US 2041406 A
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l y 19, 1936K;
R. V. FOREGG ER ANESTHETIC APPARATUS Filed July 17, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 /NHAmr/ON I Mmmm me May 19, 1936.
R. V. FOREGGER ANESTHETIC APPARATUS Filed July 17, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 38 In 27 29 v 22 20 Patented May 19, 1936V UNITED STATI-:s
PATENT OFFICE ANESTHETIC APPARATUS Richard V. Foregger, Roslyn, N. Y.
Application July 17. 1935, Serial No. 31,787
This invention relates to improvements in anesthetic apparatus for practicing the carbon dioxide absorption method or circle lter method l1o has been practiced with the so-called to and fro apparatus in which with each respiratory c ycle the gases pass through the soda lime twice,
once during exhalation on their way to the breather bag and again during inhalation on their l5 return to the patient.
The present inventionv deals with an anesthetic apparatus for practicing the circle or circuit method in which the expired gases pass from the patient through the soda lime into the breather bag, and during inspiration the gases from the breather bag pass around, not through. the soda lime and to the patient. In apparatus for practicing this method means are also provided for cutting out the soda lime oi' the circuit whenever it is desired to stimulate respiration by allowing carbon dioxide to be built up in the reservoir system.
The circuit apparatus has also the advantage that the soda lime may be readily switched into and out of the system, or partly so if desired. It
requires little handling and the Aparts are compactly assembled and supported as a unit. Another advantage is that in the circuit apparatus the patient must overcome the resistance of the soda lime granules only during expiration.
The object of this invention is to provide a generally improved anesthetic apparatus for practicing the circle method in a most safe and economic manner. Another object of the invention is to provide means for quick and convenient control of the inclusion or exclusion of the soda lime from the circuit. Still another object is to provide means whereby the supply of soda lime 5 may be quickly replenished. Another object is to provide means for supplying ether to deepen the anesthetic when necessary. Other objects will be pointed out later on. Accordingly my invention is embodied in an anesthetic apparatus arranged and constructed as hereinafter set forth and as illustrated in the accompanying drawings in which:
Fig. l is a plan view of the apparatus with parts removed.
Fig. 2 is an elevation looking in the direction of arrow 2 in Figure 1 with parts. removed and broken away.
Fig. 3 is an elevation looking in the direction of arrow 3 in Figure 1 with parts in section and. broken away.
Fig. 4 is a view similar to Figure 3 but illustrates a modification.
Fig. 5 is a sectional view of a ilutter valve.
Figs. 6 and 7 are detail views of parts oi' Figure 4.
'Fig 8 is-a detail view illustrating supporting means for the apparatus.
Generally speaking the apparatus according to this invention comprises a casing or canister arranged to contain a soda. lime filter spaced within 15 the canister to provide an inhalation passage aroimd the illter. The breather bag is attached to the bottom of the canister and the necessary valve mechanisms are carried on top of the canister so that the necessary connections be-A 2g) tween the patients face piece and the valves may be made in a convenient manner.
Referring to the drawings and more particularly to Figures l, 2 and 3, the reference numeral I0 denotes a cylindrical casing hereinafter called g5 the canister, which is soldered or otherwise airtightly secured to its cover Il. The canister has a removable bottom I2 secured with a ring Il. The breather bag I4 is secured to the bottom. The cover II has a screwthreaded ilange II for 3a the reception and support of the soda lime iilter I5 which is a cylinder having a screen bottom Il. At the top the filter is threaded so as to be screwed onto the flange I6. The filter contains soda lime I8. The filter being of less diameter 35 than the canister there is formed an inhalation chamber I9 within the canister.
The canister carries a. valve casing 20 in the formI of a T made of tubing. The valve casing has a centrally located connection 2| forming a .lo passage which leads through the cover to the filter I5. It also has an upstanding connection 22 forming a passage which leads to the exhalation ilutter valve 23. Thus the latter communi- Cates with the filter by way of passage 22, the 45 valve casing 20 and the central passage 2i. Located centrally of the valve casing there is a filter sleeve valve 25 having a single port 2, see Figures 1 and 3, for controlling the passage 2l to the lter. The sleeve lter valve 25 is operated 50 by a handle 2l, Figure 3.
