, dirt and fumes.
Although in this form of belt drive illustrated in Fig. 4 openings will be left in the hanger, which forms the casing, for the passage of the belt, it is still possible to seal the brake elements against the entrance of explosive fumes or dirt by providing a ring 6| projecting inwardly from the casing or hanger adjacent to the brake drum and provided with a sealing felt 62, which forms light contact with the revolving drum.
It is of course obvious that the drum or pulley 5| might equally serve as a brake drum, as in Fig. 1, while the upper element 52 could be utilized as a driving member for imparting torque to the basket shaft, rotary motion being transmitted to it by any well known form of driving means from an overhead drive shaft. It will also be understood that the annular buffer may be severed on one side or at several places to permit ready insertion between the hanger and the gyratory head without dismounting the centrifugal. Whether made in one piece or in segments, the action will be precisely the same.
What I claim is:
1. In a driving mount for a suspended gyratory centrifugal, the combination with a fixed hanger provided with a spherically curved socket member, a gyratory suspension head provided with a similarly curved suspension ball member seated in said socket to permit oscillation of the head against yielding centralizing resistance, an angular conoidal buffer engaging the head below said ball member, a vertical basket shaft revolubly supported centrally of said suspension head by radial and thrust bearings inside said head and below the center of gyration, a drive transmitting member secured to the upper end of the shaft above the upper edges of the bearing ball and socket members at substantially the equatorial plane of the spherically curved surface of said ball and socket members, whereby the driving torque is applied outside and above the ball and socket members and in substantially the plane of the center of oscillation of the centrifugal.
2. In a driving mount for a suspended gyratory centrifugal, the combination with a fixed hanger provided with a spherically curved socket member, a gyratory suspension head provided with a similarly curved suspension ball member seated in said socket to permit oscillation of the head against yielding centralizing resistance, a vertical basket shaft revolubly supported centrally of said suspension head by radial and thrust bearings inside said head and below the center of gyration, the said spherically curved bearing faces being described from a center outside of and above the upper level of said ball member, and a drive transmitting member secured to the basket shaft at approximately the level of the center of oscillation for transmitting torque to the basket shaft at substantially the plane of the center of oscillation.
3. In a driving mount for a suspended gyratory centrifugal, the combination with a fixed hanger provided with a spherically curved socket member, a suspension head provided with a similarly curved ball member adapted'to be seated in said socket to afford oscillatory support for the centrifugal, a central basket shaft revolubly supported in said suspension head against radial and axial thrust, an annular elastic buffer arranged below the suspension ball member, said buffer being interposed between a frusto-conical face of the fixed hanger and an opposed frusto-conical face surrounding the lower portion of the suspension head and thereby opposing its compressive resistance in a direction substantially normal to the radii of the -fr-usto-conical resistance surfaces between which said buffer is interposed.
4. In a driving mount for a centrifugal, the combination with a fixed hanger provided with a spherically curved socket, a gyratory suspension head provided with an external spherically curved suspension ball member seated in said socket to permit oscillation of said bearing head, said bearing head being provided below said suspension ball member with an external axially adjustable buffer-engaging member provided with a frustoconical buffer-engaging surface, a centralizing annular buffer interposed between said frustoconical surface and the opposing surface of the hanger, means for adjusting said buffer-engaging member upward to secure the desired degree of compression of the buffer and thereby insure the bearing head against lifting from its seat under the stresses of the oscillation of the centrifugal.
5. In a driving mount for a centrifugal, the combination with a fixed hanger provided with a spherically curved socket member, an oscillatory suspension head provided with a similarly curved external suspension'ball member, an annular centralizing conoidal elastic buffer interposed 'between the lower portion of the suspension head and an opposing surface of the fixed hanger, a vertically adjustable frusto-conical compression ring surrounding the lower portion of the head and forming means for compressing said elastic buffer, thereby producing both a resistance to the oscillation of the centrifugal and preventing the lifting of the bearing head from its socketed seat.
6. In a suspended centrifugal the combination with a fixed hollow hanger provided with a spherically curved suspension socket interiorly thereof, of an oscillatory suspension head provided with a ball member adapted to be seated in said socket for support, a basket carrying shaft revolubly supported against lateral and vertical thrust by rotary bearing elements mounted in said suspension head, brake elements comprising a brake drum secured to the upper end of said basket shaft, and a stationary brake element movable into and out of frictional engagement with the periphery of said drum, both brake elements being located inside said hollow hanger to permit enclosure of the brake elements in order to exclude the entrance of dust or the like to the brake surfaces.
