US 2047163 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 7, 1936. 1 G, CEKAL 2,047,163
VACUUM BREAKER Filed May 18, 1935 Patented July 7, 1936 PATENT orties' i 4aortica VACUUM BREAKER James G. 'CekaL Chicago, Ill., assigner to Crane Co., Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois Application VMay 1s, 1935, serial No. 22,187
.More particularly, my invention relates to an `improvement vin such devices known toy those skilled in the art as vacuum breakers and is preferably used in combination for flushing such x- '5 tures as for example, water closet bowls, urinals and .the like. v
Among the more important vobjects of this invention is to `absolutely prevent any possibility of reverse flow into `the, fresh water supply sys- 10 tem :as might ordinarily be created by a vacuum in the latter.
Another important object is vto provide, a device that absolutely insures proper resealing of closet bowls and similarly constructed or :sealed 1553 fixtures.
w Another important object is to provide for a construction which is relatively simple and yinexpensive to manufacture, and yet is suitable forinstallation under present piping conditions.
20 It is well accepted that prior devices of this Ageneral character have been vused for this purpose, but none of these heretofore available, toI my knowledge, has been successful where relatively high flushing vpressures are employed.
25 In contradistinction, through the application of a principle involving the use of an ejector, an outlet orice arrangement, and a system of veffective baffles, I have overcome the objectionably insanitary flooding and spilling or backing up Y within the vacuum breaking device on high pressures and I have thus expedited its efcient operation over a wide range of pressures.
More specifically, I have found Vthat by a careful mechanical selection and arrangement of bafdes, what is commonly termed spitting or throwing ndroplets of `flushing water into the atmosphere through the air ports or vents can be prevented to a certainty, and at the Same time allow for the use of a very generous air-way communication between the nozzle of the device and the exterior surrounding atmosphere.
Thus it is another important object to reduce to a minimum the possible lift of water within the outlet tailpiece of the .device under high vacuum conditions, with the obvious advantage of permitting the lower portionV of the vacuum breaker to be set relatively close to the water closet rim top. The latter advantage is of course particularly valuable when considering existing installations where space to accommodate the vacuum breaker device is frequently limited.
, This invention has other objects which will become apparent upon proceeding with the followin'g description and as disclosed'by the drawing.
` Referring Vto the drawing:-
Fig. 1 is a sectional assembly view .of a preferred embodiment, the said section being taken in a central longitudinal position.
Fig. 2 is a cross-sectional View of the aforesaid construction taken on the line 2-2 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is an exterior front View with a section partiallybroken away and showing a modified construction of my invention.
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary sectional view of a modified `form of an outlet ring for use under ,.9 special conditions.
Like numerals refer to like parts throughout the several figures.
Referring now to the drawing and specifically to Fig. l, the cap or head I by means of the =,5 threads 2, or by any other conventional means of attachment, as for example, soldered or brazed joints, is connected usually to an inlet supply pipe (not shown) leading from such liquid control device, as for example, a flushing valve (also 20 not shown)l which thereby regulates the flow of the flushing water into the 4inlet passage 3 and through the throat 4 of the nozzle member 4b. The latter member may be separate and threadedly or otherwise attached to the head I, as in- 25 dicated, or else may be made integrally as a part of ,the member I,
Similarly, the head I may be threadedly or otherwise attached to the body or casing 5 by means of the screw threads 6 and between which 30 latter connection is interposed the inner rim of the shield or hood v'I, the purpose of which will hereinafter lbe referred to in greater detail.
Before the head I and the body 5 are assembled, as indicated, however, the outlet ring 8 is pref- 35 erably threadedly or otherwise attached as at 9 to the outlet or discharge portion of the body 5. The outlet ring 8 is provided with an inwardly extending flanged portion I2 which serves the purpose of properly restricting the orifice L3 so 4o as torprovide ashoulder or secondary Lbaffle I4 which will tend during the flushing operation to prevent the back-flow of the line flushing water from the ltubing I'I back or upward into the interior periphery of the body 5, after having previously 45 passed the orifice I3. A leak-proof joint is preferably formed as .at I5 to prevent any line leakage past the joint into the exterior atmosphere.
