US 2044782 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jline 23, 1936- N. P. HARSHBERGER 2,044,782
` ROOFING ELEMENT I Filed April l5, 1955 if @l /0 Z@ Q@ 2. MNM-m@ a@ 4 ATTORNEY ment slabs.
Patentedy June 23, 1936v UNITED STATES 7 `ROOFING ELEMENT "t Norman P. Harshberger, Scarsdale, N. Y., as-
signoto Bakelite Building Products vC0. Inc., New York, N.Y., a. corporation of Delaware -v Application April 13, 1933, Serial No. 665,863
This invention relates to an assembly-of roofing and siding elements, improvements in said elements and processes of making and decorating same and is a continuation-impart of my Patent 1,913,666, granted June 13, 1933. It particularly .relates to what is known as semi-rigid and rigid roofing.
y Manufactured rigid roong products made up to the present have taken the form of vitreous, or built up rigidied tiles and pressed asbestos-ce- Their limiteduse has been due to inherent and developed faults.
Tiles are extremely costly to make, require a variety of different shapes to complete a roof having irregular contours, cannot be easily cut and i'ltted, and require the application of fasteners at particular positions that are not the best. Also, their weight limits their use to roofs constructed to carry the strain of a heavy mass and in addition they are not suitable for siding purposes or over roofs that require complete repair.
Asbestosrcement shingles, while less expensive and better; adapted for mounting than tiles, present similar andother disadvantages. It is necessary to 4labricate them as individual units in specially constructed machines requiring the use of tremendous pressures and they must be cured between heavy iron platens in order to maintain their original shape. They are subject to considerable cracking inhandling, due in part to dropping, in part to the uneven distribution of the material when the units-are pressed and in part due to the fact that their principalstrength before setting and hardening is the interlocking of particles 'brought about by the application of 'tons of pressure. On the roof they have been subject to considerable warping and buckling. This has been attributed to their becoming water-soaked and swollen under the action of the Weather and lacking the resistance to balance the forces created by the contraction that takes place when drying occurs initially at the edges, especially under the action of solar heat. The result is a differential movement at the edges that is upwardly and inwardly. Also, this is somewhat increased by the release of. strains set up during the fabrication of the elements.
Efforts to produce designs have taken several forms, in particular the employment of several groups of stones o r mineral surfacing of different colors to produce the desired effects. This has been costly as to materials and cumbersome in carrying out. n
It is therefore the general object of this inveni (Cl. 108-8) tion to overcome the faults and defects of prior materials, as well as to provide a better and more serviceable product at a low cost.
More especially the objects of my invention may be partially enumerated as the provision of:
An improved method of producing building material such as is used for roofing and siding purposes, said method resulting in an article which is weatherproof, durable, and otherwise well adapted for building purposes.
A method of producing building materials by means of which various design effects and'lines of demarcation can be created Withone basic stone.
A shingle element that is extremelyserviceable, that is, adapted for any type of structure-irrespective of position, contour-or climatic location. l
A roong element that provides the character and durability of rigid `tiles or asbestos-cement shingles at a much lower cost.
A roofing element having a Wholly flexible core and a rigidifying coating but in which the resultlant article retains pliable characteristics.
A double surfaced shingle element in which the hardened coating controls the expansion ,or contraction of the yieldable base.
A double surfaced shingle element in which the surface contraction in curing or drying out isA equalizedon both sides of the base.
A serviceable shingle element using inexpensive base materials with a hardened hydraulic cement coating which is well adapted for reroofing purposes.
A shingle having a semi-rigid coating, yet suffi- -ciently pliable to be laid over irregularly formed surfaces and of a character enabling it to be cut v and tted around eaves, hips, valleys and other parts of the roof by the workmen on the job without special tools.
-A roofing material that is simple to manufacplished at low factory cost.
A roofing material for the fabrication of which there is required only a small variety of raw materials, few machines, a minimum of operations, and only a limited oor space. A shingle element that can be ornamented by simple means. .L
An element that will have long life and is of a formation that will result in no excessive accumulation of snow at the intersections of the shingles to cause drainage difficulties.
A shingle element having a coating on one side contrasting in appearance with the other and adapted to be reversed in assembly tc produce a variegated roof.
Shingle element having a hydraulic cement v coating upon each of its faces which will under certain atmospheric conditions have its edge portions more tenaciously hug an underlying shingle element or roof deck.
A shingle element that possesses a textured surface of pleasing character.
A shingle element that may be made with any of the aforementioned objects in view on moving shingle material and also which may be a continuous process.
Hydraulic cement coated shingle elements that may be shipped with low transportation costs because of their light Weight.
