|Publication number||US2042797 A|
|Publication date||Jun 2, 1936|
|Filing date||Sep 11, 1931|
|Priority date||Sep 11, 1931|
|Publication number||US 2042797 A, US 2042797A, US-A-2042797, US2042797 A, US2042797A|
|Original Assignee||Zelda Nechin|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (14), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
June 2, 1936. A. NECHIN METAL STRUCTURE Filed Sept. 11, 1931 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 WrQ/mmM ec/I in.
June 2, 1936. A NECHIN 2,042,797
METAL STRUCTURE Filed Sept. 11, 1931 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 June 2, 1936- A. NECHIN 2,042,797
METAL STRUCTURE Filed Sept. 11, 1931 4 Sheets-Sheet a an I 3 w w ,1 n
June 2, 1936. NEcHlN 2,042,797
METAL STRUCTURE Filed Sept. 11, 1931 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 f v H Patented June 2,, 1936 v UNITED s -Arss METAL sraocmn Abraham Nechin, Chicago, n1, assignor to Zelda Nechin, Chicago, Ill.
Application September 11,
My invention relates to metal structure adaptable to and interchangeable, for various types-of construction, and more particularly to floor or side wall construction of a type somewhat similar to that commonly known as battledeck design. The invention especially contemplates a sheet metal sectional flooring construction inwhich the floor is built up of long and comparatively wide sheet metal trussed units which are arranged to be supported on the'cross beams of the ordinary structuralframework of buildings, ships or any other structures, or they may be used for side walls. In this invention the trussed units may be arranged tointeriock and are laid one at a time on the cross beams until the entire floor section between the beams has been covered, and the interlocked units maythen be secured together by welding, if desired, or each unit may be secured to the succeeding one as laid. The portions engaging the beams also may bev securely welded thereto, thereby providing a substantially rigid, strong floor construction.
Broadly, the invention comprises interchangeable units which are adaptable for use in construction work in various capacities, such as floor or side wall construction, stairways, stadium seats, or for concrete forms for buildings, dams, etc. The units may be secured together in various relations or remoyably supported in a manner to facilitate construction work at minimum cost and to provide maximum efiiciency- I also provide a very economical thin sheet metal unit in which a minimum amount of ma terial is used to provide maximum strength and efiiciency.
A further important advantage is the provision of units of the character described in which adjacentunits may be easily supported in diflerent planes to provide for a desired varying thickness of floor or wall covering or to provide steps.-
While the units are usually made of sheet iron, or steel, it should be noted that any suitable metal may be used, and while units which are made of very thin sheet steel are of extremely light weight,
aluminum or other suitable material may be med if desired.
A distinct advantage of the present invention is the provision of suitable units which maybe quickly and easily laid on standard cross beams or directly on walls, and which may be immediately used as a floor over which heavy loads may be moved safely even before the units are secured together or to the cross beams and even before the entire floor is laid. The work of securing the 1931, Serial No. 562,215
units together and to the beams may be accomplished at any time and without interfering with the use of the floor by workmen thereon. This is a very noticeable advantage and has reduced the cost of building construction materially.
The present invention also provides'a structure wherein the vibratory diaphragm action, or socalled drum action, of the sheet metal forming the unit surface is reduced to a minimum, thereby preventing the noises inherent in certain types of 10 sheet metal floors now in use.
It is also an object of the invention to provide a novel floor construction wherein the individual units will provide great strengthanderigidity with a minimum amount ofmaterial, and wherein the 15 units when assembled provide suitably aligned means for the attachment of an ordinary ceiling thereto of any suitable type. The units also provide space for heat or sound-proof insulating material therein.
All of the units are made of comparatively thin sheet metal and the scrap metal trimmed from the sheets is used for trussing the units, thus farther reducing the cost to a considerable extent. The invention is especially arranged toprovide a unit of sufiicient rigidity and strength by the use of very thin material and the scrap therefrom, and arranged to support maximum loads with minimum deflection.
My invention also contemplates an embodiment 30 wherein provision is made for allowing electric wiring, conduits or pipes to be mounted therein and to pass between the floor and the cross beams.
