|Publication number||US2044951 A|
|Publication date||Jun 23, 1936|
|Filing date||Feb 10, 1934|
|Priority date||Feb 28, 1933|
|Publication number||US 2044951 A, US 2044951A, US-A-2044951, US2044951 A, US2044951A|
|Inventors||Georg Munters Carl|
|Original Assignee||Servel Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (8), Classifications (14)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
June 23, 1936. J MUNTERS 2.044-,951
REFRIGERATION Filed Feb. 10, 1954 2 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR 4.; ATTONEY.
June 23, 1936. c. G. MUNTERS REFRIGERATION Filed Feb. o, 1954 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 x x o INVENTOR &41
4-. ATTORNEY Patented June 23, 1936 PATENT OFFICE REFRIGERATION Carl Georg Munters, Stockholm, Sweden, as-
signor,' by mesne assignments, to Servel, Inc., Dover, Del., a corporatlon of Delaware Application February 10, 1934, Serial No. '710,629
In Germany February 28, 1933 i 12 Claims.
My invention relates to refrigeration and more particularly to the production of refrigeration involving intermittent Operating apparatus and has for its princlpal object to efiiciently utilize a source of periodic low temperature. l
A more specific object of my invention is to inc'rcase the efciency of absorption refrigerating apparatus of the intermittent type applied to the production of regrlgerating temperatures of not extremely low value. Another object is to produce substantially continuous refrigeration from an intermittent cooling source without resorting to a plurality of machines or devices of like type or a plurality of heat sources.
In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, a dicontinuous source of cold, particularly of low temperature, is utilized to produce substantially continuous refrigeration. advantageously by means of a plurality of vaporization-condensation members. A low temperature source condenses refrigerant and causes withdrawal thereof from an absorbent and the heat for expelling the refrigerant from the absorbent is withdrawn from the body to be cooled. This heat is withdrawn at higher temperature than that of the low temperature cooling source and densation is also wlthdrawn during the absorption period, and since the heat of condensation at the higher temperature of withdrawal from the body to be cooled is substantially the same as at 40 the lower temperature of the intermittent low temperature cooling source, I obtain twice the take-up of heat (production of cold) that is represented by the action of the low temperature cooler. Th-us my invention is capable of doubling the efciency of an intermittent cooling source or system.
The nature and advantages of my invention will be apparent from the following description considered in connection with the accompanying drawings forming a part of this specification,
and of which: i
Fig. 1 is a more or less diagrammatic view of an apparatus embodying the invention, including an intermittent absorption system for producing the low temperature cooling source; and
heat of absorption, and since the heat of con-` Figs. 2 and 3 show other embodiments of the invention.
Referring to Fig. 1, ID designates the evaporator of an intermittent absorption refrigeration system which may be, for example, of the kind dis- 5 closed in my copending application, Serial No. '701,123, filed Dec. 6, 1933. The evaporator III ls an intermittnt source of cold of low temperature and is but one such source usable with the present invention. Other examples of cooling source are 10 the evaporator of a compression type refrigerating system and solidified carbon dioxide (dry-ice).
In order to better understand the invention, I will first describe the intermittent system including evaporator o, though this system enters into 15 the present invention only to give an example of a low temperature source and a system which can -be made more effcient by the present invention.
The initial system includes an absorption liquid reservoir Il exposed to the cooling efiect of at- 20 mospheric air. This rescrvoir is filled with a solution of refrigerant in absorbent, whichmay be ammonia dissolved in water as absorption llquid. To one side of the reservoir ll is a generator l2 which may be heated by any suitable source, as 25 a gas flame o' an electric heater. Assume that the fiue !3 extending through the generator is suitably heated during refrigerant expulsion periods. Conduits !4, !5 and !6 connect the lower part of generator |2 with the lower part of vessel H. A conduit I 'I connects the upper part of vessel ll with a thermo-syphon coil !8 disposed to receive heat as by being wound around fiue !3 in contact therewith. The upper part of coil s is connected to the upper part of the generator by means of a conduit !9. The upper part of the generator is connected by means of a conduit 20 with the `upper part of vessel 2 I, the lower part of which is, in turn, connected by a trap conduit 22 with a lower vessel 23. A conduit 24 connects the upper part of vessel 23 with the top part of a condenser 25 which may be exposed to the cooling influence of surrounding air. The condenser as well as the absorber-reservoir may be provided with cooling fins as indicated on the drawings. Water cooling may be used instead' of air cooling. The lower part of the condenser 25 is connected by means of vertical pipe 26 with the upper part of a second condenser 21 which is Situated above evaporator ll) and which is connected to a dome 28 of the evaporator u.