7. In a suspended centrifugal the combination 7 and the outer wall of the hanger.
interposed between the head and the hanger below said suspension seat, a central basket carrying shaft supported against radial'and axial thrust by bearings located in said head, a brake drum secured to the .shaft above the suspension seat and comprising a horizontal spider, and a down- 7 war-dly turned cylindrical member and a band brake surrounding said drum between'the drum 8. In a suspended centrifugal the combination with a fixed hollow hanger comprising an outer wall and an interior annular wall spaced therefrom and provided at its upper edge with a spheri- :cally curved socket member, of a gyratory suspension head seated in said socket member to permit oscillation in all directions, a centralizing buffer interposed between the head and the hanger'below said suspension seat, a central basket carrying shaft supported against radial and axial thrust by bearings located in said head, a brakedrum secured to the shaft above the suspension seat and comprising a horizontal spider, and a downwardly turned cylindrical member and a .brake element surrounding said drum between the drum and the outer wall of the hanger, and means for directing a cooling medium against the inner surface of said drum when the centrifugal is rotated.
9. In a suspended centrifugal the combination of a fixed hollow hanger provided with an'interior spherically curved socket member, an OS- cillatory suspension head seated in said socket for support, a central basket shaft revolubly mounted in bearings carried by said suspension head, coacting brake elements secured, respectively," to said shaft above said suspension head and to said hanger, a'cover closing the upper end of said hanger and forming in conjunction ,with the ball and socket joint a brake-enclosing casing secluded from the surrounding atmosphere, whereby the penetration of explosive fumes to the brake elements is prevented.
10. In'a suspended centrifugal thecombination with a fixed hollow hanger provided with an interior suspension socket, of a gyratory head 7 provided with an external ball surface adapted to be seated in said socket to permit oscillation in all directions, a basket shaft revolubly mounted in said gyratory head to oscillate in unison with said head against yielding centralizing reistance, a brake drum secured to said shaft above the bearing seat and extending down into said hanger, means for supplying a'stream of cooling fluid against the interior of said brake drum, and
-.a,conduit for conducting the fluid away from said hanger, an external brake band movable to and from frictional engagement with the periphery of said brake drum.
a 11. In a suspended centrifugal the combination with a fixed hollow hanger provided with an interior suspension socket, of a gyratory suspension head having a ball surface seated in said socket to permit oscillation .in all directions, a
central basket shaft revolubly supported in bearings carried by said suspension head; means located below the ball and socketsuspension for opposing yielding resistance to the oscillation of the head and centrifugal, a downwardly turned belt pulley secured to the upper end of the basket shaft and surrounding the: center of oscillation, an upwardly projecting brake drum, and a stationary brake member arranged to be, moved into and out of engagement with said drum.
12. A driving mount for a gyratory centrifugal embracing a hanger provided with a spherically curved suspension socket, a gyratory suspension head comprising a tubular member containing anti-friction bearing elements, and a suspension ball memberprojecting outwardly and upwardly from the upper end of said tubular member adapted to be seated in said socket, a centrifugal basket shaft centrally supported in said bearing elements, and a drive transmitting member secured to the upwardly projecting end of the basket shaftat substantially the level of the center of oscillation, and means for opposing a centralizing but yielding v resistance to the oscillation of said-head and basket shaft. I 13. In a suspendedcentrifugal, the combination with a revoluble basket shaft, of an oscillatory head provided witha suspension ball memher for revolubly supporting said basket shaft and permitting it-to gyrate, a fixed hollow hanger provided with a suspension socket affording universal joint support for the ball member of said.
head, a cover forming. in conjunction with said hanger an enclosing case, coacting brake elements located inside said casing, one of which is secured to saidshaft and the other of which is operable from outside said casing for stopping the centrifugal.
14. In a driving mount for a centrifugal, the combination with a gyratory revoluble basket shaft, of a gyratory head for revolubly supporting said basket shaft for oscillation, a hollow hanger in which said head is supported for oscillation, said hanger being provided on itsopen side with a closure to prevent communication of the surrounding atmosphere with its interior, co-
actingbrake elements located interiorly of said FRANK I. WILLIAMS.