It is also an object to provide a floor construction in which the individual units are easily and 35 conveniently formed and assembled and which may then be laid, to form a complete floor structure, with a minimum amount of labor and expense.
Further objects will be apparent from the speciflcations and appended drawings.
In the drawings, Figure 1 is a top plan view of a section of flooring illustrating an embodiment of this invention; I
Fig. 2 is a transverse sectional perspective view through the flooring and cross beams and taken on a. line corresponding to line 2--2 of Figure 1;
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary sectional view similar to that shown in Fig. 2 and illustrates the transverse and longitudinal trussing arrangement used in the individual units;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary sectional perspective view taken on a line corresponding to line 4-4 of, Figure 1, and illustrates the method or supp rting the ends of the individual units on the cross beams and securing them thereto, the ends of the units being cut to. conform to the shape of the cross beams;
' action, the extent of the formation being somewhat exaggerated for purposes of illustration;
Fig. 8 is a transverse sectional view taken through one of the brace or truss members;
Fig. 9 is a detailed perspective view illustrating another method of securing the units. together; Fig. 10 isa fragmentary perspective view of an embodiment of my invention arranged to provide for conduits or electric wiring to be supported within the contour of the floor structure and to pass over the cross beams; s
Fig. 11 is a detailed sectional view illustrating .the form of filler or side units used with the embodiment shown in Fig. 10';
Fig. 12 is a fragmentary perspective view of another form of interlocking means,-and also illustrates the perforations for securing a floor covering to the units;
Fig. 13 is a detailed sectional'view illustrating one method of applying floor coveringf -Fig. 14 is a detailed sectional view illustrating a slightly modified form of unit construction and age or transportation; and
method of securing the units together;
Fig. 15 is a detailed sectional view illustrating a slightly modified form of truss arrangement;
. Fig. 16 illustrates the method of using the units for stairs or for stadium or auditorium stepped floors;
Fig. 1'1 illustrates the unit arrangement for obtaining level floors when used with floor surfacing material of various thickness;
Fig. 18 illustrates a method of using the units forooncrete forms;
g. 19 illustrates a slightly modified form of unit arranged for convenience in nesting'for stor- Fig. 20 illustrates an arrangement of units also formed for convenient nesting, one of the flanges being eliminated.
Referring to the drawings in detail, the em bodiment illustrated comprises a floor structure made up of elongated sheet metal flooring units I, and flller or side units 2 and 3. These units are supported on the usual rectangularly arranged cross beams 4 and 5, the 'ends of the units resting on the arms beams l, and one edge of each of the flller units 2 and 3 resting on one of the cross beams 5. The cross beams-may be of the 12151181 I-beam design used in structural iron wor The sections l are made of relatively very thin sheet metal, and are formed longitudinally to provide a comparatively wide floor portion 6, and
a downwardly extending beam-like web portion 'I having an inwardly turned flange 8 formed thereon." This flange. may be used for supporting a ceiling which latter may be attached thereto by any suitable means. The opposite edge of the floor portion-G is formed downwardly to provide a comparatively narrow engaging flange 9 for securing the units together and also to stiffen the individual units.
Each of the individual units I is provided with brace or truss members In, H, and I 2, which are secured together and to the member I, preferably by welding, as illustrated in Figs. 2 and 3, in a manner to provide a suitable transverse stiffening arrangement for all the sections. A plurality of those truss arrangements are used, and they are preferably equally spaced along the length of the individual units.
Longitudinal truss members I2 may be secured at the junction of the members Ill, II, and I2, and to the floor portion at a point midway between the transverse trusses as shown in Fig. 3. While these longitudinal trusses, as well as. the vertical truss members l2, may ordinarily be dispensed with they are sometimes found to be desirable where exceptionally heavy loads are to be supported.