Extending upwardly within vessel 23 is a. conduit 29 which is connected to a conduit 30. Conduit 30 connects conduit !5 with the upper part r of a Volume variation vessel 3I. Conduits l5 and I'I pass in heat exchange relation as shown at 32. A conduit 33 extends between reservoir ll and Volume variation vessel 3l. A conduit 34 connects the upper part of the Volume variation vessel 3| with the conduit 20. A drain conduit 35 is connected at the top to condenser 21 and at the bottom to the absorber-reservoir ll or other part of the absorption liquid part of the system. connected to conduit 35 is a U-tube 36 which opens within a conduit 31 closed at the top and communicating at the bottom with a low liquid containing part or header 38 of the evaporator, |0. The upper part of the evaporator which may be designated as 39 is connected to the lower header 38 by means of. two vertical pipes 40 and 4l.
suitable controlling mechanism may be provided to control the operation of this Initial or primary system. The control of such a system is described in my aforesaid application Serial No. 701,123, and inasmuch as the system in general is there described and inasmuch as the present invention does not depend on what kind of a system is used for the obtaining of the intermittent low temperature cooling source, I will merely briefly describe the process of operation and if a more detailed consideration is desirable, reference may be had to my aforesaid copending application. The system operates with 'alternate periods of absorption and expulsion. During the expulsion period heat is supplied to the generator I 2 and the thermo-syphon coil !8. By this means a circulation is set up between generator |2 and the reservoir ll. Strong absorption liquid fiows from vessel ll through conduit l'l and into the thermo-syphon coil !8, where refrigerant vapor is expelled from solution and produces a lifting effect on the liquid. The vapor and liquid passes upwardly into the generator IZ. It Will be understood that the coil |8 is a part of the generator or the member |2 may be considered as a separating vessel and may even be unheated if sufiicient heat is applied to coil |8. In the generator |2 further vapor is driven from solution due to heating the same and the Weak solution fiows downwardly therein and passes through conduits l4, |5 and |6 to the vessel ll. The vessel Il is filled with liquid and the Weak liquid is admitted at the bottom and the strong liquid withdrawn from the top so that there is a progressive rise of quantity of weak liquid upwardly in vessel ll.
Vapor expelled in the coil |8 and vessel |2 passes through conduit 20, through conduits 22 and 24 and into condenser 25 where most of it is liquefied. Liquid is contained within the ves-.
sei 3| and this vessel may be insulated or somewhat heatedand provides a stagnant layer of liquid over the main body of absorption liquid so that a pool of eoncentrated solution is formed in communication with the generator through conduit .34 during the expulsion periods which prevents substantial absorption of refrigerant vapor.- No flow takes place through conduit 30 at this time. The liquid condensed in condenser 25 with some gas is forced, due to the pressure in the hot part of the system, through pipe 26 into the condenser 21 where any remaining vapor is condensed and the liquid falls down 'into the evaporator |0 and accumulates there.
When the evaporator has filled up to a certain level, which level should be within the dome 20, liquid overflows through the drain bend 36 and into the liquid portion of the system. The
drain arrangement 35-31 automatically takes out absorption liquid from the evaporator and the system may be controlled by the overflow of pure ammonia as described in my aforesaid copending application. Some impulse is utilized to shut off the heat and thereupon thegenerator cools. Cooling of the generator causes liquid to be drawn up into. the seal or trap conduit 22. The rate of absorption due to this cooling may be enhanced by separate pools of absorption liquid or by other means. The lower pressure in the generator relative to the evaporator causes liquid to be lowered in tube 20 until gas can enter tube 30 through conduit 29. This sets up a, circulation of liquid upwardly in conduit 30 due to the entrance of gas thereinto from the conduit 29 and,consequently from the evaporator, downwardly through vessels 3| and l I and through conduits IS and |5 back to conduit 30. The absorption period is now under way and the refrigerant in evaporator I0 is evaporated and takes up heat, thus producing cold. The absorption period continues until some impulse changes the regulation so that the heating is again started. This may, for instance, be a rise of temperature of evaporator !0.
