|Publication number||US2046596 A|
|Publication date||Jul 7, 1936|
|Filing date||Jan 13, 1932|
|Priority date||Jan 13, 1932|
|Publication number||US 2046596 A, US 2046596A, US-A-2046596, US2046596 A, US2046596A|
|Inventors||William A Zwiebel|
|Original Assignee||Patent Button Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (18), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
APPARATUS FOR UNIFORMLY COATING FLAT SURFACES Original Filed Jan. 13, 1932 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Fig.1.
William A.Zwiebel 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 W. A. ZWIEBEL Original Filed Jan. 13, 1932 July 7, 1936.
APPARATUS FOR UNIFORMLY COATING FLAT SURFACES lnvenfor. WiHium A.Zwiebe\ bygewww kf ATTys- Patented July 7, 1936 'l GEFFIQE APPARATUS FOR UNIFORMLY GOATING FLAT SURFACES Application January 13, .1932, Serial No. 586,279 Renewed November 2.9, 1935 7 Claims.
This invention relates;timprovements in apparatus :for applying a thin uniform coating to a I'flal Surface. The invention broadly stated comprises .thcvutilization of the surface-tension of .5 the coating liquid to draw the liquid froma suitable source upon a relatively moving fiat surface.
More specifically the invention relates to improvements in method and apparatus for coating .10 fiat sheets or strips of flexible material, The
invention will be disclosed herein with particular reference to the coating of flat narrow sheets or strips of celluloid, or the like, with a coating of liquid nitro-cellulose, pyroxylin, or like ma.
1 5 terials, in which the solvent for the coating material also has an aflinity for the material being coated. It will be understood, however, that the process is also adapted to coat any suitable material, such as textiles, paper sheet metal, and
various other fiat materials. V
In performing the method forming the subject matter of the presentinvention .a narrow capillary column of the liquid coating is caused to extend upwardly above the normal level of the liquid in the reservoir and the fiat surface to be coated is passed transversely across this column and in communication therewith in such manner that the surface-tension ofethe liquid not only adheres to the moving surface to which it is applied, but by cohesion serves continuously to draw from the capillary column of liquid a thin film which progressivelyadheres to the surface as the movement of the sheet is continued.
Any suitable means may be employed to .pro-
, duce by capillarity an uninterrupted column of a-the liquid coating. This may be accomplished by providing two parallel plates having their adjacent surfaces in such proximity that capillary action will cause the liquid between .the plates to rise above the normal level of the liquid and in proximity to the. upper edge or edgesoftheplates. If then the surface to be coated is passedacross the upper ends of said plates at a predetermined rate correlated to the viscosity of the liquid coati g, after a line across the sheet has been moistened by the .liquid, the continued movement of the sheet will cause the surface-tension of the liquid continuously to draw a thin film of liquid from the column produced by capillary attraction and the progressive adhesion of the liquid to the sheet will form a complete and uniform coating thereupon. By maintaining the liquid level in the reservoir at such height that the column of liquid formed x bycapillary attraction willextend-to-or in proxbeing coated produced by the surface-tension of the liquid chanical means adapted continuously to produce a;. uniformly coated product. Suitable apparatus is illustrated in the accompanying drawings for 1 0 coatingasheet of flexible material by the method above described which is particularly designed for the purpose of coating a narrow sheet or strip ;of celluloid with a nitro-cellulose or pyroxylin pigmented coating of any desired color. 15
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic view of an illustrative form of coating apparatus;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged plan view illustrating a pairof guiding rollers for supporting a continu- 20 was coated sheet with guiding means for spacing the leads in such manner that the progressive leads may not overlap, the rollers being spaced apart a sufficient distance to enable complete drying of the coated surface while supported by 25 the rollers;
Fig. 3 is an enlarged detail view in side eleva- ;tion of the reservoir for the liquid coating illustrating the manner in which the liquid is delivered to the reservoir and also showing in sec- 30 tion the sheet being coated;
,Fig l is an enlarged detail plan view of the reservoir shown in Fig. 3, and illustrating in dotted lines thGcDOSltlOIl-Of the sheet which is Fig. 5 is a detail view upon a highly magnified scale showing the manner in which the liquid coating isdrawn upon the sheet from the reservoir by surface-tension including capillary attraction; and, 40
Fig. 6 is-a detail sideelevation of the. reservoir and means for supplying the coating liquid thereto with afloat-operated valve for controlling the supply lof liquid to .maintain a predetermined liquid level in-the reservoir.