The primary baille I6 which is preferably of an inverted frustro-conical form, having a lower 50 central port Ilia, is provided with the upwardly extending prongs IIfrictionally engaging the interior peripheral surface vI3 of the body 5 and restsjupon the lugs I9 within the latter member.
lIt is thus apparent that lby a proper spacing of 5,5
the aforesaid prongs I 'I and also in providing that the larger diameter of the frustro-conical baille is less than that of the interior peripheral surface I8 of the body 5, an annular space Ia is accordingly formed. The lower portion of the baille i6 is so positioned with respect to the sloping annular surface 8a of the outlet ring 8 that an annular space |80 is thus formed, the purpose of which will be later described.
The baille I6 is held in position and restrained against any upward movement due to possible reversal of flow or back pressure preferably by the ends of the said prongs abutting against the underside of the shoulder 2| of the baille ring 22. The latter ring is preferably attached as at 23 to the casing 5, forming a leak-proof contact as at 24 by means of the shoulder. The lower end 22a of the baille ring 22 is likewise positioned with respect to the upper portion of baille I6 to form an annular space I8b. It is thus obvious that there is communication between the space |80 and the space above the upper sloping surface Ib of the baille I6 via the annular openings I8a and |817.
A cylindrically formed ring 25 by means of the prongs 26 engages the annular recess 21 of the baiile ring 22, and likewise is xedly held against upward movement by means of the prongs 26 engaging the shoulder 28, the purpose of the ring 25 being to serve as a spray baille tending to restrain or limit the possible escape of the flushing water droplets to atmosphere, and may, depending upon the installation pressure condition encountered, be dispensed with.
The upper portion of the body 5 is provided with the air vents 5a formed by the equally spaced and preferably integral ribs 5b on the body 5 and preferably positioned diametrically opposite for purpose of support of the upper annularly threaded portion 6, although of course, it is obvious that the size and the number of the ribs 5b and the vents 5a may be varied according to the manufacturers discretion for best results and operation.
The throat 4 is preferably made of suilicient length so as to allow the stream emerging at the mouth 4c of the nozzle member 4b to flow through the port lila. of the baille I5 without any tendency to splash or spread upon the inclined surface |622 of the baille I6. On relatively high pressures, the flushing stream emerging from the mouth 4c of the nozzle member 4b acquires an increased velocity and thereby tends to expand gradually at a distance somewhat below the port IGa. Accordingly, the diameter of the flushing stream likewise is slightly greater at approximately the point where it enters the orice I3. As a result a slight radial flow outwardly commences describing a path by way of the previously referred to annular spaces I 8c, |8a and I 8b in the order mentioned and subsequently being diverted into the space above the sloping surface I6b of the baille I6, by reason of the lip 22a of thebaille ring 22. However, the flushing stream moving at a relatively high velocity through the port I6a of the baille I6 creates a combined inspiratory ejector action by drawing in air through the vents 5a and also any liquid that might tend to ilow from the annular opening I8b. The ports 5a are directly connected to the atmosphere by reason of the downwardly extending peripheral Wall of the hood 'l which serves to guard against the likelihood of foreign matter entering therewithin.
Referring now to themodiilcation shown in Fig. 3, in this instance the nozzle member 4b is provided with an exterior annular recess 4a which is so constructed as to provide for the engagement of the prongs 26 of the baille 25. It will be noted that in this modification the position of the prongs is just opposite to that shown in Fig. l. The baille 25 in either case of course may be simply slipped within the opening so as to allow the prongs to spring within the respective grooves 2'I and 4a of Figs. 1 and 3, re spectively.