An intermittent system of this type can be operated to give very low evaporator temperature, for example, -20 F. During the heating period, the temperature of evaporator |0, at least the upper part thereof, will rise to the temperature of condensation in condenser 21. Thus we have a source of cold which intermittently operates between for example F. and -20 F., and the present invention aims to solve the problem of obtaining continuous refrigeration from this source at an intermediate temperature and with greater efiiciency than the efliciency of the apparatus which varies the temperature of the evaporator |0.
Coming now to the present invention, a conduit !00 extends through the header 30 of the evapo- 'ator 0. This conduit is connected at its bottom end to the upper part of an evaporator |0| Situated within or in heat exchange relation with a space !02 to be cooled. This space will be referred to as the body to be cooled, but it will be understood that the invention is not limited to any particular body to be cooled whether it be stagnant air or flowing air or a solid body. The body to be cooled is surrounded with insulation |03 which also surrounds the greater part of the evaporator |0 and certain other apparatus' presently to be described. The upper part of condu't !00 is connected to a vessel |04 which I will term a generator or generator-absorber. This vessel contains a solid absorbent I 05 suitably disposed in a, retaining structure as is known in the art. The solid absorbent may be prepared calcium chloride or other dry absorbent as is known. Generator |04 and evaporator |0| and conduit !00 form an intermittent absorption system which is separate from and in heat exchange relation with the intermittent system previously described. The conduit I 00 is the condenser of the system |0|-|00-|04. This system I will designate as system A and the previously described or initial system I will designate as system B. It will be seen that the condenser of system A is in heat exchange relation with the evaporator of system B. The generator !04 of system A is also imbedded in the insulation !03. The systems A and B are each hermetically sealed and are non-communicating.
A vaporizatlon-condensation member !00 which is hermetically sealed and which is partialy filled with a volatile liquid such as, for example, ammonia, propane, or methyl chloride, has its vapor space !01 in heat exchange relation with the-generator !04, and its liquid space !00 in heat exchange relation with the body to be cooled. Another vaporizaton-condensation member !09, likewise hermetically sealed and partially filled with a volatile liquid such as that in member !05, has its liquid space !!0 in heat exchange relation with generator !04 and its vapor space !!I exposed to the cooling of the atmosphere or other cooling source. The liquid level in the member !00 should be within the insulation as dsclosed. i
The combined operation of systems A and B or what may be termed the entire system is as follows:
Assume that liquid refrigerant, for example, ammonia, has been filled into the evaporator !0! to the level K. Assume that there is relatively little refrigerant absorbed in the solid absorbent in generator !04. Assume that a heating period is starting in system B and that there is liquid in evaporator !0 to the low level M. As heating continues in system B refrigerant is driven from solution and condenses in condensers and 21 and fiows into evaporator !0. Although this heats up the evaporator !0, it has but small effect on system A since the liquid in header 38 is stagnant. In 'the meanwhile the solid absorbent in the generator !04, which is now acting as an absorber, absorbs refrigerant and lowers the pressure, wherefore the pressure is reduced by communication through pipe !00 on the level of pure liquid refrigerant in evaporator I 0! This reduction of pressure in evaporator !0I causes evaporation. This evaporation results in withdrawal of heat from the body to be cooled !02. The heat of condensation an-d absorption given off in the generator-absorber !04 heats the. liquid in the space !!0 of the upper vaporization-condensation member !09 and this liquid boils or evaporates and the vapor passes upwardly into the condenser I!! of member !09. The atmosphere cools the condenser I and the condensate fiows back down into the liquid space !0 to be again vaporized. It will be seen that, during this time while the evaporato' !0 is filling with condensate, system A is operating like an ordinary simple intermittent absorption apparatus and producing refrigeration by vaporizing refrigerant in the evaporator and rejecting heat of absorption from the generator-absorber to a natural cooling source such as the atmosphere. This continues until evaporator !0 is filled with liquid or possibly not so soon if all the liquid refrigerant or substantially all is vaporized out of the evaporator !!Jl, in which case this evaporator becomes inefiective for the remainder of this period' while the evaporator !0 is filling up to the overfiow point as at level P or to such level as is determined by the control when the heating period of system B is stopped. Some eontrolling impulse will sooner or later terminate the accumulation of liquid refrigerant in evaporator !0 and stop be as low as -10 or -20 F. or even lower. The temperature of the evaporator !0 is reduced due to the vaporization of the liquid refrigerant and heat is drawn up into this liquid. Inasmuch as there will be ebullition throughout the liquid space of the evaporator !0, this cold temperature will be immediately communicated down to the conduit !00 and thus the system A is provided with a condenser Operating at, for example, -20 F.