edge of which the sheet is passed and in such close proximity thereto that acapillary action is against the end wall.
upon the adjacent surfaces of the wall and plate which will cause a capillary column of coating liquid to extend well above the normal level of the liquid in the reservoir.
The normal level of the liquid in the reservoir is maintained at such height that the capillary column of coating liquid intermediate of the end of the wall and plate will extend to or in proximity to the edge of the wall, so that after contact of the under face of the sheet or strip to be coated has been made with the capillary column, and the sheet progressively drawn over the edge of the plate, the adhesion of the liquid to the sheet or strip will cause the surface-tension of the liquid progressively to draw a thin film of the liquid from the reservoir and cause it to adhere to the sheet, so that if the sheet is continuously moved across the edge of the wall and at a uniform rate of speed, a thin and uniform coating of the liquid will be applied to the sheet throughout its entire width of contact with the edge of said wall;
Obviously other means may be employed for performing the method herein described. The mechanism particularly illustrated in the accompanying drawings comprises a rectangular reservoir I for the coating liquid, supported in any suitable manner, having a flat side wall 2 presenting a straight upper edge 3. A flat plate 4 is located within the reservoir in parallelism with the flatside wall 2 and in such proximity thereto that the capillarity of the liquid will cause a narrow column 5 of the liquid to extend well above the normal surface 3 of the liquid in the reservoir.
Means, hereinafter to be described, are provided for maintaining the liquid level 6 in the reservoir at such height that the capillary column 5 of the liquid will extend to or in close proximity to the upper edge 3 of the wall 2. The under surface of the sheet or strip of material I to be coated is first caused to contact with the capillary column '5 of liquid and then is drawn or passed progressively over the edge 3 at a. uniform speed in the manner illustrated in Fig. 5, thereby causing a thin film of coating 3 to adhere to the sheet.
As the degree of capillarity of different liquids varies in accordance with the viscosity of the liquid, means are provided for adjusting the position of the plate 4 relatively to the wall 2. As illustrated in the drawings each end of the plate A is provided with a;laterally extending flange 9 provided with one or more horizontal slots l0 which receives a bolt l I mounted in the end wall of the reservoir and provided with a nut l2 which when set up will clamp the flange of the sheet By loosening the nut 12 the plate 4 can be moved toward or from the wall 2 and secured in such adjusted position that with a proper liquid level in the tank the capillarity of liquid coating of the particular viscosity will extend to or in proximity to the edge 3 of the plate, so that when the under face of the sheet or strip is brought into contact with the capillary column of liquid thus formed, the adhesion of the liquid to the surface of the sheet will, in co-operation with the surface-tension of the liquid, continuously draw a thin film of the liquid from the reservoir as the sheet is progressively moved across the edge.