In explaining the operation of my device let it be assumed that a supply fixture, as for example, a flushing valve connected by threaded tubing at 2 to the head I has been actuated, thus creating the flow of the flushing stream through the throat 4 and into the apertured passage Ia, of the baille I6. Such stream-flow being under relatively high velocity, as previously mentioned, tends to draw the air inwardly from the atmosphere through the aforementioned ports 5a and the annular spaces existing exteriorly and interiorly of the vertical walls 25a. of the cylindrical baille 25 and also between the interior periphery of the baille ring 22 and the outer periphery of the nozzle member 4b. The stream passing downwardly through the preferably restricted throat 4 continues directly through the port Ia of the primary baille I6 and thence through the port I3 and past the secondary baille I4 of the outlet ring 8. The incoming air through the preferably arcuately positioned ports 5a is drawn in from the surrounding atmosphere, and the path of the air taken in is that as indicated by the arrows shown. It is of course apparent that the incoming air because of its frictional contact with the ushing stream emerging from the mouth of the nozzle member 4b causes a certain degree of turbulence and a mixture of water and air, particularly below the baille I6 and at the point where the stream enters the respective ports |6a and I3. This mixture of air with the water is quite as eiective as a corresponding volume of water alone for flushing, thus resulting in a substantial economy in the amount of water ordinarily necessary for such flushing purposes.
f hus, in the event that a vacuum should be created within the inlet pipe or fixture (not shown) which might be traceable to a variety of causes, as for example, by shutting off a valve in the fresh water supply line or else from a relatively heavy consumption of water at a lower level, it is readily apparent that it is absolutely impossible for any reversal of flow to take place through my device or for the liquid level to rise to any noticeable height within the outlet tailpiece iI under vacuum, due to the generous size of air ports 5a which are always open to atmosphere to provide a full and free inward air flow. Therefore, since the pressure within the device surrounding the throat 4 and the respective auxiliary and primary baflles 25 and I6 is substantially the same as that of the atmosphere, there exists no possibility that a partial vacuum within the inlet pipe entering at 2 might cause a reversal or back-up of ilow of the flushing stream. Briefly, the incoming air from the atmosphere instantly and positively prevents even the tendency of a vacuum to form.
Further, as to any splashing or spitting into Vthe atmosphere, during the ushing operation it is obvious that the baille formed by the shoulder I4 of the outlet ring 8 effectively inhibits such tendency of any reverse flow to pass upward fil animes withinetheinnerwall of thetubing, llandV into the-body: 5, except byv arcircuitous orbroken flow.
However, even should the latter flow conditionV become such that the flushing water reverses suicientlyausing upward now through the port 31, itis apparent-the vinwardly sloping rim or walljconstituting the baflle I6 and terminatingv withinthe limits of the port Ilia. tends to direct such iiow through annular opening thence into the intervening chamber l81l of relatively low pressure. Since the surface H51).` of the baffle iii `slopes downwardly toward; the port Ilial and the peripheral lip 22a, of the baffle ring 22 Vlikewise` curbsand directs any flow froml theannular openingswid and Sith downward toward the-port ita-whereethe high velocity stream pulls it inwardly, an ejector action is created. In addition, the-tendencyV of spitting within the device is further curbed andprevented from escaping into the atmosphere by the cylindrical lwalls 25a of the auxiliary bailie 25 which tend to prevent this undesirable spitting previously'referred to. It isobvious,.oi course, that the passage formed by the cylindrically.y extending wall 25a, and supported by the prongs 26 may be made of suflicient length or iorm so as to serve as an even more ciiective restraining means insofar as the tendency of` the back stream or droplets Vto pass into the atmosphere by way of the ports 5a is concerned. Y
Directing attention now to Fig. 4, the outlet` ring 8 isA of a special construction having an annular depending projection or extension 8b forl use under high pressure conditions, as for example, those installations-involving what is known to the trade as blow-out bowls. In this class of service because'of the higher pressure and Velociities which are used, it is essential that even greater precaution than heretofore rconsidered be taken toprovide against the possible back-WA of theflushing stream. Thereforain this connectionY it has been found desirable to provide for an annular spacec, which preferably exists between the outside diameter of the aforementioned extension 8b and the interior peripheral .urface of the tubing Il. Obviously, the annular extension 8b thus serves asV an additional restraining means to prevent the inward radial flow into the port i3 and thence upward into the device. A'. rough and only conventional ycylindricalv extension has been shown and itis obvious thatits form may be changed to suit the varying conditions ofeach installation.