A novel method of producing colored designs on roofing sheetsl in which the coloring material is mixed with a binder, for instance, hydraulic cement to strengthen the roofing sheet and render the same more weather resistant. I
A method of producing colored designs on roofing material which is simple to carry out, effective and Well adapted for the purpose described.
These, and other objects and features of the invention, relating to the improved article, the improved method of processing the same, the improved method of producing designs for ornamentation, and all its parts and combinations, will in part be obvious and in part be pointed out in the subsequent description and in the claims taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawing wherein:
Figure 1 is\a sectional view showing the web surfaced on both' sides with a thick coating and to which surface depressions have been applied to form lines of demarcation.
Figure 2 is a plan View of the web of Figure 1 showing lines of demarcation to simulate a sheet with a plurality of similar elements in which the lines of demarcation have been formed of a series of dot-like depressions.
Figure 3 is a sectional view of an element having a thin coating on both sides showing its textured surface.
Figure 4 shows an individual element in which all the surfaces and edges have been coated.
Figure 5 is an assembly of substantially at elements. v l
Figure 6 is a side sectional elevation of an assembly of my elements having a thin cement coating showing how they hug irregular surfaces.
The pliable and curl resisting tendency of a shingle having a felt asphalt base and a surfacing of hydraulic cement over mineral particles on a single surface thereof, which controls the expansion and contraction of the base, have already been disclosed. By coating both of the flat shingle surfaces with hydraulic cement I obtain certain other results which I believe to be different from other roofing materials and wholly novel inthe roofing art.`
The illustrative elements 2 shown in the accompanying drawing comprise a central portion or core 4 preferably of Waterproofed felt, a single thickness being used for light weight and flexibility although a plurality of thicknesses are not excluded. In order to bulk the shingle element, render it more weatherproof and to more firmly secure the cement coatings I0 and I2, in place, the core is given as adhesive coating 6, for instance, of asphalt, on each face and into the adhesive is partially embedded suitable mineral particles 8, for instance, particles of slate, slag, etc., leaving portions of the particles projecting from the coating. Surface coatings I0 and I2 comprisapplied to the composite core. An element results when the coatings have fully set and hardened that is, rigidied, substantially in one plane, and in which the core is protected from decay and rot by the hydraulic cement. When the surface coatings are not excessive in thickness the element will possess pliable properties. The degree of pliability will be substantially equal in either direction normal tothe face of the element. Also, it will be light in weight as compared with rigid materials of the prior art. Y l
Further, by utilizing the property of certain cements to expand upon wetting, I may provide an element that tends to hug the roof of its own volition, and which tends to bind closer to the underlying shingle or roof deck I4 when such binding action ismost desired, for instance, during a rain storm. In such case the cement used for the coating, in addition to being fire and weather resistant, preferably has the characteristics of expanding under certain weather conditions against which the roo-f is intended to protect the building, and should have only a small coeiicient of expansion due to heat, to prevent the shingle elements from curling upwardly during the winter, when the upper exposed surface is cold and the under surface is relatively warm. Hydraulic cements are examples of suitable coating materials and of these such distinct types as Portland, Ferrocrete, Lumnite, Magnesium oxychloride, offer the advantages of greatest expansion when wetted. When rain strikes the cement surface of the shingles on the roof, the cement at once begins to expand, the cement of course being so chosen as to give a substantial expansion. Cements having the greatest expansion are preferred where their other characteristics of weather resistance, cost, etc. are suitable. As the core of the element is impervious to water the rain will not penetrate from the upper cement surface I0 through to the under coating I2 and therefore the/under coating will remain dry and will not expand. Furthermore, as the core, although yieldable to some extent is firmly xedto the upper and lower cement coatings the resistance of the lower coating is transmitted through the core to the upper coating and the upper coating thus has a tendency to bend downwardly, particularly at the edges, forcing the edges of the elements more firmly against the underlying shingles and tending to seal *he roof against the rain.
In the preferred form the coatings III and I2 are of the same material so that if either surface be exposed the same result will be obtained. However, I contemplate the use of coatings having different coefficients of expansion in which case the elements will be laid with the exposed coating, the one which has the greater expansion.
Other advantages of shingle elements'made by the process to be described, are that they may be allowed to set and harden without being confined to a flat or shaped formation by mechanical means or pressure, as the hydraulic cement coating being on both surfaces permits equalized contraction to take place in hardening, and thereby avoids any warping tendency. Also, shingle elements thus produced may be handled at any time in the processing or thereafter without fear of breakage or cracking taking place.
In carrying out the method of making my roofing elements 2 according to one embodiment of the invention, a' continuously moving composition roofing sheet or web 4 is utilized. This usually consists of a base made from vegetable fibres.