In order to permit the liquid to enter the space livered from the nozzle l1 will gradually flow l5, preferably provided with a shut-off valve I6 10 V and with a downwardly extending nozzle I! having an adjustable needle valve I8 for accurately controlling the flow of liquid, and so positioned as to deliverthe liquid upon an inclined preferably V-shaped gutter I9, the lower end of which is sub- 5 merged in and preferably extends to the bottom of the tank in proximity to the opening in the aperture l3 in the plate 4. By reason of this constructionthe liquid dereservoir has been satisfactorily employed, automatic means may be provided for insuring the maintenance of the proper constant liquid level in the tank. A suitable automatic device of this 35 character, is illustrated in Fig. 6"in which the nozzle I1 is provided with a valve 20 having an upwardly extending valve stem 2lprovioled at its upper end with a cylindrical offset 22 which engages a slot 23 inthe end of a lever 24 which is, go
fulcrumed upon a pintle- 25 at the upper end of a bracket 26 extending laterally from the body of the nozzle I1, the'opposite endof the nozzle 7 r 7 having a slot 21'which is-engaged by the offset upper end 28 of a rod 29, the lower end of which gio is connected to a float 3!! partially immersed in the liquid in the reservoir. The rod 29 may be guided in any suitable manner as by a bracket 3| extending laterallyfrom the nozzle I1 and a bracket 32 mounted upon the inclined, trough org ao gutter l9. Obviously variations in the liquid level in the tank will raise or lower the float 30 and thereby close or open the valve2il in such a manner as so to control the amount of liquid delivered from the tank l5 as to maintain a constant predetermined liquid level in the reservoir at all times. V
Any suitable means may be provided for causing the sheet or strip of material to be coated to pass over the edge 3 of the wall 4 of the reseril voir at a constant rate of speed and in close contact therewith throughout the width of the sheet or strip. In the preferred construction illustrated herein, which is adapted to coat a strip of celluloid, or othersuitable material, and endless- 6 feeding belt 33 is utilized. The belt 33 is mounted upon rollers 34 and 35, one of which, preferably the roller 35, is driven at a uniform speed. The belt 33 is arranged at a suitable angle to the horizontal and is so positioned as to press the strip 1 firmly against the upper edge 3 of the wall 2 throughout the entire width of the strip. Preferably the belt 33 is of considerably less width than the strip and does not contact with the edge 1 f rthe 'wall thereby avoiding 'the accumulation .of any 20f the liquid :coating upon the :belt and consequent 11f the belt. 1
"fIhessheet =.or strip 1 :is drawn from :a :roll 36 over .22. :guide :roll .31 which presses :against the lupp'erlead :of the endless belt 133 in advance of themoll 34, so that the strip is maintained in proper frictional :contact with the belt 33 asit i passes around the :rolls 3A and the i-rolls 35 and throughout the length :of the 'lower lead of the belt betweensaid rolls. Desirablya cleaner 35.1: is positioned to engage the face .of the sheet'or "strip to be coatedand remove therefrom any dust or "foreign matter which may have accumulated upon'the strip.
suitable'means may :be provided for dryin'gthe coating upon the strip after it is delivere'd from the r011 35. As illustrated herein the strip -'I', after leaving the belt- 33 at a tangent to the roll 35, 'is led over a roll 38, thence over'a roll 39 'looatedat a considerable distance from the rolliaB. The rolls 38 and 39 may be of any desired length and the strip guided progressively over thes'e rollsas illustrated inFig. 2. Any suitable means may bra-provided for guiding the strip so that it will not contact or overlap as it passes progressively over the rolls 38 and 39. A convenient means, which is illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2, comprises bars 48 located at suitable distances from the lines of contact of the strip with its respective rolls and provided with pins 4| so positioned as to engage the edges of the strip as it progressively approaches the respective rolls and thereby so to direct the strip upon the rolls as to prevent contact of adjacent portions of the strip.
The rolls may be placed such distances apart and the strip carried around the rolls a sufficient number of times to permit complete drying of the coating. The dried coated strip 1 may then be led to and wound upon a suitable winding or storage roll 42. The winding roll 42 and the rolls 38 and 39 may be driven in any suitable manner to maintain the proper tension upon the strip 1 as will be readily understood by those skilled in the art.