The valve casing is also supported upon the canister by means of another connection 28 form-- ing a passage which leads to the inhalation chamber I9 and it has also an upstanding connection 5g 29 forming a passage which leads to the inhalation utter valve 30. The numeral 32, Figure 1, denotes an obturation sleeve valve, hereinafter called the bag valve, which has three ports 33, 34 and 35, see Figures 1 and 2. The port 33 controls the downward passage 2B from the valve casing to the inhalation chamber I9. I'he opposite port 35 controls the passage 29 from the valve casing to the inhalation flutter valve 90. The third intermediate port 34 is for establishing communication between the valve casing and the respiratory valve 38 carried thereby.
Thus it will be seen that the inhalation flutter valve 30 communicates with the inhalation chamber I3 through the passage 29, the valve casing and the passage 28 via the bag valve ports 35 and 33. A handle 39 operates the bag valve.
I'he flutter valves, see Figure 5, are sensitive rubber valves contained within transparent cylinders 43 protected by a metal framework which at its bottom has a neck 4I adapted to be inserted in the valve casingconnections 22 and 29. At its upper end the utter valve has a neck 42 to which the exhalatlon tube 43 and the inhalation tube 444, respectively are attached. The tubes lead to the usual face piece 45. The latter and the tubes are shown diagrammatically only in Figure 2. Figure 5 illustrates the exhalation iiutter valve; the expired gases passing out through slits 46 in the valve. The inhalation valve is exactly like the exhalation valve except that the rubber valve itself is supported in reverse position from that shown in Figure 5. The respective positions oi 'the rubber valves are shown in Figure 3.
Anesthetic gas and oxygen are supplied to the inhalation chamber I3 through pipes 49 and 5D controlled by valves 5| and 52.4 The pipes 49 and 50 connect with a single supply pipe 53 which leads to the canister. Within the latter the pipe 53 is curved upwardly so that it leads directly upward into the passage 28 besides leading generally into the chamber I9. This is done to insure that oxygen will be supplied quickly and directly to the inhaling side of the circuit in the event that for some reason an extra instant supply becomes necessary.
The respiratory valve 33 has a disk 55 operated from a screw 56 to control a passage from the valve casing 20 via the respiratory valve to the atmosphere through openings 5l.
Ether may be supplied to deepen the anesthetic whenever required. The ether is contained within an ether cup 60 having an inlet @i and which communicates with the inhalation chamber i9 i by way of a glass tube 62. The supply of ether is controlled by a needle valve 63 operated by a screw 64. A pipe 65 leads from the glass tube into the chamber I9 Within which there is attached to the pipe a coil 66 of braided copper pipe. A small pipe 61 leads from the top of the ether cup Sil to the inhalation chamber i9. A pet cock 68 controls the passage through the pipe. 'I'he pet cock 68 is carried by a small connection 69 leading to the chamber I9.
During an anesthesia the patient inhales from the breather bag I4, through the inhalation chamber I9, passage 28, bag valve ports 33 and 35, passage 29, inhalation flutter valve 3D, tube 44 to the face piece 45. The exhalation circuit is from the face piece through tube 43, exhalation utter valvei23, passage 22 to valve casing. 26, through'iiltezr'valve port 26 to connection 2i and into the filter I5.
Gas and oxygen are supplied to the breathing circuit by way of the supply pipes 49 and Elli, and as stated above, should an additional amount of, for instance, oxygen be required at any time, such additional amount is easily supplied by further opening the oxygen supply valve 52. The supply pipe 53 because of its upwardly curved form insures that the additional supply of oxygen alone or also of gas passes directly into the inhaling circuit through the connection 28 leading to the inhalation iiutter valve 30.
Ether from the glass ether cup 60 is supplied whenever required to deepen the anesthetic by opening the needle valve 63. Ether then drops down through the glass tube 62 to the pipe 65 and into the coil 66. Because of the heat developed by the reaction caused by exhaling through the soda lime granules the temperature rises within the canister and inasmuch as the coil 66 is perforated so to speak because of the braided wire of which it is made, the ether is quickly vaporized within the chamber I9 and mixes with the inhaled gases from the breather bag.
While the anesthesia is applied as described both the valve handles 21 and 39 are in up position as shown in Figures 2 and 3. The breather bag is of course filled as usual before an operation. Ii the face piece is attached then the bag is filled by closing the bag valve, i. e. by moving the handle 39 down and the filter valve is closed half way, i. e. the handle 21 is swung half way down in a clockwise direction in Figure 3. In this position it will be seen that the connection 28 leading from the valve casing to the inhalation flutter valve 30 is closed in that valve port 33 has been moved upwardly tothe left in Figure 2. The inhaling circuit is under these conditions through respiratory valve 38, valve casing 20, bag valve 'port 34--Which is now in uppermost positioninhalation iiutter valve 30 te the face piece. The exhaling circuit is from the face -Y piece through tube 43 to the valve casing and through the half open illter valve port 26, Figure 3, into the iilter.