-while the coating is still sticky, has applied to it wool, asbestos, hair, alone, or in combination, or with other materials. Ordinarily any material commonly known as felt and preferably made up in continuous strips or webs is employed for my process. I may, however, make the following steps a continuous part of the fabrication of the basic material. 'I'he web 4 is treated to resist water and decay, for instance, by being fed by any suitable means into a vat of saturant, such for example, as a low melting point asphalt, where it is saturated toany desired degree and any excess material is then eliminated by suitable squeeze elements.
The web is then coated upon its upper face with an impervious agglutinant 6 by suitable means `for instance, by passing under a spout from which the material`,"for example, a high melting point asphalt is fed, and thereafter is spread out by any suitable means into a layer of substantially uniform thickness. The web,
ing has set, embedded in the adhesive coating 6 to any desired degree. The web withits mineral surfacing on one side is cooled if desired and then `is fed by suitable `means so that its reverse side may be coated withan adhesive layer 6 and a subsequent mineral `layer 8 in a similar manner as described.
The double-grit-surfaced sheet is thereafter passed to a cement coating device, having fed to it hydraulic cement of natural color, colored. hydraulic cement or hydraulic cement and other aggregates, for instance, asbestos bres or marble dust. The desired material I0 or I2 is applied forcibly or otherwise, as a thin layer over one face of the web and to the edges I6 `if desired, and either runs or may be rolled into the spaces between the mineral particles. then repeated for the reverse.side and the web is passed between suitable cutting rolls for fabrication into shingle sizes or strips of any desired outline and thereafter passesvonto suitable conveying means for further manipulation.
In the later steps of the processing and by the employment of proper means, the coatings I0 and l2 may be appiied to both sides of theweb simultaneously. 'Ihis can be done also with regard to the coatings 6 and B.
Also, it may be preferred to surface the material on one or both sides with the hydraulic cement coating, after the web is cut into shingle sizes and yet perform same in a continuous procbinders I may if I desire eniploy other agglutinants, as for example, those of a resinous type, for that purpose. Y,
I have found that a betterv article is produced where mineral particles of a porous slag nature This process is are employed as the principal bonding medium for the hydraulic cement coating. Due to its irregular pores and deep craggy depressions the sticky adhesive coating will flow into and ll the spaces of that part of the particles that are pressed into it so that when it sets not only will a cementitious bond exist but also the adhesive material will be dovetailed in place to produce a sure anchorage. These facts are also true of the hydraulic cement coating and in addition, due to the composition of the slag a chemical reaction will take place between it and the hydraulic cement,4 causing them to harden into a solid mass. y
Where it is desired to produce ornamental or shadow effects, the cement coated web or elepassed through suitable mechanism for forming the lines of demarcationl or the dotted lndentations 20 or other designs arranged over the face of the web as desired. Also, if desired, the color of the coating on one side may be different from that or. the other si so as to permit a patterned rooi to be made in an assembly of such elements. 4
Figure 4 shows an individual element to which a heavy cement coating has been applied and in which the coating completely covers the mineral particles.
Figures 5 and 6 show an assembly of my shingle elements as they are mounted upon roong surfaces. Figure 6 more particularly shows how these shingle elements which have been coated with a thin coating areused to reroof an old distorted roof I4 and how they hug the irregular `ments, before the cement has hardened, are,v
surfaces, and howl their edges are free to shift when the elements expand or contract with changes in temperature.
' The shingle may be laid as an ordinary felt base shingle, giving a large coverage for the amount of oofing material used and ,providing an inexpensive roong `material but, however, having rigidity and iireproofness-to be a distinct advance over the ordinary felt base shingle and be laid to the weather and when the coating on one side contrasts in appearance with that on the opposite side, for instance, by different texture, design, or color, many varied eiects may be produced upon a roofing surface.
In securing these shingles, short inexpensive nails 22 may be used due to the relative thinness of the shingle, and they may be inserted at any point where most effective. l This is not true in the prior art tiles because they are thicker, and more massive and the short inexpensive nails I use either would not reach the roof deck or would not penetrate the deck sufliciently to firmly Isecure them in place. Also, because thereiis a considerable portion of the nail above the roof deck in a thick tile, the effective moment of any force tending to move' the tile is greatly increased over a thin shingle lying iiat against the roof deck. Further than this, with the arched tiles of the prior art,`it is impossible to always strike Y a nail at the places where nails might be desirable and at the same time vget any hold on the roof' deck. On the other hand, in my shingle the nails may be driven at any desired point.