'I'ne flller unit 2 is .of similar construction to the units I, except that the flange 9 is omitted, thereby allowing the floor portion of the unit to rest directly upon one of the longitudinal cross beams 5, as shown in Fig. 2. The filler unit 8 which is used at the opposite side of the floor section from the unit 2 comprises only a floor portion 6" having a downwardly extending flange 9 corresponding to the flanges 9 of the other sections. The opposite edge of the floor portion 6 rests upon the longitudinal cross beam 5, and suitable truss members l3 and I4 are welded togethei' and to, theunit 3 in spaced relation in a similar manner to the truss members previously described. Longitudinal truss members l2 may also be provided if desired as shown in Fig. 3. In order to stiffen the truss members, which are formed from the scrap trimmed from the sheets forming the units, they are preferably formed in arcuate cross section as shown in Fig. 8.
The ends of the units are cut away at l5 to conform to the contour of the I-beams, asillustrated in Fig. 4, and in laying the floor a filler section 2 (Fig. 1) is first placed in position, having its ends resting on the',cross beams 4 and its longitudinal'floor portion edge resting on one of the cross-beams 5. The necessary number of units l are then laid in position with their ends resting-on the crossbeams I, and the downwardly extending flanges 9 supported and interlocked in suitable brackets l6, one of which is shown in Fig. 6, and which may be spot welded in spaced relation on the downwardly formed web portion 1 of the units as shown in Fig. 6, or pierced and formed from the web portion 1, see
cured to the brackets l6 atv any time, even whileh the floor is in use if desired, preferably by being and I9 are .welded to the 1- trated in Fig. 4. These brackets may be welded in position in any suitable manner, InFig. 5 the bracket I9 is illustrated as being welded at the points A, B, C, and D. It will'be understood that all of thebrackets i6, I8, and i9 may be bolted in place, if desired, instead of being welded, or the brackets l8 and I9 may be dispensed with and the flanges 9 and i may be welded together, or may be bolted as shown in Fig. 9.
During the formation of each unit the floor portion 6 is angularly formed, as shown in Fig. 3. This is a sharp angular formation or scoring on a central longitudinal line 20. In practice, the average width of the individual units is approximately 24 inches, although they may be much wider, and the angular depression or scoring at the longitudinal line 20 is approximately -oneeighth inch. The floor portion 6 is formed in a manner similar to that illustrated in Fig.7, the drawing being somewhat exaggerated for purposes of illustration. This formation or distorftion of the floor surface is an important feature of the present invention, in that it efiectively prevents buckling of the floor portion and, together with the truss arrangement and securing means, substantially eliminates all of the diaphragm action or so-called drum action of the floor surface.
The ends of the units of adjacent floor sections may be welded together and to the cross beams 4, as shown at 2|, and the filler sections are welded together and to the beams 5 at 2| thereby providing an integral floor composed of seciions, each section beingrbuilt up of longitudinal-units. v
In the embodiment illustrated in Fig. 10, the
downwardlyextending web portion 1 is tapered adjacent each end of the unit and the upwardly extending portion 8 of ihe' flange 8 is arranged to rest upon the cross-beam 5 in a position to retain the floor portion of the unit in spaced relation to the top of the cross beam to allow electric wiring, conduits or pipes to extend thereunder. The web portion I of the unit is also provided with openings 22 to allow pipes or conduits to be extended transversely of the units and between'the floor and ceiling.
Fig. 11 illustrates the construction of the fillers or side units for use with the embodiment illustrated in Fig. II). In this construction, the side unit floor portions are provided with downturned flanges 23 having openings 24 therein for the passage of pipes or conduits and in-turned flanges 25 for the purpose of stiflening the flanges 23 and supporting the unit on the I-beam.