If the face piece is not attached to the apparatus then the bag is lled by closing both valves, i. e. move both valve handles down thereby cutting oil both the filter and the bag from the flutter valves. In practice the induction of the anesthetic gases is started with the bag valve fully open while the iilter valve is closed. When the required degree of anesthesia is reached, the iilter valve is opened fully and the respiratory valve is closed. Also the oxygen flow is reduced according to the patients requirements and the supply of anesthetic gas is shut off.
The valve handles 21 and 39 move in slots 10 cut in the valve casing. The length of the slots limits the stroke'of the handles. Figure 3 shows the slot 'lll for the bag valve handle L33 and Figure 4 shows both of the slots 'l0 for the two handles. Suitable indicia for operating the valve handles are placed upon the casing as shown. The supply of soda lime is designed to last about eight hours before it must be discarded. To enable b -V into which the handle snaps and is held in an obvious manner. The scale is marked numerically. The numbers are not shown so as not to obscure the drawing.
- anisms are alike in Figures 2 and fi.. only the During the operation the pet cock 68 is open to equalize the pressure in the ether supply cup 60. When the latter is to be replenished through the filler inlet 6| the pet cock is closed. i
The soda lime filteris quickly removed from the apparatus by first unscrewing'the ring I3 to detach the bottom of the canister and then reach in and unscrew the filter from the flange I6. Then the same or another freshly filled filter may be placed in position and the canister closed. This method involves the unscrewing and screwing in of both the filter and the ring I3. Figure 4 illustrates a modification in which the exchange of soda lime filters may be done with extreme rapidity. In this case the canister 80 has a removable cover 8| which carries the valve mechanisms and other parts exactly as described in connection with Figures l-3. The same reference numerals are applied to corresponding parts. Within the cover 8| there is placed a substantial rubber gasket disk 82 which is cut out as at 83 to afford passage through the connection 28 leading from the bag valve to the inhalation chamber I9. There is also an opening 84 to register with the pet cock` connections 69,
and a central opening 85 to register with the central connection 2| from the filter valve. The cover carries two hooks 81, 81.
The canister in Figure 4 has a lateral annular shelf 88 provided with two upstanding annular flanges 89 and 90 adapted to engage the gasket 82. There is thus formed an annular closed passage 9| between the shelf 80 and the gasket.
This passage 9| communicates upwardly through the gasket opening 83 with the aforesaid con'- nection 28 leading to the bag valve. Downwardly the annular passage 9| communicates with the inhalation chamber |.9 by way of two ports 92, 92 in said shelf 88, Figure 7. 'I'he canister has a permanently closed bottom I2 to connect with the breather bag and carries two closing clasps 94, 94 for operating two loops 95, 95 to engage the hooks 81 in an obvious manner whereby to lock the cover airtight upon the canister. The
latter has a narrow annular ledge 98 for the support of the soda lime filter 91 which has a flange resting upon the ledge. The filter has a handle 98. The curved pipe connection 65 between the ether glass tube 62 and the coil 80 is omitted. Instead the tube ends with a spout 99 which projects downwardly through the gasket 82 and fits into a hole |00 in the shelf v88 which hole registers with the upturned u/ppe'r end l0! of the pipe coil 66, Figure 4. l,
Anaesthetic gas and oxygen/are supplied to the apparatus in Figure 4 by/way of a supply nipple H5 which is inserted to the end of the valve casing adjacent the'bag valve. Thus this construction embo/dfes also the feature i' affording means for introducing an additional supply of oxygen ectly below the inhalation connection 29 fro the valve casing to the inhalation flutter valve 30 the same as provided by the curved pipe vi in Figure 2.
When the parts are assembled as in Figure 4 the circuits of the gases may be traced exactly as above described. When it is desired to replenish the soda lime the clasps 94 are unhooked, the cover 8| lifted away from the canister, the filter 9i' is lifted out by taking hold of its handle 98. A new filter is dropped into piace, the cover put upon the canister and locked and the apparatus is ready to continue operation. Obviously it takes but very little time to place a lled filter in position. inasmuch as the valve mechmerest outline is shown in Figure et.