This cold applied to system A will cause condensation of refrigerant therein. The ammonia or other refrigerant in the system willcondense in the conduit !00 and flow down into the evaporator. This will not heat the body to be cooled because of the low temperature prevailing. It will instead produce some cooling of the body to be cooled by the infiow of the very cold condensed refrigerant into evaporator !0! and vaporization therein due to the condensation. In this connection, it is preferable to partially or wholly insulate the evaporator !0! so that it can pull down to the same temperature as condenser !00 so that it cannot act as a substantial source of vapor for condenser !00. Evaporator' !0I is well suited to be insulated and constitute an ice freezing chamber for a refrigerator cabinet. The cold' temperature produced in the condenser !00 and the evaporator !0l causes a decrease of pressure which, consider-ing the relatively high temperature of the generator !04, causes refrigerant to be expelled from the absorbent therein, and thus we are now on a heating period of the system A. However, this heating period differs from the ordinary intermittent apparatus in that the heat supplied for the expulsion of the ref'igerant from the absorbent is withd'awn from the body to be cooled through the member !06. This is possible due to the fact that the condenser !00 is at so low a temperature. Suppose, for example, that the condenser !00 has a temperature of -20 F. The generator !04 can then operate at a temperature of, for example, 32 F. It can expel the refrigerant at this temperature and consequently any higher temperature body can supply the necessary heat to take care of the heat of vaporization and the heat of absorption. Inasmuch as the body to be cooled is at, for example, 40 F., which is even a low temperature for the food space of an ordinary refrigerator, the body to be cooled can supply the heat necessary for the operation of the generator !04 in expelling the relrigerant from absorbent.
The temperature of the generator !04 is at this time lower than the temperature of the condenser I!! and therefore there will be no heat transfer through the member !09 and the liquid therein will be stagnant. This period which is the expulsion period of system A and the absorption period of system B will continue substantially until the control of system B turns on the heat again. Also in this case the eifective take-up of heat in the system A. may not be coincident with the time of the evaporation in system B, this of course depending upon the design of the apparatus. The system A should be so dimensioned that its periods are substantially coextensive with the periods of system B. This is generally merely a question of making the generator !04 large enough With reference to the volumetric content of evaporator !0.
As above indicated, the evaporator lolshould preferably not take up heat during the expulsion period of system A in order that the condensation will draw refrigerant from the generator !04; whereas it should take up heat during the absorption period of system A so that the refrigerant can return to the absorbent. If desired, this action can be carried ,out mechanically by placing evaporator lul in an insulated passage or flue having one or more openings for air clrculation controlled by' a damper or vanes automatically opened and shut due to temperature in evaporator n; low temperature shutting off air flow and isolating evaporator I 02, and high temperature opening the passage to allow air flow to supply heat to evaporator m.