Fig. 12 illustrates the method of forming interlocking clips 26, corresponding to the clips or brackets l6 shown in Fig. 6, by piercing the web portion 1 of the unit and forming the clips ina position to interlock with and support the downwardly extending flange 9 to retain the units in alignment. In the embodiment illustrated in this figure, the floor portion of each unit is formed to provide a closed U-shaped longitudinal rib 21 which may completely closed and spot welded at intervals. This rib, in addition to the angular formation shown in Fig. 7, eifectivcly serves to prevent the drum action as well as to stiifen the floor portion longitudinally, and, in effect, provides a beam-like reinforcement adjacent the apex of the longitudinal distortion of the floor portion. A one piece triangular sheet metal truss 28 may be used if desired instead oi. the truss members II, I I; and [2, previously de scribed. Them-turned flange I may also be turned upwardly at 29 to provide longitudinal stiiIening, or may be formed to provide any suitable head. The floor portion may be provided with sheared perforations 30 for securing a floor covering thereon. These perforations are pref- 5 erably very small and are shown much enlarged in Fig. 12 for purposes of illustration. I
- Themethod of securing the floor covering is illustrated in Fig. 13 where the covering E is applied to the floor and engaged in the holes 38. 10 Any suitable floor covering, such as mastic, Flintkote, gypsum or wood and which may be comparatively thick if desired, is secured to the floor by being pressed snugly on and cemented to the units. Mastic type materials are more securely l5 engaged by the perforations.
In the embodiment shown in Fig. 14, the floor section is provided with similar down-turned web-like flanges 3| on each side and in-turned flanges 32. If desired, alternate units 33 may be 20 provided having short down-turned flanges 33 The web 3| of the adjacent unit provides suflicient strength for both units when they are secured together. The-units are secured together by means of bolts 34, or may be welded. The 25 bolted construction is sometimes preferable to welding the units as, in the case of temporary buildings, the wrecking cost is considerably less, as the units may be easily taken apart. A slightly modified truss arrangement is provided com- 30 prising cross bars 35 which are secured at 36 'to the longitudinal trussbars 31. These bars 31 are secured to the junction of the cross bars 35 and to the floor section midway between the cross bars in a manner similar to that shown in Fig. 3. 3
Fig. 15 illustrates a modified form of truss arrangemcnt in which the ends of a truss 38 are secured to the in-turned' flanges 32, the center of the truss being welded or otherwise secured to the floor portion at 39. 40
Fig. 9 illustrates a method of securing the units, disclosed in Fig. 2, together, by means of bolts 40. These bolts may be used in conjunction with the clips IE, if desired, or the clips may be entirely dispensed with to provide a readily demountable structure. In some cases it is desirable to omit both bolts and clips and spot weld the webs to gether.
As previously stated, the units are interchangeable and adaptable for various structural uses and may be mounted and secured together in various ways to provide desired 'variations in floor or side wall or otherstructure.
It will be noted, that the interlocking clips i6 or 26 may be secured to or formed on the beamlike portion Lin any desired location, or the web portion I may have holes pierced therein in any desired location to receive suitable bolts for securing the units together, and the location of these holes will determine relative positions 01' adiacent units.
In Fig. 16, the interchangeable units l are secured together by means of. bolts 4| the bolt holes having been pierced in the flanges in a position to secure the adjacent units in stepped o'r stairlike relation. It will be understood that the bolt holes may be pierced in a location to provide any desired height or riser. This arrangement is particularly adapted for auditorium or coliseum floor construction wherethe units may be of any 76 deslred width andsecured together to provide the ing, such as mastic cement. In order to provide for the variation in thickness of the'floor covering, the units are arranged to be interlocked in a relation corresponding to the variation in thickness of the floor coverings. illustrated in Fig. 1'7 in which a portion of the floor is covered with linoleum, as indicated at 42, and an adjacent portion is covered with a considerably thicker coating of mastic cement or' and slightly below their upper surface. These wooden forms are usually supported from the floor below on suitable removable jacks. The construction and removal of these forms in the usual manner requires considerable expense and labor.
The units i may be used instead of the wooden forms by mounting them, as illustrated, on suitable jacks or blocks 45 which are in turn supported on the lower flanges of the I-beams 44, or on suitable cross timbers. The units are removably interlocked together by means of the clips, as previously described, and the concrete is'poured thereon to provide a desired thickness of floor, suitable concrete reinforcing members usually being supported on the I-beams. As soon as the concrete floor has set, the units are easily removed for further use as desired.
In the usual method of making sheet metal floors, it has been found practically impossible to prevent the vibratory drum action of the metal.