A great advantage of my shingles is that only one shape of shingle need be delivered to a job and that they may be reversed where the surface coatings are of contrasting effect to produce variegated'- effects. It is impossible to make a complete roof of one shape of the rigid tile, as the type suitable for the main bodyfof the roof cannot be made to fit all of the hips, valleys and projections. The semi-rigid shingles of the present invention, however, can easily be adapted to roof decks and other surfaces which have irregularities, such as, for example, chimneys and dormers which must be properly flashed. My shingle of the type described can readily be cut and formed to fit by the roofer without any special bending and cutting machines, serving as a flashing in itself by reason of its pliability and wide nailing range.
Also because of the excellent shock absorptive core and excellent anchorage, provided, the points of the nails will not fracture the coated area surrounding its head and also the cement coating will provide a compression area beneath the head of the nail to resist squashing or shearing of the shingle by the nail or its applying means.
From a consideration of the foregoing description of my invention and process, ,it can be readily seen that I am' enabled to use inexpensive ma terials and a rapid process and that I yet produce a vastly improved product at a lower price than has heretofore'been practicable.
It is evident that many changes may be made in the shingle elements and the process of making same, it is therefore desired that the invention be construed including equivalents and as broadly as the claims taken in conjunction with the prior art, may allow.
l. Roofing material comprising a flexible composition web and a hardened hydraulic cement surfacing on both sides of said web,- said surfacings producing rigidifed roofing material, characterized by a tendency to curl downwardly under the effect of moisture when laid.
2. Roofing and siding comprising a fibrous web, surface roughening material on the opposite faces of said web and a rigidifying coating comprising hydraulic cement on said roughening material on each of said faces, thereby forming substantially rigid roofing material characterized by substantial resistance to shattering in normal handling.
3. Semi-rigid roofing material comprising a Waterproof fibrous base, mineral particles adhesively fixed to both sides of said base, and a thin hydraulic cement coating covering the mineral particles on both sides of said base and bonded by the latter to said base, thereby forming reversible roong material having a substantially equal degree of pliability and resistance to curling in either direction normal to the coating.
4. Building elements comprising aexible flbrous core, mineral particles adhesively xed to said core and a coating comprising hydraulic cement surrounding said core and said mineral particles, thereby forming rlgidied elements characterized by substantial resistance to shatteringyk in normal handling.
5. Substantially fiat roofing material comprising a yieldable composition web and a coating on both sides of said web, said coating comprising the hardened product of an inorganic substantially water insoluble pulverulent material, said pulverulent material being settable by chemical reaction in the presence of the liquid and in the absence of free oxygen, said coating producing rigidiled roofing material *that will resist upward warping at its butt edges and that is characterized by a tendency under the action of the weather to curl toward its support when laid.
6. Building material comprising a composition layer, crushed mineral slag surfacing adhesively anchored to each side of said composition layer and a coating of a binding material covering said mineral surfacing and chemically combined therewith to form substantially rigid material characterized by resistance to shattering in normal handling. ,f
7. Roofing material comprising a composition base, mineral particles on said base and ahydraulic cement coating covering and wholly above said mineral particles on the opposite faces thereof and depressions on said hydraulic cement coating producing permanent shadow effects.
8. A plurality of substantially fiat rigidied shingle elements assembled on a roofing surface to form a highly weather and re resistant structure, each element comprising an exposed and a concealed layer of hydraulic cement anchored to an intermediate mineral coated composition base, the concealed layer and intermediate base having the property of resisting the expansion of the exposed layer under certain atmospheric conditions so as to cause said concealed layer to direct a downward pressure at its edges to form an improved seal with the underlying surface in contact therewith.
9. Shingle elements assembled on a roof, each element comprising anv exposed and a concealed layer comprising hydraulic cement anchored to an intermediate mineral coated composition base, said exposed and concealed layers each having a different coefficient of expansion, and said elements being laid with their layer of least unit expansion in concealed position so as to cause said layer under certain atmospheric conditions affecting the upper layer to direct a downward pressure at its bounding edges to form an improved seal with the underlying surface in contact therewith.
10. Building material comprising a flexible water resistant layer having an upper and a lower face, a surfacing of set coating material on each of said faces, said upper surface coating to be exposed when the material is laid and having the property of expansion upon wetting and said lower. surface coating to be concealed when the material is laid and characterized by a resistance to said expansion of the exposed coating whereby a downward pressure of the material at the edges ,of the lower face may be obtained under atmospheric conditions providing said expansion of the upper surface coating.'
11. Building material comprising a flexible water resistant layer, a surfacing of set coating material on the upper and lower sides of said layer, each of said surface coatings having the property of expansion upon wetting and the upper of said surface coatings which is tobe exposed when the material is laid having a coefficient of expansion upon wetting greater than the lower layer.
NORMAN P. HARSHBERGER.