Thus it will be understood that, during the heating period of system B, refrigeration is produced in the body to be cooled oz by evapora-' tion of refriger-ant in evaporator IOI. During this period, an amount of refrigeratioh is taken up substantially corresponding to the heat of condensation of the refrigerant in "evaporator IM. By heat of condensation I mean what is otherwise termed latent heat of vaporiz-ation. During the absorption period of system B, the retrigerant is driven off from the generator-absorber 105 and takes up heat from the body to be cooled which heat is also substantially equal to the heat of condensation (latent heat of vaporization) of the refrigerant to which is added the heat necessary for expelling from absorbent in addition to the heat of condensation which is usually known as the solution heat. Thus, while the rerrigerant in system B has one cycle including one withdrawal of heat of condensation, the refrigerant in system A takes up the heat of condensation twice, and a little more, from the a body to be cooled. The heat of condensation is substanially the same at the higher temperature of operation" of generator !04 as the heat of condensation of refrigerant at the lower temperature in evaporator n during the absorption .The temperature produced in the body to be.
cooled |02 can be automatically regulated by applying a regulating val-ve or switch or the like controlling the supply of heat to generator l2 re-' sponsive to temperature of the body to be cooled,
and Operating to decrease the supply of heat on drop in temperature. This will delay the starting or lengthen the time of the heating period of system B.
Fig. 2 shows another embodiment of the invention. Like reference characters designate corresponding parts. Within the evaporator o is a condenser coil ooa forming a part of the system A. The condenser ooa opens in the bottom of a receiver-HS which is in heat exchange relation with and built around the lower part of evaporator n. The upper end of condenser conduit ooa communic-ates with an evaporator vessel lula. Evaporator vessel lola communicates through conduit oob with a generator IM containing solid absorbent. The member !09 is essentially the same as 'the correspondingly marked member in Fig. 1 and includes a liquid space HO and a condensing space III, the liquid space being within or in heat exchange relation with generator IM and the condenser space being exposed to the atmosphere or other natural source of cooling. The member !06 has a gas space !01 within or in heat exchange relation with generator IM and the lower part is arranged so that it has a gas space HG built around and in heat exchange relation with evaporator lola. This system has a single ultimate evaporator ill which may include tubes or sheet metal structure connected to the member form- -ing space I IS so that the level of liquid is preferably as shown, though it may be higher or lower. The evaporator Ill may be of any form depending upon the substance to be cooled. For example, for conditioning flowing air it may be merely a fianged pipe or series of lpipes.
In the operation of this system, assume that system B is Operating with an absorption period. The condenser l olla is cooled to a low temperature and causes condensation of refrigerant in system A. This condensation results in accumulation of liquid refrigerant within receiver Il5 and a reduction in pressure in system A so that refrigerant is expelled from absorbent in generator IM. The generator acts as a condensing medium for the member !08 as in the previous case and condensation takes place in space l 01 resulting in evaporation of liquid refrigerant in member lll. Thus heat is withdrawn from the body to be cooled during the period which is the absorption period for system B and which is the generation period for system A.
'At the end of this period, the evaporator n has been substantially deprived of liquid content, and liquid ammonia is supplied thereto. The heat applied to evaporator o causes a rise of pressure in receiver I 15 due to rise of temperature and gas is evolved in receiver ll5 which forces or presses the liquid from receiver ||5 through tube ooa and into evaporator lola so that the latter becomesafilled to, for example, the level K. The liquid is forced out of vessel |l5 from,
for example, the level Q to the level R. When this liquid has been pressed out of receiver l |5 and into evaporator. lola the heat contained in evaporator o has substantialy no efiect on the refrigerant since vessels o and lula are separate and spaced within insulation !03. The small amount of heat conducted through conduit Iona is insignifigapt. The temperature of evaporator lola can now rise or is already at a relativelyhigh value wherefore evaporation takes place in this vessel and the evaporated refrigerant is absorbed in the absorbent !05 in generator IM. Evaporator lola now acts as a condensing medium for the evaporator ill due to the cold produced by the evaporation and liquid is boiled oli or evaporated' in member Il'l and passes upwardly and is condensed on the outside of vessel lola and the condensate falls downwardly within space IIG and back into evaporator ll'l to be reevaporated. For this period which is the absorption period of system A the heat of absorption (including the heat of condensation) is given oil* by means oi' the vaporization-condensation member !09 as explained in connection with the previous embodiment.