The floor portion has also been very irregular and a considerable amount of labor has been necessary in securing the sheet metal in position. It has also been found diflicult to provide suitably aligned portions to which ceilings might be attached.
The present invention provides a structure which overcomes substantially all of the difliculties previously experienced, and provides easily mounted interchangeable units in which the floor surface, as well as the ceiling portions, are very rigid and are in accurate alignment, and the units may be easily mounted with a minimum amount of labor and expense.
Careful tests also disclose that the units are materially stronger and will support greater loads without material deflection than previous devices.
This invention also provides a floor structure having greaterstrength and less weight than those previously used. For convenience in nesting, it is sometimes desirableto form the flange 8 outwardly as shown 19. when formed in this manner, the units may be conveniently nested and the truss members are not welded in place until the units are transported to the place where they are to be used.
In the construction shown in Fig. 20, the flange 9, is omitted and the floor portion is ofiset at 46 to receive the overhanging edge of the adjacent floor portion I which may be welded thereto. This method oi forming the units also allows convenient nesting and the truss members may This arrangement is be secured in place, as indicated by the dotted lines, either before or after the floor is laid.
It is obvious that modifications may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention, and I desire to be limited only by the prior 5 art and the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
l. A drum-action proof floor construction for use with spaced floor beams of irregular crosssection, comprising a plurality of elongated sheet metal floor units, downw rdly extending flanges on said floor units, said anges being cut away at their ends to conform substantially to the contour of the cross-beams, the conforming ends i5 101 said flanges being rigidly secured to said entire length to prevent diaphragm action, a com- 0 paratively narrow downwardly extending flange on one longitudinal edge of said unit, a comparatively wide downwardly extending flange on the opposite longitudinal edge of said unit'and' terminating in a comparatively narrow intumed 35 flange, and angularly disposed transversetruss. members between said flanges and said surface portion.
4. A flooring construction comprising a' comparatively long and narrow sheet metal unitproviding a floor surface angularly depressed along its longitudinal center line, a short downturned flange on one side, a long downturned and inturned flange on the opposite side, a brace secured adjacent said short flange andadjacent the lower end of said long flange, a short brace secured adjacent the center of said long brace and adja- J cent the top of said long flange, and a post secured adjacent the intersection of said braces and to the underside of said unit adjacent its 50 depressed longitudinal line.
5. Interchangeable units of the character described comprising elongated sheet metal members having central, longitudinal, angular depressions extending from the center to the sides of said members, the edges of said members being ,provided with downwardly extending longitudinal flanges and means'cooperating' with said" flanges to secure said units together in stepped 6 relation. 0 Y
6. A floor comprising a plurality of elongated sheet metal units having centrallongitudinal depressions, extending from'the center to the sides of said members, longitudinal flanges on said units, means associated with said flanges and arranged to secure the units together in stepped relation, and floor coverings of difierent -thick-, ness secured to said units to provide'an aligned,
floor surface." I
7. A drum-action proof floor structure of the character described comprising a plurality of thin, elongated sheet metal floor portions supported at their ends and secured together in parallel alignment, each having a slightly depressed 75 obtuse angular floor'surface with the apex substantially on the longitudinal axial line of the surface.
8. A sheet metal unit for the purpose described comprising a sheet metal floor portion having a comparativeiy slight central longitudinal deside, andmeans-on said long flanges for interverse truss means'between said flanges.
pressed portionextending from the center to the sides of said floor portion for preventing diaphragm action, longitudinal stiffening means, and transverse truss means.
9. A sheet metal unit for the purpose described comprising a sheet metal floor portion having a comparatively slight central longitudinal depressed portion extending from the center to the sides of said floor portion for preventing diaphragm action, longitudinal stiffening means, transverse truss means, and inter-engaging means for securing said units together to form a floor.
10. An interchangeable unit of the character described comprising an elongated sheet metalmember, each member being longitudinally scored adjacent its center line with the portions on each side slanting slightly upwardly to the sides thereof for preventingdiaphragm action, transverse truss mean's'for said units, and means.
for securing said units together to form a floor.