The apparatus is conveniently supported as shown in Figure 8 in which the numeral |05 denotes an arm which is a part of an anesthetic or operating table or the metric gas machine usually used. The arm has a socket |06. A rod |01 fits into the socket and is there held adjustably by a screw engaging notches |08. The rod |01 carries a block |09. The canister has guides ||0 and a stop and is attached to the block |09 by being hooked onto the block as will be understood.
The apparatus herein disclosed embodies several novel features oi' importance in administering an anesthetic. Mechanically the apparatus is compact. yet easily operable. The several units are easily taken apart and assembied. This is important for purposes of repairs and cleanliness. The canister and filter are separable and the flutter valves are easily unscrewed from the valve casing. The inhalation chamber `|9 is an important feature in that it provides a distinct inhalation passage separate from the filter and the increase in temperature withirr the chamber is advantageously used in vaporlzing the ether and-insures that the re-inhaled gas is warm which in turn serves to conserve lthe patients body heat and moisture, resulting in more perfect and easy breathing during the anesthesia. The means for supplying ether 'and quickly vaporizing it are believed to be a wholly novel and important adjunct to the apparatus. The construction of the flutter valves is very simple and very eiiicient. They are self closing as is obvious. For instance it will be seen from Figure 5 that when the patient exhales the gases pass out through the slits 46, one on each side, Awhich however during-inhalation automatically close. The iiutter valves are in effect one way check valves. The important feature and advantage of a quickly detachable filter for the purpose set forth are obvious to persons skilled in the art. f
Obviously the invention is susceptiblev of changes and variations in the disclosures pre sented and I contemplate as within the scope of my invention all such modifications and equivalents as fall within the appended claims.
I claim: l 1. In an anesthesia apparatus of the characte described including a face piece, a breather bag and mechanisms for administering the anestheticforming a continuous inhalation passage from the-breather bag and to the face piece and a separate continuous exhalation passage from the face piece and to the bag, a filter in said inhalation passage located between the face piece and the bag for absorbing exhaled carbon dioxide and'means in said inhalation passage forming an inhalation chamber around and apart from said filter.
2. In an anesthesia apparatus of the character described including a face piece, a breather bag and mechanisms for administering the anesthetic forming a continuous inhalation passage from the breather bag and to the face piece and a separate continuous exlialation passage from' the face piece and to the bag, a filter in said inhalation passage located between the face piece and the bag for absorbing exhaled carbon dioxide, means in said inhalation passage forming an in- .halation chamber around and apart from said filter and mechanism for detachably supporting said filter within the said inhalation chamber. 3. An apparatus of the characterdescribed comprising a canister, a. breather bag removably secured thereto, a soda lime filter removably secured within said canister which latter forms an inhalation chamber around said lter, exhalation and inhalation valves supported on said canister in communication with said filter and chamber respectively, a face piece and breathing tubes between the latter and the said valves.
4. An apparatus of the character describedv comprising a canister, a breather bag removably secured thereto, a soda lime iilter removably secured within said canister which latter forms an inhalation chamber around said lter, exhalation and inhalation valves supported on said canister in communication with said iilter and chamber respectively, a face piece vand breathing tubes between the latter and the said valves and means carried by said canister i'or supplying ether to the said inhalation chamber.
5. An apparatus of the character described comprising a canister, a breather bag removably secured thereto, a soda lime iilter removably secured within said canister which latter forms an inhalation chamber around said illter, exhalation and inhalation valves supported on said canister in communication with said illter and chamber respectively, a face piece and breathing tubes between the latter and the said valves and means carried by said canister for supplying anesthetic gas to said inhalation chamber.
6; An apparatus of the character described comprising a closed container including a removable bottom, a soda lime iilter detachably supported within said container which latter forms a chamber surrounding said iilter, a face piece, an exhaling and an inhaling tube between the face piece and the container, valves in said tubes for establishing separate communications between the lter and the exhaling tube and between the said chamber and the inhaling tube, said valves including means for cutting the filter oi from the exhaling tube and cutting the chamber of! from the inhaling tube and a breather -bag secured to the said removable -container bottom.
7. An anesthesia apparatus of the character described comprising in combination with a face inhalation passage including a chamber formed around and apart from said filter, means for supplying anesthetic gas and ether to said chamber and means for accessibly and detachably supporting the filter within said chamber.