The apparatus disclosed herein is one which has been employed in the coating of strips of flexible material, such as celluloid, with a pigmented pyroxylin or cellulose coating, but obviously may be and has been employed for coating other sheets or strips of flexible material including fabric, flexible steel strips, and the like. Obviously, the method may be employed to coat any fiat surface with a suitable liquid adherent to the surface and of such viscosity that the surface-tension of the liquid will insure continuous delivery of the liquid from the reservoir to the surface of a sheet moved at a substantially uniform speed across the straight edge of the wall of the reservoir in communication with a capillary column of liquid of the character above described.
It will be understood that the particular mech- I iflat plate .located within said reservoir in parallelismwith said flat wall .and iinzsuch proximity thereto as to produce by capillarity a column of :liquid therebetween, means for maintaining the liquid in the reservoir at such level that said :capillary :column will extend approximately to .the upper edge of the flat wall of the reservoir, means for moving the .surface of the sheet in contact with said edge and thence in communication with said liquid column only, whereby a thin uniform film of said liquid will be drawn from saidreservoir upon said surface by the surface tensionof the liquid, and means for adjusting the flat plate relatively to said flat wall in correlation to variations in the capillary characteristics of different liquids.
'2. Apparatus for coating a sheet of flexible material with liquid comprising a reservoir having a 'flatwall presenting a straight edge, a flat plate located'within said reservoir in parallelism withsaid fiat wall and in such proximity thereto as to produce by capillarity a column of liquid therebetween, means for maintaining the liquid in the reservoir at such level that said capillary column will extend approximately to the upper edge of the fiat wall of the reservoir, and means for continuously moving the lower surface of said sheet across the upper edge of said flat wall in an upwardly inclined plane and thence in communication with said liquid column only, whereby a thin uniform film of said liquid will be drawn from said reservoir upon said surface by the surface tension of the liquid.
3. Apparatus for coating a sheet of flexible material with liquid comprising a reservoir having a fiat wall presenting a straight edge, a flat plate located within said reservoir in parallelism with said flat wall and in such proximity thereto as to produce by capillarity a column of liquid therebetween, means for maintaining the liquid in the reservoir at such level that said capillary column will extend approximately to the upper edge of the flat wall of the reservoir, and means for feeding the sheet of flexible material comprising an upwardly inclined flexible endless belt of narrower width than the width of said sheet positioned to maintain the lower surface of the sheet in uniform contact with the straight edge of said flat wall and thence in communication with the capillary column of said liquid.
4. Apparatus for coating a narrow sheet of flexible material with liquid comprising a reservoir having a. fiat wall presenting a straight edge, a fiat plate located within said reservoir in parallelism with said fiat wall and in such proximity thereto as to produce by capillarity a column of liquid therebetween, means for feeding said narrow sheet comprising an inclined endless belt having its lower lead engaging the upper flat edge of said reservoir, means for guiding the narrow sheet in frictional engagement with said endless belt, whereby said endless belt will maintain the surface of the sheet in close contact with the upper edge of the reservoir and thence in communication with the capillary column of said liquid, and means for supporting the traveling coated sheet a sufiicient time to permit the drying of the coating thereof.