11. A unitary fiqpr structure of the character described comprising elongated sheet metal floor units supported at their ends, each having a slightly depressed obtuse angular floor surface with the apex substantially on the longitudinal "axial line of the unit, said units being formed to provide a floor portion having a long downwardly-extending longitudinal flange on one side and a short longitudinal flange on the other locking adjacent short flanges thereto with the floor surfaces of adjacent units in alignment.
12. A unitary floor structure of the character described comprising elongated sheet metal floor units supported at their ends, each having a slightly depressed obtuse angular floor surface with the apex substantially on the longitudinal axial-line of the unit, said units being formed to provide a floor portion having along downangular floor surface with the apex substantially on the longitudinal axial line of the-unit, said units being formed to provide a floor portion having a long downwardly-extending longitudinal flange on one side and a short longitudinal flange on the other side, means on one of said flanges for interlocking with a flange on an adjacent unit with their floor surfaces in alignment, and transverse stiflfening means on said unit.
14. A unitary floor structure comprising a pluthe flanges of adjacent members being welded together to form a unitary drum-action proof floor structure.
15. A unitary floor structure comprising a plurality of' elongated sheet metal floor members supported at their ends and each formed toprovide a floor portion having a slightly. depressed obtuse angular floor surface with the apex substantially on the longitudinal axial line of the unit, a downwardly-extending longitudinal flange on each side, and transverse stiffening means, the flanges of adjacent members being rigidly securedtogether to form a unitary drum-action proof floor structure.
16. A unitary floor structure comprising a 'plu: rality of elongated sheet metal floor members supported at their ends and each formed to provide a floor portion having a slightly depressed obtuse angular floor surface with the apex sub.- stantially on the longitudinal axial line of the unit, a downwardly-extending longitudinal flange on each side, transverse stiffening means, the flanges of adjacent members being welded togetherto form a unitary drum-action proof .fioor structure, and interengaging means for main-.
taining said members in surface alignment before and while being welded.
17. A sheet metal unit for the purpose de-- V ward the sides of said floor portion for preventing diaphragm action, longitudinal stiffening means and transverse truss means, said floor portion being, perforated to retain a floor cover-
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2424080 *||Feb 12, 1945||Jul 15, 1947||Engstrom Ernst F||Structural unit and cellular construction made therewith|
|US2457086 *||Jul 31, 1944||Dec 21, 1948||Pullan Mitchell||Floor|
|US2487762 *||Apr 4, 1945||Nov 8, 1949||Noblitt Sparks Ind Inc||Fabricated metal ironing board top|
|US2491726 *||May 15, 1944||Dec 20, 1949||Glitsch Engineering Company||Tray for use in refining towers|
|US2582826 *||May 25, 1945||Jan 15, 1952||Glitsch Engineering Company||Tray for use in refining towers|
|US2641829 *||Oct 2, 1945||Jun 16, 1953||Maurice Sasso||Method of connecting beams to girders|
|US2684134 *||Jul 28, 1947||Jul 20, 1954||Frederick H Ruppel||Structural diaphragm for buildings|
|US2717664 *||Jul 18, 1949||Sep 13, 1955||Richard Rand||Metal panel construction|
|US2773718 *||Aug 20, 1953||Dec 11, 1956||Fruehauf Trailer Co||Floor construction with integral cross-sills|
|US2924310 *||Jan 15, 1954||Feb 9, 1960||Colbath Dan L||Long span deck member|
|US3108406 *||Aug 3, 1959||Oct 29, 1963||Ellis Jerome J||Construction members and methods of forming same|
|US3268089 *||Feb 16, 1965||Aug 23, 1966||Palmer Shile Co||Deck section for storage rack|
|US4027439 *||Aug 10, 1976||Jun 7, 1977||Robert Willard||Floor support for sectionalized buildings|
|US4413453 *||Mar 17, 1980||Nov 8, 1983||Carl R. Meyer||Swimming pool construction|
|U.S. Classification||52/188, 38/137, 52/693, 52/630|