8. An anesthetic apparatus of the character described comprising a soda lime iilter, a casingl surrounding said filter and forming a chamber around the same, a breather bag secured to said casing in communication with the chamber, means for supplying ether to the chamber including a coil of woven pipe surrounding the filter for vaporlzing the ether in the chamber, an inhalation valve and an exhalation valve mounted in operative relation to said chamber and iilter, passages communicating between the said inhalation valve and the said chamber, and between the said exhalation valve and the said filter, a pipe for supplying anesthetic gas to said chamber, said pipe having an outlet located adjacent the said communication between the chamber and the inhalation valve, a face piece and breathing tubes between said face piece and -the said valves.
9. An apparatus oi the character described comprising a container, a soda lime iilter supported within the same, an open ended coil of braided wire tubing surrounding said iilterwithin the container and means for supplying ether to the said coil of tubing.
10. An apparatus of the character described comprising a container having a closed top and a removable bottom, a soda lime iilter detachably carried by said top within the container, which forms an inhalation chamber around the iilter, a valve casing mounted upon said container top in communication with the said filter and chamber, an inhalation and an exhalation utter valve and a respiratory valve carried by said valve casing in communication therewith and valves in said valve casing for establishing communications between the inhalation iiutter valve and the said chamber, and between the exhalation flutter valve and the said iilter and for cutting oil the said flutter valves from the chamber and filter and establishing communication between the inhalation ilutter valve and the respiratory valve.
i1. An apparatus of the character described comprising a container having a removable top and a closed bottom, a soda lime filter detachably carried by said container within the same, said container forming an inhalation chamber around the iilter, a valve casing mounted upon said container top in communication with the said filter and chamber, an inhalation and an exhalation iiutter valve and a respiratory valveA carried by said valve casing in communication therewith and valves in said valve casing for establishing communications between the inhalation flutter valve and the said chamber, and between the exhalation iiutter valve and the said iilter and for cutting oii the said iiutter valves from the chamber and iilter and establishing communication between the inhalation flutter valve and the respiratory valve.
12. An apparatus of the character described comprising a container having a closed top and a removable bottom, a soda lime filter detachably carried by said top within the container, which forms an inhalation chamber around the lter, a i
valve casing mounted upon said container top in communication with the said iilter and chamber, an inhalation and an exhalation flutter valve and a respiratory valve carried by said valve casing in communication therewith and valves in said valve casing for establishing communications/ between the inhalation flutter valve and the said chamber, and between the exhalation iiutte valve and the said lter and for cutting oi the said iiutter valves from the chamber and iilter and establishing communication between the inhalation iiutter valve and the respiratory valve, and means for supplying anesthetic gas and oxygen to the said chamber.
13. An apparatus of the character described comprising a container having a removable top and a closed bottom, a soda lime iilter detachably carried by said container within the same, said container forming an inhalation chamber around the lter, a valve casing mounted upon said container top. in communication with the said filter and chamber, an inhalation and an exhalation fiuttervalve and a respiratory valve carried bysaid valve casing incommunication therewith andvalves in said valve casing for establishing communication between the inhalation flutter valve and the said chamber, and between the exhalation iiutter valve and the said filter and for cutting off the said ilutter valves from the chamber and lter and establishing communication between the inhalation flutter valve and the respiratory valve, and means for supplying anesthetic gas and oxygen to the said chamber.
14. An apparatus of the character described comprising a container including a removable bottom, a soda lime filter removably supported within the containerwhich latter forms an inhalation chamber around the lter, an inhalation and an exhalation valve carried by said container in separate communication with the said chamber and lter respectively, an inhalation utter valve and an exhalation flutter valve supported in operative relation to the valves aforesaid, a face piece, breathing tubes between the latter and the said ilutter valves and a breather bagsecured to the container in communication with the said inhalation chamber.
15. An apparatus of the character described comprising a container having a removable cover, manually operated means for locking the cover to the container and unlocking said cover, a soda lime lter removably supported in said container which forms a chamber around the filter, a coil of braided Wire tubing supported in said container and surrounding said filter, a valve casing on said cover, exhaling and inhaling valves in said valve casing, an ether cup supported on said cover, means in the cover serving as communications between the exhallng valve and the lter and between theinhaling valve and the chamber when the cover is locked to the container, a spout leading from` said ether cup through the said cover and adapted to connect with the said coil of tubing when the cover is locked and means for supplying anesthetic gas to said valve casing.
RICHARD Vl' FOREGGER.