5. Apparatus for coating 2. narrow sheet of flexible material with liquid comprising a reservoir having a flat wall presenting a straight edge, a fiat plate located within said reservoir in parallelism with said flat wall and in such proximity thereto as to produce by capillarity a column of liquid therebetween, means for feeding said narrow sheet comprising an inclined endless belt having its lowerlead engaging the upper fiat edge 7 of said reservoir; means for guiding the narrow v sheet in frictional engagement with said endless them, and guiding means for preventing: overlapping of successive leads of the sheets around said rollers. V V
6. Apparatus for coating a flat surface of material with liquid which comprises a reservoir for-liquid, means for producing from the liquid by capillary attraction a narrow straight column of said liquid, means for moving the surface to be coated transversely across and in continuous communication with said column, and means. for feeding liquid to said reservoir including an inclined gutter extending into the liquid of .said
reservoir, and means for delivering 'liquid'upon said gutter at a sufiicientl'rateto maintain the liquid level inthe' reservoir at such height that the capillary column of liquid wi1l:extend=into s proximity to the edge ofsaidiflat wall and in communication with the surface of said 'materiaL' 7. Apparatus for coating a flat, surface of material withliquid which comprises areservoir for liquid, means for producing from'the liquid by capillary attraction a narrow straight column ofv said liquid, means for moving the'surface to becoated transversely across'and in continuous communication with said column, means for feeding liquid to said reservoir including aninclined gutter extending into the liquid of said reservoir,.,-a
source of supply of liquid, a conduit leading from said source to said gutter, a valve in said conduit and a float carried by the liquid of. said reservoir connected to said valve operable to cause such actuation of the valve as to maintain such liquid 20 level in the reservoir at such heightthat the capillary column of liquid will extend into proximity to, the edge of said flat wall and in cornmunica tion with the surface of said materiah j WILLIAM AozwIEBfilL, v 25
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2725026 *||Dec 12, 1951||Nov 29, 1955||Westinghouse Electric Corp||Machine for soldering lead-wires of lamps|
|US2914419 *||Aug 3, 1953||Nov 24, 1959||Armco Steel Corp||Method and apparatus for continuously coating a metal strand-like article with molten metal|
|US3201275 *||Dec 21, 1961||Aug 17, 1965||Gen Electric||Method and apparatus for meniscus coating|
|US5455062 *||Jan 13, 1995||Oct 3, 1995||Steag Microtech Gmbh Sternenfels||Capillary device for lacquering or coating plates or disks|
|US5650196 *||Jun 30, 1994||Jul 22, 1997||Steag Microtech Gmbh||Device for coating substrates in semiconductor production|
|US5654041 *||Oct 25, 1995||Aug 5, 1997||Steag Microtech Gmbh||Method and device for lacquering or coating of a substrate by a capillary slot|
|US5965209 *||Jul 15, 1997||Oct 12, 1999||Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd.||Liquid application method and application apparatus|
|US7556694 *||Oct 18, 2004||Jul 7, 2009||Paul Lewis||One-sided coating apparatus and method|
|US20050053724 *||Oct 18, 2004||Mar 10, 2005||Lewis Paul E.||One-sided coating apparatus and method|
|US20050074552 *||Oct 7, 2003||Apr 7, 2005||Howard Ge||Photoresist coating process for microlithography|
|CN1078108C *||Mar 2, 1994||Jan 23, 2002||施蒂格哈马技术股份公司||Apparatus for application of lacquer or film on board or icrcular plate|
|EP0654306A1 *||May 27, 1994||May 24, 1995||Dai Nippon Printing Co., Ltd.||Method of and apparatus for application of liquid|
|EP0761317A1 *||Dec 27, 1995||Mar 12, 1997||Toray Industries, Inc.||Coating method and coating apparatus|
|EP0972575A2 *||Mar 11, 1995||Jan 19, 2000||Steag HamaTech AG||Process and device for lacquering or coating a substrate|
|WO1994025177A1 *||Aug 26, 1993||Nov 10, 1994||Steag Micro Tech Gmbh||Device for lacquering or coating plates or panels|
|WO1995005901A1 *||Aug 26, 1993||Mar 2, 1995||Steag Micro Tech Gmbh||Device for coating substrates in semiconductor manufacture|
|WO1996019295A1 *||Mar 11, 1995||Jun 27, 1996||Steag Micro Tech Gmbh||Process and device for lacquering or coating a substrate|
|WO2005040924A2 *||Jul 23, 2004||May 6, 2005||Ge Howard||Photoresist coating process for microlithography|
|International Classification||B05C9/02, D01D10/04|
|Cooperative Classification||D01D10/0436, B05C9/02|
|European Classification||D01D10/04H, B05C9/02|