The difference between Fig. 2 and Fig. l may be briefiy summarized bystating that the condenser of system A in Fig. 2 is isolated from the evaporator of system A so that during the absorption period of system B the condensation in the condenser of system A cannot act as a heat withdrawing means for the body to be cooled which is connected to two condensing spaces one of which is in heat exchange relation with the generator-absorber of system A and the other oi' which is in heat exchange relation with the evaporator of system A.
The apparatus shown in Fig. 3 is similar to the apparatus shown in Fig. 2 but difiers in the following respects: The evaporator Ill is altered to one serving merely to cool at high temperature. For low temperature cooling a separate evaporator !20 is provided which may be made as a sheet metal box structure having an upper header l2| and a lower header |22 and provided with shelves through which the refrigerant may circulate and which are adapted to hold ice trays. Evaporator |2fl is imbedded in the insulation !03 and is provided with a suitable door opening. The upper header |2I is connected by means of a conduit !23 with the lower part of evaporator ID. The drain arrangement 36-31`is connected to the lower header !22. ;The evapo'ator Hl'a operates in the manner described in connection with Fig. 2. The evaporator |20 is intermittently cooled to the low temperature of evaporator ID and thereiore is suitable for the production of ice, which does not involve continuous heat supply in large quantity. During the heating period of system B, evaporator !20 is not substantially heated because of the stagnant condition of the liquid contained therein.
It will be understood that the invention is not` limited to an intermittent absorption apparatus as the low temperature cooling source but that the low temperature cooling source may be of many Varieties as for example, solidified carbon dioxidc inserted periodically in a container in heat exchange relation with the condenser mn of Fig, 1; or a compression refrigerating machine may provide the low temperature source by starting and stopping the same at suitable time intervals. It is also not necessary that a dry absorbent be used although I prefer this in order that the apparatus shall be more effective and simple in construetion. If a liquid absorbent is used in system A it is necessary to provide some means for draining absorption liquid from the evaporator to the generator as is necessary or advantageous with system B. such drainage devices are known per se and need not be further outlined.
Instead of ammoniaand water in system B, a different refrigerant, as, for example, methyl amine. may be used and a different solvent, as, for example, ethylene glycol, may be used.
It will be understood that the generator-absorber IM may be Situated independently of the other parts.
In the system shown in Fig. 2, the entire system B and condenser uoa may constitute a self-contained unit and be Situated at a low level Whereas the rest of system A may be at a much higher level. Also two separate ultimate evaporators may be used in Fig. 2 in dierent cabinets remote from system B.
It will be clear that a great variety of departures may be made from the dsclosure without departirg from the spirit or scope of the in- Vention.
1. A converter for transforming periodic rei'rigeration into substantially continuous refrigeration comprising an intermittent absorption system including a condenser adapted to be subjeeted to the periodic refrigeration, an evaporator and a generator-absorber, and single unidirectional means to conduct heat to both said evaporator and said generator-absorber from a body to be cooled.
2. A refrigeration system including an evaporator, a generator-absorber connected to said evaporator, a condenser connected to said evaporator, means for intermittently cooling said condenser, and single unidirectional heat transfer means for eonducting heat from the body to be cooled to both the evaporator and the generator-absorber.
3. A refrigeration system including an evaporator, a generator-absorber connected to said evaporator, a condenser, means to intermittently cool said condenser, single means employingvaporization and condensation of a fluid for conducting heat from the body to be cooled to both the evaporator and the generator-absorber, and
` means employing vaporization and condensation of a fluid for eonducting heat from the generator-absorber to a cooling source. i
4. Refrigcration apparatus including an evaporator in heat exchage relation with a body to be cooled, an intermittent-absorption system including an' evaporator, a condenser, and a generator-absorher. means for intermittently cooling said condenser, a second condenser for fluid in the first-mentioncd evaporator in heat exchange relation with said generator-absorber, and a third condenser for fiuid in the first-mentioned evaporator in heat exchange relation with the second mentioned evaporator.