Itis thus app-arent that I have devised an effective and simple 'construction for this service'featuring a number of baflies in combination withV theadvantageo-f anejectoraction and an outlet orifice arrangement which absolutely prevents the-possibility of any water from either flowing,
creeping or splashing outwardly from within the sidewallsor throughtherespective air relieving passagesintov the atmosphere to thereby create anrobjectiona'bleand very insanitary condition.
I am aware that there have ,beennumerous' I claim: v
1. In a vacuum; breaker devicel comprising an inlet and an outlet in substantial axial alignment, aplurality of superposedlbaiiles therewithinsaA restricted throat portionextending downwardly from thesaid1inlet,` an auxiliary splash baille supported therefrom, a secondary baffle within thesaid: outlet, a primary baiiie therebetween having an annular space peripherally arranged` to cooperate with the flow through said throat portion whereby anzaspiratory effect over. the said baffle is produced,` air vents adjacent thereto and'means within theisaid vacuum breaker; for supportingV said baffles in xedrel'ation.
2. In a vacuum breaker device comprising' an inlet andan outlet, a plurality of annularly positioned baflies within the said device, a restricted orifice portion Within the said inlet creating an ejector action past the said battles, air relieving vents above the said bafflea-a spray baffle superposed above saidr baffles and extending` transversely adjacent to said air relieving. means, and connecting means'within the said device for fixedly supporting thev said baffles.
3. In a vacuum breaker device comprising a head having an inlet and a casing having an outlet, a plurality of annularly formed baflies. within the said device, a baffle ring therebetween, a primary baffle supported by the said, ring, a restricted orice emanating from within the said head whereby the fluid flow therethrough coopf` crates with the said VbaiileringV and the said primary baille to produce an aspiratory action over Vthe latter, a lower secondary baiile adjacent to therewthin, a baflie ring within the said casing,
an upper bailie having a` substantially vertical cylindrical wall-and supported by the said baie ring, air relieving means annularly` positioned above the said baiiles and anlannular space between one of said baffles and the interior of. said casing cooperating with the ejector action of the, said oriiice, the said b-ale ring being superposed above the said annular space;` and means within the-said device for xedly supporting Vsaid baffles.
5. In a vacuum breaker device comprising an inlet and an outlet,` a plurality of superposed baffles withinthe said device, an intermediate baffle, a restricted oriiice creating an ejector action upon the surfaces` of the said intermediate baffle, air relieving means annularly positioned above said bafes, a lower apertured baflle. contributing to thesaidejector action, and peripherally arranged means Within the said device for maintaining ,the said baffles in fixed positionY with relation to thesaid orifice;
6. In,- a vacuumI breaker device comprising inlet and an outlet, a plurality of superposed -bales within the said device, an intermediate bailie therebetween, the latter having a frustreconical form with a central port therethrough, a restricted throat portion within the said inlet in axial alignment, air relieving means above all of said baiiles, the uppermost baffle being so positioned as to provide an annular space between the said baiile and the interior of the said device whereby said air relieving means are peall.r
ripherally divided, and means within the said device for maintaining each of the said bailles in ixed relation.
7. In a vacuum breaker device comprising an inlet and an outlet, a plurality of superposed bailles in axial alignment within the said device, a restricted throat portion extending downwardly from the said inlet, annularly arranged air venting means above said bailles, one or more of the latter providing for a common flow, creating thereby an auxiliary ejector action cooperating with the said throat portion to carry accumulated backlow from the said bailles, and means within the said device for supporting said bailles.