Refrigcration apparatus comprising a first evaporator, a second evaporator, a third evaporator, a` condenser in heat exchange relation with said second evaporator, a second condenser in heat exchange relation with said second evaporator and communicatin'g With said third evaporator, a generator-absorber communicating with said second evaporator, and a third condenser in heat exchange relation with said generator-absorber and also communicating with said third evaporator for withdrawing heat from abody to be cooled.
6. Refrigeration apparatus comprising a first evaporator, a second evaporator, a third evaporator, a condenser in heat exchange relation With said first evaporator and communieating with said second evaporator, a condenser in heat exchange relation with said second evaporator and communicating with said third evaporator, 'a generator-absorber communicating With said second evaporator, and a condenser communicating with said third evaporator and in heat exchange relation with said generatorabsorber.
'7. A method of refrigeration which includes alternately expelling and absorbing refrigerant fluid vapor with respect to an absorbent therefor, condensing the expelled refrigerant to liquid at a temperature below that at which said expulsion takes place, withdrawing heat in a single thermal path from a body to be cooled, and transferring the Withdrawn heat to said refrigerant to cause said expulsion thereof from the absorbent and alternately to cause evaporation thereof.
porization of liquid, and causing condensation having a portion in thermal 'exchange relation with said evaporator and another portion in thermal exchange relation with said generatorabsorber, and a second evaporator in said insulated compartment and connected to said second condenser, said first condenser being constructed and arranged to intermittently receive vapor from and alternately deliver liquid to said first evaporator responsve respectively to decrease and increase in temperature of said intermittent cooling element, and all of said refrigeration apparatus parts being thermally insulated against loss or interchange of heat except as stated. A
10. In combination with an intermittent cooling element, a converter for producing substantially continuous refrigeration comprising an in termittent absorption refrigeration system including a generator-absorber and an evaporator, means to conduct heat from a body to be cooled to both said evaporator and said generator-absorber, and a condenser in said system and in thermal exchange relation with said inter-mittent cooling element, said condenser being constructed and arranged to intermittently receive vapor from said generator-absorber and alternately deliver liquid to said evaporator by vapor lift action responsive respectively to decrease and increase in temperature of said'intermittent element.
11. Riefrigeration apparatus including a vaporization-condensation member having a plurality of condensation portions, an intermittent absorption refrigeration system having a generator`-absorber in thermal exchange relation with one of said portions and an evaporator in thei-mal exchange relation with another of said portions, an intermittent low temperature cooling element, and a condenser in said intermittent system arranged to be intermittently cooled by said element.-
12. In a refrigerator, an absorption refrigeration system having altemate generating and absorption periods and including an evaporator. a condenser, and a. generator and absorber, an auxiliary system including a second generatorabsorber, a second condenser, and a second evaporator, said second condenser being arranged to be cooled by said first evaporator during the absorption period of said absorption refrigeration system, means to coolsaid second generatorabsorber only during the generating period of said absorption refrigeration system, and means to conduct heat to both said second evaporator and said second generator-absorber whereby cooling of said refrigerator occurs continuously during both generating and absorption periods of said absorption refrigeration system.
CARL GEQRG MUNTERS.
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|US2435107 *||Mar 3, 1943||Jan 27, 1948||Hoover Co||Two temperature intermittent type absorption refrigerator|
|US4061186 *||Mar 10, 1976||Dec 6, 1977||Ab Svenska Flaktfabriken||Combined cooling and heat recovery system|
|US4071080 *||Jan 14, 1976||Jan 31, 1978||Bridgers Frank H||Air conditioning system|
|US4413670 *||Jun 1, 1981||Nov 8, 1983||Studiengesellschaft Kohle Mbh||Process for the energy-saving recovery of useful or available heat from the environment or from waste heat|
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|US20100154466 *||May 22, 2008||Jun 24, 2010||4Energy Ltd.||Temperature-controlled cabinet|
|EP0425368A1 *||Oct 23, 1990||May 2, 1991||Societe Nationale Elf Aquitaine||Devices for producing cold and/or heat by solid-gas reaction, managed by gravitational heat pipes|
|U.S. Classification||62/79, 62/478, 62/106, 62/480, 62/481, 62/487, 62/332, 62/445, 62/335, 62/447, 62/333|