8. In a vacuum breaker device comprising an inlet and an outlet, a plurality of bailles in substantial axial alignment within the said device. a restricted throat portion emanating from the said inlet, a secondary baille, a primary baille superposed above said latter baille, the said throat in cooperation with the iluid flow therethrough creates an inspiratory action over the surfaces of the said primary baille, air ports in communication with the atmosphere, connecting means within said device for maintaining the said bailles in ilxed relation.
9. In a vacuum breaker device comprising an inlet and an outlet, a plurality of bailles in substantial axial alignment within the said device,
a restricted throat portion leading from the said inlet, a secondary baille within the said outlet, a primary baille superposed annularly above said latter baille, air ports in communication with the atmosphere whereby in combination with a ilushing ilow through said throat portion an inspiratory ejector action is created around said primary baffle, means within said ldevice for maintaining the said baille in fixed relation.
10. In a vacuum breaker device comprising an inlet and an outlet, a plurality of bailles in substantial axial alignment within the said device, a restricted throat portion emanating from the said inlet and directing a ilushing stream in a central passage common to said bailles, a secondary baille having a lower depending annular extension therefrom, a primary baille superposed above said latter baille and having an annular space between said baille and said device, whereby said stream creates an aspiratory effect over the surfaces of the said baille, air ports in communication with the atmosphere, means within said device for maintaining the said bailles in xed relation.
11. In a vacuum breaker device comprising an inlet and an outlet, a plurality of bailles in substantial axial alignment within the said device, a restricted throat portion emanating from the said inlet, a secondary baille, a primary baille superposed above said latter baille, Venting means in proximity to said primary baille, an auxiliary baille of substantially cylindrical cross-section surrounding said throat portion, a baille ring cooperating with said primary baille, whereby backilow drawn over the surfaces of the said primary baille is deflected inwardly toward the' central portion thereof, and means within said device for maintaining the said bailles in xed relation.
12. In a vacuum breaker device comprising an inlet and an outlet, a plurality of bailles in substantial axial alignment within the said device, a restricted throat portion emanating from the said inlet, a secondary baille within the said outlet, a primary baille superposed above said latter baille, air ports in communication with the atmosphere, an annular space between the said device and the said baille, the latter cooperating with the said throat portion whereby ilow of the ilushing stream through the latter creates an inspiratory ejector action over the said primary baille, annular means within said device for maintaining the said bailles in fixed relation.
13. In a vacuum breaker device comprising an inlet and a casing having an outlet, a plurality of bailles substantially co-axial within the said device, a. restricted throat portion emanating from the said inlet and extending within said bailles, a secondary baille within said outlet, a primary baille superposed above said latter baille, a baille ring annularly positioned within said casing above the said primary baille, the latter ring directing backflow over the said primary baille, air ports in communication with the atmosphere, means within said device for maintaining the said bailles in xed relation.
14. In a vacuum breaker device comprising an inlet and an outlet, a plurality of bailles in substantial axial alignment within the said device, a restricted throat portion emanating from the said inlet, a secondary baille within said outlet and provided with an inwardly disposed flange portion forming a passage therethrough, a primary baille of frustro-conical form and superposed above said latter baille, a clearance around the periphery of said primary baille, annular diverting means above said clearance, air ports in communication with the atmosphere and cooperating with said throat portion to create an inspiratory ejector eiect over the surfaces of the said primary baille, connecting means within said device for maintaining the said bailles in fixed relation.
15. In a vacuum breaker device comprising an inlet and a casing having an outlet, a plurality of bailles in substantial axial alignment within the said device, a restricted throat portion leading from the said inlet, a secondary baille Within said outlet, a primary baille of inverted frustroconical form superposed above said latter baille, said primary baille being positioned to provide for a substantially annular clearance with the interior of the said casing whereby incidental ilow therethrough may be diverted to pass over the upper surface of the said baille, air ports in communication with the atmosphere, and means within said device for maintaining the said bailles in xed relation.
JAMES G. CEKAL.